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The object of notification is not simply a registra- medical man taking legal proceedings against another, tion, but a repression of disease ; and if the repres- and that other possibly his superior in social position sion is brought about, the means whereby the and in professional standing, ought not to be counrepression is produced is of no consequence. If the tenanced by medical men at any rate. However fire is put out, it would be curious indeed if the local satisfactory it might be to some others that such proauthorities complained, or asked for the infliction of ceedings should be taken, there will always be in a penalty upon the person at whose house the fire every profession some men who will see in the opporoccurred because they had not been informed of the tunity of throwing dirt at a professional superior that fact, by the man who had put out the fire, whilst it some of it will stick, and all men are not able to see is certain that when rewards were offered for the the motive for the malicious action. discovery of fires, much false information was forth- Until all medical officers of health consist of either coming at the fire station. There would be reason consulting practitioners or men who are not in pracin the application is the fire had not been put out tice at all, there certainly will be some who will be and several other premises had also been consumed able to hide for a time the malicious character of in the conflagration. It might be reasonable to ask their action, and try to injureanother man's reputation for it, but here again there might be a difficulty if it for the purpose of establishing their own, not seeing could not be proved as to the nature of the case, that if their own is not capable of being established and in which house the fire first appeared. I am without the other man is damaged, they are proving curious to know how many certificates have been their own littleness, and their own incapacity to sent in, reporting cases which turned out after all to excel their neighbour in the estimation of the people be false alarms instead of true reports. If you look simply by professional work. I am very much opinto the evidence given to the 'Hospitals Commis- posed to placing any such power in the hands of sion,' it will be seen that it was not always clear that professional rivals. The method by which action a given case was small-pox, or typhus, or scarlatina, may be taken is so likely to be moved by motives or even infectious disease at all.
out of sight; men will so often try to pose as ener. In some cases it might be important that the getic and self-denying officers, and are but too often medical attendant should be put into the witness- able to inflict undeserved damage upon a rival pracbox, as against the householder, but if he is made a titioner before the real motive is seen, that I for one particeps criminis, his mouth is closed as regards the set my face against the new departure which is being prosecution ; he cannot be called by the local made in this direction ; and I aver that we do not authority, he cannot be made to convict himself; want too much of compulsion in our sanitary work. whilst if he has not informed his employer as to the It does not follow that a despotic government will nature of the disease (as it is possible to be alleged always be benevolent. It is found by experience by that householder in his defence), he would be that as good results have been obtained in districts guilty of a moral wrong which if proved against him in which notification is voluntary, as in those places would be of much more serious consequence to him in which it is compulsory ; indeed the incidence of than any money penalty, which penalty if inflicted infective disease is higher in Huddersfield, in would be certain to be paid by his employer as part Bolton, in Edinburgh, and in Dundee, than it is of the price of his silence, and as payment for the in a number of places in which there is no prosecution which had been instituted against him. compulsion upon medical men, showing at once If an employer is determined to break the law, and that compulsion has not extinguished the diseases his medical attendant will acknowledge to having which are proposed to be stamped out by it. If committed a moral wrong for the purpose of assist- those towns could show that the disease had been ing in the fraud, the same attendant will not dis- completely arrested by the power they possess, there close, if the employer agrees to hold him pecuniarily would be grounds for argument in favour of the exharmless. The evil will be as great in the one case tension of compulsory notification to other places, as in the other. Whilst the medical attendant can- but whilst the cases continue to be nearly, if not not be called for the prosecution, he will be able to quite as numerous, whilst the mortality continues to appear as a witness for the other side, and if he he considerable, it is evident that there is much likes to say so can aver that the prosecution is mis- more to be done by the local authority in removal of taken as to the identity of the case. To my mind it the causes which promote the spread of infection, is far better that the local authority should have the than simply by enforcing professional notification ; moral support of the medical profession than run the and whilst ready to concede that the householder risk of having a ' non omnia possumus' set up by the ought to notify as a part of his duty as a citizen of a passive action of a large section of the medical pro- civilised country, I think it would be much more fession in a given town. Whilst the fear that the likely to bring the whole force of the profession to medical attendant is bound to directly disclose, bear upon the subject if it was insisted upon as a could not be used as an argument against the em- moral duty to the State, that a written notice should ployment of an orthodox medical man. If such a be given by the medical man to the householder as man be employed to treat infectious disease, and if a part of his prescription. I would rather that the the householder does not disclose it, it will be ten neglect to perform a moral duty should be dealt times over more to his interest to prevent the spread with by the medical licensing authorities or by the of the disease which he is hiding up, and in his own Medical Council than it should be made a penal interests as well as for his medical attendant's sake, matter to be dealt with in a court of summary juristo use the most persistent endeavour to extinguish diction by those who will not always be able to see the disease and prevent any knowledge of it reach the motive for the prosecution or the medical bear; ing the ears of the local authority in consequence of ing of the case, and the possible differences of that extension.
opinion which will sometimes arise, and which will A disagreeable medical officer of health, or the be best dealt with by men of high standing in the fussy and interfering action of an acknowledged medical profession. Let us try to get a general Act rival, the impropriety and the public scandal of one which shall apply the same 'law as to infectious
disease as does now apply to contagious diseases tion and principle, in addition to which other points among animals. Let us see the result of the general bearing upon health are illustrated, such as electric application of such a law, and if after a time it is lighting, ventilation, floor construction, and other found to fail in its effect there will then be a suffi- matters. cient reason for placing penalties upon a whole pro- Entering by the basement of the insanitary house fession for not performing that which can only a large dust-bin is noticed, being a portion of the be regarded in the light of a moral duty. area framed in. This, of course, means that it is a To place a power of prosecution, even under fixture, and as such it cannot be readily emptied, such circumstances, in the hands of a fellow- much less cleaned. The arrangement as it should practitioner would be wrong, and I should urge be is shown in the area of the sanitary house as a that in such a case a prosecution should only be galvanised iron bin, which holds only a small instituted with the consent and by the action of quantity of refuse, thus necessitating its frequent the Medical Council of Great Britain, so as to get emptying, and, being movable, this is easily done. rid of the possibility of professional rivalry, and The condemned bell-trap,' communicating directly
‘ vindictive or malicious action on the part of a pro- with the drain in the area, and a similar form of fessional brother. I am bound to say that the medi- construction to the scullery sink, are here to be cal officers of health have not used the power they seen, and, of course, forbidden. The damp walls possess against their professional brethren in the point to the want of a 'damp course,' and the usetwenty towns which have now a compulsory clause, lessness of an improper material, such as tarred felt, and it is much to their credit that penal proceedings which soon decays, is adverted to. The floor joists have not been taken by them, but they have also to are here resting on the ground, and, as everybody show that if it were penal on the householder only, knows, there can be but one result to this. At the as a citizen of the commonwealth, it would not have same time the drains are disclosed to view, the been so effectual as they say it has been. I think it stoneware pipes being jointed in clay, and the would have been equally so, and that the same objections to this material will be pointed out, such results would have been obtained in the one case as as the impossibility of making a water-tight joint, it is assumed to have been obtained with the dual and the liability of being washed out or squeezed notifcation. The fear which does arise among the out. A very usual error of laying some of the people, that medical men will be informers against branches at right angles thus causing stoppages, to the patient's interest could not have any foundation, say nothing of bad jointing, is then noted. The and we should not find so many cases reported which point next emphasised is No. 10, which shows an have not been recognised by an orthodox practitioner, arrangement which we fear is only too prevalent, because they have not been placed under any medical that is, a cistern for drinking purposes, supplying man's care.
also a servants' water-closet, and a tap over the scullery sink. The overflow pipe discharges into
the drain, it is placed in an inaccessible position, THE SANITARY AND INSANITARY and it runs the risk of receiving the leakage
HOUSES AT THE HEALTH EXHI. or overflow from a water-closet immediately over.
When these many evils shown in
junction, and are known to exist, it will surely
induce owners and tenants to put their houses in THE preparation of these houses has been consider order. The faulty construction of an inside soil-pipe ably delayed owing to a variety of causes beyond is given, the joints being only partially filled with control; but now, fortunately, they are fairly com- putty, the foot of this soil-pipe being connected with plete, or at least sufficiently advanced to invite a the drain by a right-angled junction, and not as it careful inspection, not only from those who have a should be by an easy bend : an accumulation would thorough knowledge of the subject, but also those to naturally occur here with direful results. The drain whom sanitary matters are more or less of a mystery. is continued and cut off to form a “dead end,' which It is perhaps as well that the delay has taken place, would allow of a permanent lodgment of filth, or, as the opening of this exhibit should give an impetus what would be worse if it became unstopped, the to, or further interest in, a study which is fast be- basement would become gradually overrun. It is coming general ; and the sanitary appliances and nothing uncommon to find, even in large houses, a different kinds of apparatus scattered throughout the water-closet in the middle of the building, without other parts of the Exhibition prepare the untechni- light or ventilation, and an instance is given here cal mind for the continuity of principle here shown. combining faulty apparatus and insufficient Alushing It will be understood that these houses have been arrangement. The following ordinary form of drain specially erected to place before the public in the is illustrated :-Stoneware pipes 6 inches in diasimplest manner a contrast between good and bad meter, badly jointed in cement at the top, but open sanitary arrangements of an ordinary dwelling- at the bottom, laid, as is constantly done, to an insufhouse, and the actual working in every-day use. ficient fall, and with no trap between the house There has been no attempt to exaggerate the defects and the sewer. A gas stove, without provision for of the old system, but merely to bring before the carrying off the vitiated air, points to a trouble not public specimens of common errors to be found in unknown, and reminds one of the charcoal braziers the majority of homes, and from which errors many in use on the Continent, the fumes from which of the best built and most sumptuously fitted houses occasionally lead even to loss of life. Ascending to are not exempt. To render the comparison more the ground floor we find another water-closet in a easy, the various arrangements are disclosed to view bad position with the pan apparatus and the ineviin such a way that the important points are clearly table D-trap, this being the one, as before described, seen, and legibly printed and numbered labels over the cistern in scullery. As there are still many arrest the attention. As a contrast, the sanitary advocates for the use of the lead D-trap, we would house has examples of approved forms of construc- I advise them to stroll round the Exhibition and see
some of the specimens of the apparatus which have placed in situ ; but there is one point which is not recently been taken from different quarters, and always to be seen, viz., the 'inspection chamber' these clogged and corroded examples may at least (No. 100), which allows of an easy mode of access cause them to hesitate. Not content with this for inspecting and cleansing the drains, which are form by itself, the plumbers of old often connected continued through the floor of the chamber, with the other services with it, and the lavatory and bath open-glazed stoneware channels, the drains entering are here shown in communication, and defy contra- these channels being four in number—viz., surface diction. A notice on the wall brings to mind the water, waste water, soil-pipe, and w.c. in basement. former use of arsenic in the colouring matter used The soil-pipe, of course, is carried up the full size in wall-papers, for although it was known that this above the roof as a ventilating pipe, and a through substance was required, or supposed to be re- draught is obtained from the manhole in the front quired, to produce a good green, it was presumed that other colours were exempt from it, but it was and is news to many minds that it was used nearly all round. In the insanitary house these DEEP DRAINAGE AND SEWAGE arsenical papers are used throughout, the reverse
PURIFICATION IN THE BLACK being the case in the other example. The rainwater pipe being connected with the soil-pipe shows
COUNTRY. again a mistake of which the danger is often under
(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) rated, mostly arising from a false sense of economy, and occasionally the argument is adduced that it
[First Article.] helps to flush the drain, forgetting that the drain may in a sense flush the pipe-with sewer gas. Any The question of deep drainage and sewage purificahole or corner is supposed to be good enough for a tion has now for some years been occupying the housemaid's sink, and we are shown one badly more or less serious attention of the various local placed-no light or ventilation, and connected with authorities in the large and populous section of the a water-closet. The bedroom water jugs and bottles Midlands, known as the Black Country. Scientific would be filled from a tap deriving a supply from a opinion has long recognised the fact that the supply cistern also in connection with a water-closet- of pure water, efficient drainage, and improved knownothing unusual in this. Matters are not mended ledge and habits of sanitation effect a salutary reform when we see the bath service introduced into the in the moral and social life of the inhabitants of generally faulty system, and the last straw' is populous centres, and public opinion has within the last arrived at on finding the cistern in the roof impos- few years come to recognise the importance of such sible to get at, and communicating all round,' conditions and to urge their fulfilment. Birmingham supplying anything or everything, if, by doing so, a was about the first in this part of the country to take few feet of piping may be saved.
active measures in this direction. But though they So much for things as they are. In the sanitary have done a great deal, especially in regard to the house we find them mostly reversed, but with the interception and purification of sewage matter, they addition of many points which the old principles have yet a great deal to do before the town can be were not able to contain. We are first asked considered in a thoroughly satisfactory condition. to look at a simple method of ventilation wh Wolverhampton and Walsall have likewise accomconsists of making the bead on the window-sill plished much in the same direction, and at the pretwo or three inches deeper than usual ; then by sent time most of the urban sanitary districts within slightly raising the lower sash air is admitted at the the catchment basin of the Upper Tame are either meeting rails only, and passes into the room in an engaged in carrying out schemes of sewerage, or in upward direction, avoiding draught. A funnel and the preparation of such schemes. Deep drainage tube over the gas brackets form an efficient means is even now a thing almost unknown in the practical of carrying off the products of combustion, taking experience of the district, and the difficulties in the the vitiated air through the wall to the exterior. A way of its accomplishment are so many and so point of great importance, yet easily managed, is to great, that one is not much surprised to find the place the cisterns in a space adapted for the pur- question shirked as much and as long as possible. pose, where they can be easily examined, as exem- The passing of the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act plified here. A separate cistern is used for drinking in 1876 largely assisted in bringing matters to a crisis. purposes, with an overflow passing through the out. By sect. 30 of the Birmingham Waterworks Act of side wall discharging into the open, so there is no 1866, provision was made as to the use of the Tame as connection with any drain in any way. On the a source of water supply by the Birmingham Watersupply-pipes are fixed stopcocks, so that the water works Co., also limiting the quantity of water to be may be shut off at any part to enable repairs, &c., taken therefrom, with, however, power of free use to be made without interfering with the remainder of the water in case of emergency, such as long conThe usual winter trouble of a 'burst pipe' can be tinued frost, drought, or other unavoidable accident, avoided by adopting a draining-tap (No. 77), by or in the event of the water being certified by the which the main can be emptied, and much annoy- Board of Trade to have become pure and fit for ance saved to the householder. The water-closets domestic purposes. When the Birmingham Corin this house are well lighted and ventilated, the poration took over the water supply of the town the valve apparatus, such as shown by many makers, powers given in the Act were transferred to them, being used in one case, and also an improved by virtue of the Corporation Water Act of 1875. It "hopper,' with a Aushing rim all round the basin. is thus easy to see how important a matter it is to It is needless to recapitulate the many improved Birmingham that the River Tame should be kept forms here in use ; suffice it to say that types are to free from sewage contamination, and the great be found by the score throughout the Exhibition, assistance the enforcement of the Rivers Pollution but they have a double value and meaning when Prevention Act would be to them in this direction.
How difficult an object the purification of the River trict to recognise the gravity of the position, and to Tame is to accomplish under present conditions may take active measures to comply with the terms of be gathered from the fact that a great part of the the notice served upon it by the Birmingham sewage of some twenty parishes, with more than Corporation. But most of the authorities were very 300,000 population, passes into it. From Wal- lax. They dreaded to face the difficulties to be sall alone, for instance, above a million and a half encountered in carrying out an efficient scheme of gallons of unpurified sewage were emptied daily into sewerage. They also dreaded the large expenditure the Tame previous to carrying out of sewerage works that would be required, and the effect it would have there. The volume of the river at the point of upon the rates—and ratepayers. Notice after notice entry of this quantity of filth is comparatively has been sent out from Birmingham, with dire threats small
, quite inadequate to render it innoxious, and of penal consequences, and it was only upon the before it became inoffensive it would be carried actual commencement of legal proceedings, or the through the parishes of Great Barr, Perry Barr, fixing of a date when such proceedings would be Hamstead, West Bromwich, Handsworth, Aston, instituted, that some of the Local Boards really and and the district under the control of the Birmingham earnestly bestirred themselves in the matter. In United Drainage Board. As we have said, the some parts of the district an attempt was made to passing of the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act compromise the difficulty by passing the sewage brought matters to a crisis. That Act provides through filter-beds or over sewage farms in a crude that every person (including Corporate bodies) who fashion. But the Birmingham Corporation, as the
, knowingly permits to flow into any stream any solid parties most aggrieved, declined to accept this temor liquid sewage matter, shall be deemed to have porising with the matter as a final or satisfactory committed an offence, rendering him or them liable settlement, and pressed for some real and effectual to a penalty of 50l. per day. It will readily be seen remedy. In the end the authorities have found that such a stringent provision came as a boon and themselves compelled to go in for more
or less a blessing to the authorities charged with the water elaborate and costly schemes, and also to apply for supply required for the 400,000 inhabitants of the the protection of an order from the Local GovernMidland metropolis, and they lost very little time ment Board to relieve them from the fear of prosecuin giving the offending authorities along the banks tion while endeavouring to carry those schemes into of the Tame notice that they must cease to pollute effect. the stream or its tributaries with sewage, or they, Another important factor in the consideration of as proprietors of the water rights, would have sewerage schemes in the mining part of the district recourse to legal measures for the enforcement is the important body known as the South Stafthereof. This notice was sent out after the fordshire Mines' Drainage Commissioners. The twelve months' grace allowed for carrying out wave of prosperity in the iron trade of the district, the requirements of the Act had expired, to the which set in during the years 1872-3, caused the whole of the districts the natural drainage of which mining resources of the district to be subjected to washes into the Tame or its tributaries. Some somewhat careful examination, with the result of of the local authorities also received other and proving that there was still within it a vast quantity minor notices of a similar character from persons of ungotten minerals which might be reached and having, or claiming to have, a right to use the utilised if water in the mines could be successfully stream for various purposes. But the powerful and dealt with and got rid of. An Act of Parliament wealthy Birmingham Corporation was the body to was obtained in 1873, which has been supplemented be dreaded, and the local authorities were speedily by others passed in 1878 and 1882, by which power on the qui vive as to what was to be done. There was given to form a Commission under the abovewere two courses open to the delinquents, either to mentioned title, and to levy rates on the minerals withdraw the sewage from the stream altogether, or raised for enabling them to carry out a comprehenelse to avail themselves of the 3rd section of the sive plan for dealing, first with the drainage on the Act, which provides that, where any sewage matter surface, and then with the draining of water-logged falls, iows, or is carried into any stream along a mines. This was a gigantic task, beset with many channel used, constructed, or in progress of con
and almost insurmountable difficulties. The district struction, at the date of the passing of the Act, for is not to any appreciable extent watered by springs the purpose of conveying such sewage matter, the from the surrounding hills ; but in addition to the person causing or knowingly permitting the sewage rain water there was the constantly-recurring diffimatter so to fall, or flow, or to be carried, shall culty to be dealt with of the water from the nunot be deemed to have committed an offence merous canals which intersect the district, finding against the Act if he shows to the satisfaction its way into the mines through defective works of the Court having cognisance of the case that he and leakages. This water, a very serious quantity, is using the best practicable and available means to finds its way into the workings, and has all to be render harmless the sewage matter so falling, or pumped up to the surface-in addition to the accuAowing, or being carried into the stream. Fortu- mulation froin this and other sources--and conveyed nately for the authorities, in addition to the twelve away in the watercourses, which it was the first duty months' grace allowed from the passing of the Act of the commissioners to provide. The position of to enable public bodies who were permitting sewage this Boarů may really be said to be that of an authoto pollute a stream to adopt the necessary measures rity provided by Act of Parliament to take over, for complying with its requirements, an extension of maintain, repair, widen, and deepen all existing the period of freedom from prosecution could be watercourses within the area of their operations, gained on appeal to the Local Government Board, with power to make others where required, and to if sufficient cause was shown or disposition manifest compel all parties raising or disposing of water by on the part of the applicants to carry the law into any means to take due care that it was conveyed effect at the earliest possible period. The Walsall into one of those courses, which would carry it to Corporation was one of the first bodies in this dis- the confines of their area. While they are not an
authority to put in force the Rivers Pollution Preven- convened about a month since for the consideration tion Act, they regard themselves as conservators of of the question, a resolution was unanimously arrived streams, with power to enforce riparian rights, and at that in the absence of figures showing how the also to call upon mine-owners to maintain the water- estimated saving of 250,000l. is arrived at, and of courses at their proper levels, and to take due pre- the draft of the Bill setting forth the position, liabilicaution against the water escaping therefrom into ties, and benefits to the local authorities under the the mines. For nearly ten years the Mines Drainage commissioners' scheme, the meeting was not preCommission has been at work, with the result that pared to recommend the various local authorities to after an expenditure of some 300,00ol., although the take any further action in the matter. And at this water is gradually sinking, the drainage of the mines stage this phase of the question of the sewerage of is still very far from complete. As the chairman of the Black Country remains at the present time. the Board said but a short time since : 'It was only In order to the understanding of the difficulties atwithin the last few months that they had been able tendant upon the carrying out of deep drainage and to say that the general drainage or surface works the disposal of sewage in this district, it is also neceswere in a sufficiently finished condition to enable sary to consider the physical formation of the country. them to trace accurately and definitely where The district popularly known as the Black Country pollution was turned in upon the works, or to occupies the south-eastern end of the county of point out the exact injury which the road Staffordshire, and takes in a small portion of the detritus was doing in the way of filling up the northern end of the county of Worcestershire. The commissioners' watercourses. These watercourses greater part of it drains naturally by the River Tame have cost the commissioners a quarter of a million into the Trent, and thus into the Humber and the sterling, and as they are the only means by which German Ocean. The places affected are Aldridge, the storm water can be kept out of the mines, and a portion of Aston, Bilston, Bloxwich, Brownhills, by which the water pumped therefrom can be con- Coseley, Darlaston, a portion of Dudley, Great veyed away, their pollution becomes a grave and Barr, a portion of Handsworth, Oldbury, Pelsall, serious question which is affected in no small degree a portion of Rowley Regis and Sedgley, Tipton, by the action of the several local authorities in the Rushall, Walsall, Wednesbury, a portion of Wednescarrying out of their respective sewerage schemes. field, West Bromwich, Willenhall, and a portion of The commissioners can scarcely be blamed there- Wolverhampton. Some of these places belong to fore for looking to the interests of their own under the mining district and some to the rural district. taking, and seeking to prevent any interference with The area of the mining district is about 524 square or encroachment upon what has cost them so much miles, and of the rural district 40 square miles. time, labour, and money to achieve. With this end The district is composed of three main divisions of in view, as also, no doubt, with an idea of furthering rocks--the new red sandstone, the permian, and them in their work, the commissioners have recently the carboniferous. The bulk of the district lies for formulated a scheme for combined drainage opera- the most part upon the carboniferous group of rocks, tions, by which the local authorities would unite with and a great part is included in the coal measures of the commissioners in perfecting the surface drainage these rocks. The annual rainfall of the district of the district, and carrying out in conjunction there- varies from twenty-five to thirty inches in that part with one general sewerage scheme. It was claimed | including Bilston, Coseley, Dudley, Oldbury, Sedgley, for such a project that the saving to the district, Tipton, Wednesfield, and Wolverhampton, to becompared with the carrying out of a separate scheme tween thirty and forty inches in the other part. The by each local authority, would amount to something position of so large a portion of the district in relike a quarter of a million sterling. On the other lation to the carboniferous rocks has to be borne in hand, something very much in the nature of threats mind in practically dealing with the question of were shadowed forth as to possible action on the sewage disposal, inasmuch as the clay surfaces of part of the commissioners to prevent the detritus the coal measures act so differently to the porous carried by storm water from entering the streams and surfaces of the new red sandstone or the permian, watercourses under their control. Several meetings being comparatively impervious to percolation, and and conferences on the subject have been held, therefore more advantageously made serviceable for but without eliciting from the commissioners any the drainage of surface water. At the same time, definite plan upon which a scheme of such the difficulties of dealing with deep drainage and magnitude could be effected. There is
sewage purification are greatly enhanced not only doubt if a workable scheme could be prepared, by the honeycombed and rotten nature of much of and all the local authorities could be induced the ground that would have to be passed through, to sink their several individualities and consent but also by the expense of acquiring land containing thereto, a considerable saving would be effected, minerals—whether ungotten or in course of workespecially if the commissioners insist upon and have ing—for the purposes of intercepting and outfall the power to enforce the clearing of storm water sewers, and for the treatment of the sewage when from detritus before it enters the streams and water collected by most of the methods in vogue. courses, as this would, perforce, involve the inclusion Having now set forth how the question has been of storm water in every local sewerage scheme, and brought into prominence, and how it is the local thus in many cases largely swell the cost. But no authorities have been compelled to take active such scheme has yet been defined, nor is it feasible measures for effectually dealing with it, as also the that the various interests involved would ever be got many and serious difficulties by which it is beset, to harmonise sufficiently to allow a work of such we propose in succeeding articles first to say somemagnitude to be carried to a successful issue. The thing about what Birmingham itself has done in local authorities are inclined to doubt the power of this direction ; and then to point out the nature of the commissioners to compel them to deal with the the several schemes proposed in various parts of the storm water ; and at a conference of representatives district, with the probabilities of their successful of the local boards and town councils of the district, I accomplishment.