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Where the number of elective guardians 1. The procuring a common supply of who are not by this section disqualified from water; or acting and voting as members of the rural 2. The making a main sewer or carrying authority is less than five, the Local Govern- into effect a system of sewerage for the ment Board may from time to time by order use of all such districts or contributory nominate such number of persons as may be places ; or necessary to make up that number, from 3. For any other purposes of this Act; owners or occupiers of property situated in the Local Government Board may, by prothe rural district of a value sufficient to qua- visional order, form such districts or contrilify them as elective guardians for the union ; | butory places into a united district. and the persons so nominated shall be entitled All costs, charges, and expenses of and into act and vote as members of the rural autho-cidental to the formation of a united district rity, but not farther or otherwise.

are, in the event of the united district being Subject to the provisions of this Act, all formed, to be a first charge on the rates statutes, orders, and legal provisions appli- leviable in the united district in pursuance of cable to any board of guardians shall apply to P. H., s. 279. them in their capacity of rural authority under Notice of the provisional order must be made this Act for purposes of this Act; and it public in the locality; and should the union is hereby declared that the rural authority be carried out, the incidental expenses thereto are the same body as the guardians of the are a first charge on the sanitary rates of the union or parish for or within which such united district. A united district is governed authority act.

by a joint board consisting of such ez-ofias, In Ireland, urban sanitary districts are- and of such number of elective, members as the

The city of Dublin, other corporate towns provisional order determines. The business above 6000, and towns or townships having arrangements of the joint board differ little commissioners under local Acts.

from those of a sanitary authority. The rules And urban authorities are

applicable to meetings of a joint board will In the city of Dublin, the Right Hon. the be found in article COMMITTEES. The joint Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses acting board is a body corporate, having a name-deby the town council.

termined by the provisional order-a perpetual In towns corporate, the town council. succession, and a common seal, and having

In towns exceeding 6000, having commis- power to acquire and hold lands without any sioners under the Lighting, Cleaning, and licence in mortmain. The joint board bas Watching Act of George IV.; or having only business and power in matters for which municipal commissioners under 3 & 4 Vict. | it has been formed. With the exception of c. 108; or town commissioners under the these special objects, the component districts Towns Improvement (Ireland) Act (17 & 18 continue as before to exercise independent Vict c. 103), the said commissioners, munici- powers. Nevertheless, the joint board may pal or town commissioners, respectively. delegate to the sanitary authority of any com.

In towns or townships having commissioners ponent district the exercise of any of its under local Acts, the town or township com- powers, or the performance of any of its missioners.—(37 & 38 Vict. c. 93, s. 3.) duties.-(P. H., s. 281.)

The Irish rural sanitary districts and autho- Sanitary authorities and districts may be ritics are exactly analogous to the English. also combined for the execution and mainten

In Scotland sanitary powers are exercised ance of works (see WORKS), for the prevention by town councils, police commissioners, and of epidemic diseases (see EPIDEMIC), as well parochial boards, controlled and supervised as for the purpose of appointing a medical by a Board of Supervision, but the names of officer of health (see MEDICAL OFFICER OP urban and rural sanitary authorities have not HEALTH.) Districts when once formed are yet been applied to them.

not fixed and invariable, the Local Govern Under the English Public Health Actment Board having the most extensive powers there may also be formed united districts ; over the alterations of areas. for example

1. The Local Government Board, by pro Where, on the application of any local visional order, may dissolve any Local Govert authority of any district, it appears to the ment district, and may merge any such disLocal Government Board that it would be for trict in some other district, or may declare the advantage of the districts, or any of them, the whole or any portion of a Local Govern. or any parts thereof, or of any contributory ment or a rural district immediately adjoining places in any rural district or districts, to be a Local Government district to be included in formed into a united district for all or any of such last-mentioned district, or may declare the purposes following,

any portion of a Local Government district inmediately adjoining a rural district to be in- | the net rateable value of such district, or of cluded in such last-mentioned district; and any contributory place therein, by order, to be thereupon the included area shall, for the pur- published in the ‘London Gazette' or in such poses of the Public Health Act, be deemed to other manner as the Local Government Board form part of the district in which it is included may direct, declare any provisions of this Act in such order; and the remaining part (if any) in force in urban distriets to be in force in of such Local Government district or rural such rural district or contributory place, and district affected by such order, shall continue may invest such authority with all or any of subject to the like jurisdiction as it would the powers, rights, duties, capacities, liabilihave been subject to if such order had not ties, and obligations of an urban authority been made unless and until the Local Govern- under this Act, and such investment may be ment Board by provisional order otherwise made either unconditionally or subject to any directs.

conditions to be specified by the board as to 2. In the case of a borough comprising the time, portion of its district, or manner within its area the whole of an Improvement during, at, and in which such powers, rights, Act district, or having an area coextensive duties, liabilities, capacities, and obligations are with such district, the Local Government to be exercised and attach: provided that an Board, by provisional order, may dissolve such order of the Local Government Board made district, and transfer to the council of the on the application of one-tenth of the persons borough all or any of the jurisdiction and rated to the relief of the poor in any contripowers of the Improvement Commissioners of butory place shall not invest the rural authosuch district remaining vested in them at the rity with any new powers beyond the limits time of the passing of the Public Health Act of such contributory place.”—(P. H., s. 276.)

3. The Local Government Board may by Powers and Duties of Sanitary Authorities. order dissolve any special drainage district -In England, urban sanitary authorities constituted either before or after the passing have very extensive powers and duties under of the Public Health Act, in which a loan for the Public Health Act, 1875; and in addition, the execution of works has not been raised, they have to carry out the Bakehouse Regulaand merge it into the parish or parishes in tion Act, and the Artisans' and Labourers' which it is situated; but in the cases where a Dwellings Act. loan has been raised, the Local Government They also have power to adopt the Baths Board can only do this by provisional order. and Wash-houses Acts, and the Labouring -(P. H., s. 270.)

Classes' Lodging-Houses Acts; but where Disputes with regard to the boundaries of adopted or in force, the powers, rights, districts are to be settled by the Local duties, &c., of these Acts belong to the urban Government Board after local inquiry.- authority. The powers of any local Act for (P. H., s. 278.)

sanitary purposes (except a River ConserWhere districts also are constituted for the vancy Act) are transferred to the urban aupurposes of main sewerage only, in pursuance thority. of the Public Health Act, 1848, or where a The powers of an English rural authority district has been formed subject to the juris- are exercised principally under the Public diction of a joint sewerage board, in pursuance Health Act, but they have also to carry out of the Sewage Utilisation Act, 1867, such the Bakehouse Regulation Act. districts or district may be dissolved by pro- The powers given by the Irish Public Health visional order, and the Local Government Act to Irish sanitary authorities are similar. Board may constitute it a united district The Local Government Act is not in force subject to the jurisdiction of a joint board.- there, and equal powers are given without (P. H., s. 323.)

distinction to urban and rural sanitary autho. For expenses of joint board, see EXPENSES. rities.

The Local Government Board may also The duties of sanitary authorities are to declare by provisional order any rural district carry out the Acts which apply to them, and to be a Local Government district. See Local appoint certain officers, such as medical offiBOARDS.

cers of health, inspectors of nuisances, clerk, The Local Government Board has also the treasurer, &c. important power of investing a rural authority Speaking generally, all sanitary authorities with urban powers, as follows:

have ample powers for health purposes. They “The Local Government Board may, on can carry out, and it is their duty to do so, the application of the authority of any rural works of drainage, sewerage, and water-supdistrict, or of persons rated to the relief of ply. In towns they have the control of the the poor, the assessment of whose heredita- streets and houses, both private and public; ments amounts at the least to one-tenth of in all places they have ample powers to re

c. 79.

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press every species of nuisance which is at all | Sewage Utilisation Act, applying to England,

1965 likely to injure health, and on the outbreak Scotland, and Ireland (28 & 29 Vict. c. 75)

1866 of infectious disease they are given many

First Sanitary Act (29 & 30 Vict. c. 90)

Public Health (Scotland) Act (30 & 31 Vict, facilities to prevent its spread.

c. 101) Provision is made by the Public Health Act Sewage Utilisation Act (30 & 31 Vict. c. 113) to meet the case of an authority which neglects Second Sanitary Act (31 & 32 Vict. c. 115) . to do its duty. In such a case the Local Govern- Sanitary Loans Act (32 & 33 Vict. c. 100)

1863

1870 ment Board has compulsory powers, and may Third Sanitary Act (33 & 34 Vict. c. 53) compel the due performance of whatever is

Public Health (England) Act (35 & 36 Vict. required. See Local GOVERNMENT BOARD, Registration of Births and Deaths Act (37 & LOANS, &c.

38 Vict. c. 88)

1674

Public Health Amendment Act (Sanitary Sanitary Legislation, The following

Laws Amendment Act) (37 & 38 Vict. c. 89)

1674 are the dates of the chief sanitary laws:- Public Health (Ireland) Act (37 & 38 Viet.

C. 93). First sanitary law in the statute-book impos.

Public Health (England) Act (38 & 39 Viet. ing a penalty of £20 upon persons casting filth and refuse into ditches (12 Richard II.)

C. 55).

1388 Repealed in 1856.

There are also a number of subsidiary and An Act to Prohibit Slaughtering of Cattle in

special Acts bearing on, and more or less intiBoroughs (4 & 5 Henry VII.) .

1489

mately connected with, public health, such as Repealed 1856. The Statute of Sewers, authorising the issue

the Burial, Highway, Factory, Labourers' and of Commissions of Sewers. The duties of

Artisans' Dwellings, Sale of Food and Drugs, the Commissions were (within the parti. Pharmacy, Alkali, Smoke, Public Works, cular district) overlooking sea banks and

Loan, and Local Authorities Loan Acts, rewalls, cleansing rivers, public streams, and

ferences to all of which will be found under ditches (23 Henry VIII. c. 5)

1532

their respective headings. Quarantine Act (6 Geo. IV. c. 78)

1825 Lighting and Watching Act (3 & 4 Will, IV.

Sanitation-See HYGIÈNE. C. 90).

1833 Municipal Corporations Act (5 & 6 W.II. IV.

Santonine (C13H1903, HELDT)– The crysc. 76).

1835 talline and characteristic principle of several An Act under which the Registrar-General

varieties of Artemisia. It consists of prisof Births, Deaths, and Marriages was ap

matic or tabular crystals, tasteless, inodorous, pointed (6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 76)

1836

fusible, volatilisable; soluble in 4500 parts Vaccination Act (3 & 4 Vict, c. 29)

1840

of cold and about 250 parts of boiling water; (4 & 5 Vict. c. 32)

1841 Nuisance Removal and Diseases Prevention soluble in cold alcohol and ether; freely Act (9 & 10 Vict. c. 96)

1846 soluble in hot alcohol. Tannic acid and the It was to expire in 1848,

chloriodide of potassium and mercury do na Towns Improvement Clauses Act (10 & 11 precipitate solutions of santonine. Sulphurie Vict. c. 34)

1847 acid has no effect on it. The Public Health Act (11 & 12 Vict. c. 63).

The crystals acquire 1848

a brilliant yellow colour on exposure to sunGenerally considered as the groundwork of our sanitary legislation.

light without undergoing any change of foru. Establishment of General Board of Health 1848

Santonine is a very useful anthelmintie, The Second Nuisance Removal and Diseases

and is much used in the treatment of the Prevention Act, in substitution of the first, round worm especially. It has a peculiar which was to expire (11 & 12 Vict. c. 123) 1848 action on the brain, causing objects to appear Amended in 1849.

yellow or green. Reconstruction of General Board of Health. 1854 Repeal of Nuisance Removal Acts of 1848

Several most lamentable accidents bare and 1849, and substitution of Consolidated

occurred lately from dispensers mistaking Nuisance Removal Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 121)

1855 strychnine crystals for santonine. Diseases Prevention Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 116) 1855 General Board of Health expires

Saponification-The dead body some

1858 Its powers vested in the Privy Council (21

times becomes converted into a substance & 22 Vict. c. 97)

1858 called adipocere. This process of courereca Local Government Act (21 & 22 Vict, c. 98) 1858 is termed saponification. Fourcroy first at Nuisance Removal Amendment Act (23 & 24 served and described adipocere (ader, but: Vict. c. 77)

1860 Local Government Amendment Act (24 & 25

cera, wax), and so named this substance from

its properties being intermediate betræa

1861 Local Government Amendment Act (26 & 27

those of wax and fat. Chevreul made a 1863

examination of it, and found it to be a real Nuisance Removal Amendment Act (26 & 27 ammoniacal soap, with some extraneots Vict, c. 117)

1863 | colouring matter, a bitter substance, and a

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Vict. c. 61)

Vict, c. 17)

on

odoriferous principle. He also detected in sour. Sauerkraut is used by the Germans and some specimens lime, potash, and salt. It is other northern nations of Europe extensively, highly probable that the fibrine undergoes instead of fresh vegetables, in winter. slow changes perfectly analogous to that of the caseine in cheese, so admirably investi

Sausages - Diseased and unwholesome gated by Blondeau, and detailed in the article employed for the manufacture of sausages ;

meat is frequently, especially in large towns, on cheese. See CHEESE. The composition of adipocere is not con

and quantities of putrid and diseased pork, stant, and it is liable to vary according to the beef, &c., are weekly seized in London nature of the medium to which the body has all, for many of the more enterprising of the

the way to the sausage-maker." Nor is this been exposed.

Neither pure fat nor pure fibrine, when manufacturers add horse-flesh, which practice kept apart, will become saponified ; for the it must be allowed that good healthy horse.

cannot be too strongly condemned ; although formation of adipocere it is indispensable that flesh is certainly preferable to diseased pork the animal fat should be in contact with substances containing nitrogen.

or decomposed beef. Every part of the body may undergo this health of Newton Heath, near Manchester, in

Mr. Richardson, officer of the local board of transformation, and when the change is complete the body maintains its condition for mittee of Adulteration, said: “We have in

his evidence some years ago before the Conimany years. This process takes place most Newton five knackers' yards, and there is only readily-(1.) In the bodies of young persons, the fat being chiefly external and very abun- have so much toleration in Newton; and it

one in Manchester. The reason is, that they dant. (2.) In those adults whose bodies abound in fat. (3.) In bodies exposed to the has been a source of great profit to them, besoil of water-closets. (4.) In those immersed of the horse-flesh to mix with potted meats.

cause they have the selling of the best portions in water, but somewhat less rapidly in stag. I can say for a fact that the tongues of horses nant than in running water. (5.) Readily in particularly, and the best portions (such as humid and fatty soils, especially in grave; the hind quarters of horses), are generally sold yards, where numerous bodies have been piled to mix with collared brawn-or pigs' heads, as in contact with each other, those situated at they are called with us-and for sausages and the lowest level becoming soonest saponified. polonies. I understand also, from those who -(TAYLOR.) The period required for saponification varies greatly. A body floating horse-flesh materially assists the making of

have been in the habit of making them, that in water has been found converted into this adipocerous state in a little more than five sausages; it is a hard fibrine, and it mixes weeks, but four or five years may elapse be better, and it keeps them hard, and they last fore the process is completed, all depending on

longer in the shop window before they are the conditions under which the body is placed.

sold, because otherwise the sausages run to

water and become soft and pulpy. I believe Sardines—The pilchard (Clupea pilchar- horse-flesh also materially assists German dis) is the sardine of commerce.

sausages; it keeps them hard.” The fish are preserved in oil in hermetically- Sausages bought in large towns in the usual sealed tin boxes. The process is conducted way can never be depended upon, and it is suron a large scale on the coast of Brittany. The prising, considering the cheapness of sausagefish are first washed in sea-water, then their making machines, and the ease with which heads are taken off and the intestines removed; they can be prepared, that such articles are they are then again washed, dried, and next not more generally manufactured at home. immersed for a brief period in boiling oil; and Sausages, and more particularly the large lastly placed in tin boxes, which are exposed sausages of Germany, frequently become to a steam heat, and hermetically sealed. poisonous from the development of a peculiar

Sardines are characterised by fatty matter substance, the nature of which is at present incorporated with the flesh, and are conse- unknown. Many believe it to be a rancid quently highly nutritious.

fatty acid produced during decomposition of Sprats and other small fish are frequently the meat; others, that acrid pyrogenous substituted for or mixed with sardines. acids are produced during the drying and

Sauerkraut -The leaves of white cab- smoking of the sausages; and some, again, bages, deprived of their stalk and midrib, cut that a poisonous organic alkaloid is developed into small pieces, and packed in a tub or during the decay of these articles.* Liebig vat in alternate layers of salt. They are then ascribes the effects to an animal ferment; and pressed and allowed to remain until lactic fer- M. Vanden Corput, one of the latest observers, mentation is set up and the mass becomes * This is not improbable, see note, p. 365.

tells us that the poisonous effects of sausages, the microscope, as the woody fibres exhibit are due to a fungus of the nature of a sarcina, the circular pores which characterise the or what he calls Sarcina botulina. Subsequent gymnosperms. observations have to a slight extent confirmed This substance is used as a popular abortive, this view, since it is always noticed that in and has on several occasions proved fatal. It sausages so affected a peculiar mouldiness is acts by producing violent pain in the abdomen, present, and the poisonous property is usually vomiting, and strangury. After death the observed in April, when these cryptogamic gullet, stomach, and intestines, with the organisms are most active.--(LETHEBY, Chemi. kidneys, have been found much inflamed or cal News, February 1869, and “Food.") congested. It acts as an abortive by giving a

Dr. Taylor, however, carefully examined a violent shock to the system, under which the slice of a sausage which had caused the death uterus may expel its contents. The means of a child, and did not detect a poisonous relied upon for the detection of savin are the principle of any kind; but he does not state odour evolved when the powder is distilled whether fungi were looked for.—(Principles or boiled with water, and the microscopic of Jurisprudence, vol. i. p. 341.)

characters. With regard to the symptoms of sausage- Scammony --The gum - resin emitted poisoning, in sixty-six cases which occurred at from the cut root of Convolvulus Scammonia Kingsland (British and Foreign Medical Re- (Linn.), or Aleppo scammony plant. It occurs view, January 1860, p. 197), the symptoms in masses irregular in shape and size, of a were those of a narcotic irritant poison. One blackish-green colour, covered with a fine man died comatose, but the post-mortem in- powder, porous, brittle, with a shining fracspection only showed inflammation of the ture. It is easily triturated, and forms an lower end of the small intestine and distention emulsion with water. It has a musty odour, of the gall-bladder. Nothing of a poisonous and makes a lather when rubbed on the sur nature could be discovered in the food or the face with water. The taste is nauseous and body.

acrid after a few minutes. Hydrochloric acid The disease in question has been more often dropped upon it emits no bubbles, nor does observed in Germany than in England. Four the powder digested in water at a heat of 170° hundred cases of sausage-poisoning are stated F. become blue when iodide of potash and to have occurred in Wurtemburg alone during dilute nitric acid are simultaneously added. the last fifty years, and of these 150 have Out of 100 grains, 78 should be soluble in been fatal.

ether. The tincture of pure scammony is A writer in a popular journal, speaking on not turned green by nitric acid. sausages, recently affirmed that in London the

Scammony consists chiefly of a resin, somebest sausages were obtained from shops the times in the form of a glucoside, sometimes in proprietors of which did not object to selling part as a resinous acid; the latter is soluble to their customers sausage-mcat; and that in ammonia. Scammony resin is soluble in sausages obtained from those places where a alcohol and ether, but precipitated from its request for a small quantity of such meat was solution on the addition of water. met with a refusal were invariably bad.

With water or saliva, scammony yields a A pea sausage was largely used by the milky fluid. It readily takes fire and burns Germans in the Franco-Prussian war. It was with a yellowish flame. The following are made by mixing pea-flour and fat pork with the results of three analyses of the same a little salt; and contained in 100 parts, 16-2 number of samples of scammony by Dr. of water, 7.19 of salts, 12-297 of albuminates, Christison :33.65 of fat, and 30-663 of carbo-hydrates. It

Pure Scammony. is ready cooked, but can be made into a soup.

Resin

81.8 83.0 Savin-The fresh and drieu tops of Juni- Starch (fecula) perus Sabina, collected in spring from plants

Lignin and sand cultivated in Britain. These tops owe their activity to the volatile oil (C10H16), specific

100-0 1014 100 6 gravity, .915; besides which, a resin, gallic There are three principal varieties or acid, and the ordinary ingredients of young qualities of scammony known in the markettops are present. The fresh tops consist of viz., virgin (specific gravity, 1-21), seconde the young branches enveloped in minute (specific gravity, 1.460 to 1 463), and thirds imbricated appressed leaves, in four rows of (specific gravity, 1.465 to 1.500). The virgin a dark green colour, strong and peculiar dis- scammony is the only kind which ought to be agreeable odour and taste. The tops can be used in medicine. The powder of the virgin detected when in coarse powder by means of I scammony examined with a f - inch object

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old.

Gum

80

60 10 3.5 77

Water

12-6

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