« EelmineJätka »
the occupation of his mere hye hours and times of leisure. The main probe the mystery. In his efforts to attain the utmost possible effort of his life was directed to painting, a pursuit which, as he was power and brilliancy of hue he made use of pigments which are never weary of impressing on younger artists, was enough to occupy admittedly the reverse of stable and permanent, he worked with a man's whole time, even were it longer than it is, and to call forth dangerous vehicles, he employed both colours and varnishes which his utmost energy. The unceasing application, perseverance, and in combination are antagonistic. Orpiment was mingled with assiduity which form the recurrent burden of Reynold's discourses white lead ; wax-medium, egg-varnish, and asphaltum were freely found the most complete illustration in his own career. He laid used ; and, when we read the account of his strangely hap-hazard it down as a distinct principle that each fresh portrait to which methods, we are ready to echo Haydon's exclamation-" The he set his hand should excel the last, and no effort was wanting wonder is that the picture did not crack beneath the brush !” and to realize this aim. In his search for perfection he would paint are prepared for such a sight of the vanishing ghosts of masterand repaint a subject; when a visitor asked how a certain portion pieces as was afforded by so many works in the Reynolds Exhibition of the infant Hercules hal been executed, he replied, “How can I at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1884. Our only consolation lies in tell! There are ten pictures below this, some better, some worse. the truth expressed by Sir George Beaumont, when his recommenA method like this contrasts curiously with the swift certainty of dation of Sir Joshua for the execution of a certain work was met Gainsborough's practice, but it must be confessed that the produc-by the objection that his colours faded, that he made his pictures tions of Rynolds have an abiding charm that is wanting in the die before the man." “Never mind,” said Sir George, “a faded exquisite but slighter and more mannered work of his great rival. portrait by Reynolds is better than a fresh one by anybody else." In range, too, of subject, as well as of method, the art of Sir Joshua
See Malone, The W ks of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knight (3 vols., 1798); Northhas by far the wider reach. “How various the man is,” said cote, Memoirs of Sir hua Reynolds, Knight, &c. (1813); Farrington, femoirs Gainsborough once, after he had been examining the president's of the Life of Sir Josh eynolds (1819); Beechy, Literary Works of Sir Joshua portraits hung in an Academy exhibition ; and the remark gains 1856); Leslie and Taylo
Joshua Reynolds and his Works (edited by Burnet,
and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds (2 vols. 1865); an alldel point and emphasis when we compare the paintings of and Redgrave, A Century ylish Painters, vol. i. (1866). (J. M. G.) Reynolds with Gainsborough's own.
RHADAMANTH. In the work which the painter produced shortly after his return
in Greek mythology, a son of Zeus from Italy—in the Lady Cathcart and her Daughter of 1755, the and Europa and brotı * Minos, king of Crete. At first Lady Elizabeth Montagne and the George, Earl of Warwick, of he helped his brother to Vis island empire. His justice 1756, and the Countess of llynilford of 1757—we find a certain earned him the admiratio is subjects and the jealousy dignity and elegance of pose and arrangement which bears witness to his foreign studies, joined to some coldness of colour, hardness
of his brother, wherefore he o Boeotia, where he wedded of execution, and insistance on definiteness of outline, which con
Alcmene. On account of L inflexible integrity he was trasts with the sweet felicity and tenderness of his fully developed made one of the judges of ti nad in the other world. manner, with its perfect colour, and its form which is lost and According to Plato, Rhadaman judged the souls of found again in an exquisite mystery. But soon all that is tentative and immature disappears from his works.
Asiatics, while Æacus judged t.
...f Europeans, and the gracious and winning full-length of Elizabeth Gunuing, when they could not agree Minos he ating vote. Duchess of Hamilton, and the stately Duke of Cumberland, followed RHÆTIA was the name given in t times to a in 1760 by the Kitty Fisher, and a host of admirable portraits in province of the Roman empire, which in.':. ? considerwhich the men and women and children of the time live still before
able tract of the Alpine regions that sepa...... our eyes, cach possessed with a nameless dignity, or grace, or sweetness. As the artist advanced towards old age his hand only valleys of the Po and the Danube, comprising : - #ricts gained in power, his colour in richness and splendour ; his occupied in modern times by the Grisons and the. works show no decalence till the day when he finally laid aside his province of Tyrol. Before their subjugation by Rom brush. We have nothing liner from his hand than the Mrs. Nesbitt Rhætians are described as one of the most powerful a as Circe of 1781, the Mrs Sildons as The Tragic Muse of 1784, the Duchess of Devonshire and her Child of 1786, and the Infant warlike of the Alpine tribes; but little or nothing is known IIereules and the Miss Gawtkin as Simplicity of 1788.
as to their origin and history. It is indeed stated distinctly In the midst of his constant practice as a portrait-painter by Livy (v. 33) that they were of Etruscan origin, and a Reynolds was true to his early admiration of “the grand style,' to his veneration for the oll masters of Italy, to his belief that the
tradition reported by Justin (xx. 5) and Pliny (H.N., iii. imaginative paths which these men pursued were the highest ways 24, 133) affirmed that they were a portion of that people of art. At the conclusion of his last Academy discourse, while who had been settled in the plains of the Po and were speaking of Michelangelo, he breaks forth with uncontrollable driven into the mountains by the irruption of the Gauls, emotion, “Were I now to begin the world again, I would tread in the steps of that great master ; to kiss the hem of his garment,
when they assumed the name of Rhætians from a leader to catch the slightest of his perfections, would be glory and dis of the name of Rhætus. Very little value can, however, be tinction enough for an ambitious man.
attached to such traditions, and the attempts of some From the Italians Reynolds couveyed into his own portrait modern writers to support them by philological researches subjects a dignity and a grace, along with a power of colour, which
have led to no satisfactory result. But the ethnical were previously unknown in English art ; but he essayed also to follow them into their own exalted and imaginative paths, to paint connexion of the Rhætians with the Etruscans has been lloly l'amilies and Nativities, to picture the cardinal virtues, and accepted by Niebuhr, and its general reception by the to realize the conceptions of the poets. But the English portrait- Romans would seem to prove that they were a distinct painter wanted the visionary power necessary for such tasks; his
race from their neighbours the Ligurians as well as from procluctions of this class form the least interesting portion of his work. They are most successful when the symbolism and the
the Gauls and Germans. allegory in them are of the slightest, when the human element is The name of the Rhætians is first mentioned by the main attraction, when he paints as cherub faces five different Polybius, but merely incidentally, and they played no part views of the countenance of one living English girl, or titles as in Roman history till after the fall of the republic. It is “Simplicity” his
Hebe” his portrait of Miss Moyer. His series of “The Virtues," designed for certain, however, that they continued virtually independent the window of New College, Oxford, show simply studies of grace until Augustus undertook their subjugation, in common ful women, lightly draped, and pleasantly posed. llis Macbeth with that of the neighbouring Alpine tribes bordering upon and his Cardinal Beaufort have no real impressiveness, no true Italy. The importance he attached to this task is shown terror ; and the finest of the subjects that he painted for Boydell's by his having deputed its execution to his two step-sons, Shakespeare is the Puck, in which the artist's inspiration was caught, not from the realms of imagination or fancy, but from Drusus and Tiberius, who in a single campaign reduced observation of the child nature which he knew and loved.
them all to subjection (15 B.C.), so that their territory was Much has been said regarding the recklessness and want of care shortly after incorporated as a province in the Roman for permanency which characterized the technical methods of Sir Joshua. While he ivsisted that his pupils should follow only such empire and their name never again appears in history. ways of work as were well known and had been tested by time, he The exploits of the imperial youths on this occasion have was himself inost varying and unsettled in his practice. In his been immortalized in two well-known odes of Horace (Od., earnest desire for excellence he tried all known processes, and made iv. 4 and 14). In the time of Strabo their territory was all kinds of fantastic experiments. He was firmly convinced that the old masters were possessed of technical secrets which had been considered as extending from the Lakes of Como and Garda lost in later times, and he even scraped the surfaces from portions to that of Constance (the Lacus Brigantinus), while the of valuable works by Titian and Rubens in the vain attempt to allied people of the Vindelici, who had shared in their
contest against the Roman arms, as well as in their final name it is said to have borne among the aboriginal subjugation, extended down the northern slope of the Alps inhabitants of Brazil, where the Portuguese settlers called as far as the Danube. By far the greater part of this it Ema (cf. Emeu, vol. viii. p. 171). The resemblance of extensive region was occupied by rugged mountains, the the Rhea to the OSTRICH (vol. xviii. 1». 62) was at once inhabitants of which, when compelled to abandon their perceived, but the differences between them were scarcely predatory habits, subsisted principally upon the produce less soon noticed, for some of them are very evident. The of their flocks. Some of the valleys, however, which former, for instance, has three instead of two toes on each extended on the south side down to the plains of Italy, foot, it has no apparent tail nor the showy wing-plumes of were rich and fertile, and produced excellent wine, which the latter, and its head and neck are clothed with feathers, was considered equal to any of those grown in Italy itself. while internal distinctions of still deeper significance The most important of these valleys was that of the Adige, have since been dwelt upon by Prof. Huxley (Proc. Zool. which descends from the high Alps adjoining the Brenner Society, 1867, pp. 420-422) and the late Mr W. A. Forbes to Verona ; of this the upper portions were held by the (op. cit., 1881, pp. 784-787), thus justifying the separation Breuni, whose name is still perpetuated in that of the of these two forms more widely even than as Families ; Brenner, while the lower and more fertile region was and there can be little doubt that they should be regarded occupied by the Tridentini, whose chief town of Tridentum as types of as many Orders- Struthiones and Rhex-of was the same as the now celebrated city of Trent. The next people towards the west were the Triumpilini, in the valley still known as Val Trompia ; the Cainuni in Val Camonica; the Orobii, who appear to have occupied the Val Tellina and adjoining districts; and the Lepontii, between the Lago Maggiore and the Pennine Alps. The tribes in the interior and heart of the mountain ranges cannot be for the most part assigned to definite localities. The Genauni, mentioned by Horace as well as by Strabo, are supposed to have occupied the Val di Non, and the Vennones or Venostes the lofty ranges near the source of the Adige.
The boundaries of the Roman province were repeatedly changed. At first it appears to have comprised all Vindelicia, so as to have extended to the Danube from its sources to its confluence with the Inn, which constituted its eastern boundary on the side of Noricum. But at a later period this northern tract was separated from the central mountain region, and the two were named Rhætia Prima and Rhatin Secunda, in which form they appear in the Votitia. At the same time the southern valleys were gradually incorporated with Italy and assigned to the territory of the neighbouring municipal towns. Thus Tridentum, which was originally a Rhaetian town, came to be included in Venetia, and is assigned by Pliny to the tenth region of Italy. The only important town in the northern part of the province was the Roman colony of Augusta Vindelicorum, which still retains the name of Augsburg. The same is the case with ('uria, now (hur or ('oire, the capital of the (risons, and Brigantia (Bregenz), which gave name in ancient times to the lake now called the Lake of Constance.
The province of Rhætia was traversed by two great lines of Roman roads,—the one leading from Verona and Tridentum (Trent) across the pass of the Brenner to InnsTruck (I'ons (ni), and thence to Augsbury (nusta Vindelicoruni), and the other from Bregenz on the Lake of
Nilu.. ('onstance, by (oire and (Thiavenna, to ('omo and Milan. RHAPSODIST. See Lover, vol. xii. 1. 109 x7.
the Sibelas Ritter Structural charactors 110 less imRILIZES. See MEDICINE, vol. IV. p. 80.),
portant separate the Rheas from the Emeus, and, in part from RUE), the name given in 1752 by Möhring to a
their very different physionomy; the formsean lie readily South-.Imerican bird which, though long before known and recognized by the rounded form of their contour foatleri deseribed by the earlier writers — Nierembery, Marcurave, which want the 197-1:huu his or after-haft tut in the Emens and Piso (the last of whom has a recognizable but rude anul (:1-08ries is long it to mend the mainshaft, and tisure of it)-had been without any distinctive scientific contribute to give therapa littır rollpen the appearance of il f'pellation. Adopted a few years later by Brisson, the brincovered with shadey luir. Thonch the Rich is not name has since passed into general use, especially among leckerl with the raceful pluma which adorn the ()-trichi, English authors, for what their predecessors had called the its feathers his!!!ita coneiderable Turkit valur, and for American Ostrich ; but on the European continent the
the pourpose of trade in them it is 1111'lly killed logo bird is commonly called limu, a woril corruptual from a
thon1:2008so that it has lion alremstirpated from
mrh of the coll!!! ry it furniirly in 1901, 11:41 io- tntil What prompted his lutowal of this ville, ...) Weil kun in
4..1'. Il cos! Il myth, is not apprent.
+ V:ll:r:::. 1!. ! : ', :1-0).. Tin name Ty, als of South - Imerican rivin, : :17"!!! t.. 11 Rog Breen and others, but ortiments, 7 Ouvrir !:87, Split st name, or something like it, then JaBirt Tvol. xii. 29 in 1.Fly neant.
S.S. - to
extinction as a wild animal is probably only a question of M. Claraz asserts (op. cit., 1885, p. 324) that it is occasiontime. Its breeding habits are precisely those which have ally found to the northward of the Rio Negro, which had been already described in the case of other Ratite birds. formerly been regarded as its limit, and, moreover, that Like most of them it is polygamous, and the male flocks of the two species commingled may be very performs the duty of incubation, brooding more than a frequently seen in the district between that river and the score of eggs, the produce of several females-facts known Rio Colorado. On the “pampas” R. americana is said to to Nieremberg more than two hundred and fifty years associate with herds of deer (Cariacus campestris), and R. since, but hardly accepted by naturalists until recently. darwini to be the constant companion of guanacos (Lama From causes which, if explicable
, do not here concern us, huanaco)—just as in Africa the Ostrich seeks the society no examples of this bird seem to have been brought to of zebras and antelopes. As for R. macrorhyncha, it was Europe before the beginning of the present century, and found by Forbes (Ibis, 1881, pp. 360, 361) to inhabit the accordingly the descriptions previously given of it by dry and open “sertoēs” of north-eastern Brazil, a systematic writers were taken at second hand and were discovery the more interesting since it was in that part of mostly defective if not misleading. In 1803 Latham the country that Marcgrave and Piso became acquainted issued a wretched figure of the species from a half-grown with a bird of this kind, though the existence of any specimen in the Leverian Museum, and twenty years later species of Rhea in the district had been long overlooked said he had seen only one other, and that still younger, in by or unknown to succeeding travellers. Bullock's collection (Gen. Hist. Birds, viii. p. 379). A Besicles the works above named and those of other recognized bird living in confinement at Strasburg in 1806 was,
authorities on the ornithology of South America such as Azara, however, described and figured by Hammer in 1808 (^nn. able information on the subject is to be found in Darwin's Voyage ;
Prince Max of Wied, Prof. Burmeister, and others, more or less valudu Muséum, xii. pp. 427-433, pl. 39), and, though he Dr Böcking's “Monographie des Nandu” in (Wiegmann's) Archiv does not expressly say so, we may infer from his account für Naturgeschichte (1863, i. Pp. 213-241); Prof. R. O. Cunningthat it had been a captive for some years. In England ham's Natural History of the Strait of_Magellan and paper in the the Report of the Zoological Society for 1833 announced Zoological Society's Proceedings for 1871 (pp. 105–110), as well as
Dr Gadow's still more important anatomical contributions in the the Rhea as having been exhibited for the first time in its
same journal for 1885 (pp. 308 sq.).
(A. N.) gardens during the preceding twelvemonth. Since then
RHEA (or RHEEA) FIBRE is a textile material yielded many other living examples have been introduced, and it by one or more species of Böhmeria (nat. ord. Urticaceæ), has bred both there and elsewhere in Britain, but the plants found over a wide range in India, China, the Malay young do not seem to be very easily reared. 2
Peninsula and islands, and Japan. Rhea is also capable Though considerably smaller than the Ostrich, and, as
of being grown in temperate latitudes, and has been experibefore stated, wanting its fine plumes, the Rhca in general mentally introduced into the south of France and Algeria. aspect far more resembles that bird than the other Ratite. The most important source of rhea fibre, known also very The feathers of the head and neck, except on the crown inappropriately as China grass, or by its Malay name and nape, where they are dark brown, are dingy white, and Ramie, is B. nivea. It is a shrubby plant growing to the those of the body ash-coloured tinged with brown, while height of from 5 to 8 feet with foliage and inflorescence on the breast they are brownish-black, and on the belly like the common nettle, but destitute of stinging hairs. and thighs white. In the course of the memorable voyage Some authorities consider the variety cultivated in China of the "Beagle,” Darwin came to hear of another kind of to be specifically distinct from the Indian plant. An allied Rhea, called by his informants Avestruz petise, and at Port plant called Pooah or Puya, B. Puya, found growing Desire on the east coast of Patagonia he obtained an
wild in the north of India, is also a source of rhea fibre. example of it, the imperfect skin of which enabled Mr Among the Chinese much care is bestowed on the cultivaGould to describe it (Proc. Zool. Society, 1837, p. 35) as a
tion of Chu or Tchou Ma, as rhea is called by them, and second species of the genus, naming it after its discoverer. they prepare the fibre by á tedious and costly process of Rhea durwini differs in several well-marked characters from
selection and manual labour. The plant thrives in hot, the earlier known R. americana. Its bill is shorter than moist, shaded situations; propagated from slips or root its head ; its tarsi are reticulated instead of scutellated in cuttings, it throws up from three to five crops of stems in front, with the upper part feathered instead of being bare; the course of a season, although not more than three crops and the plumage of its body and wings is very different,
are commonly reckoned on. Each such crop may yield each feather being tipped with a distinct whitish band, about 250 lb of marketable fibre per acre, that total output while that of the head and neck is greyish brown. A being exceeded only by the jute crop. The stems when further distinction is also asserted to be shewn by the ripe are cut down, stripped of leaves and branchlets, and, eggs——those of R. americana being of a yellowish-white, either split or whole, are freed from their cortical layers while those of R. darwini have a bluish tinge. Some till the bast layer is exposed. In this state they are made years afterwards Mr Sclater described (op. cit., 1860, P. up in small bundles and placed where they receive strong 207) a third and smaller species, more closely resembling sunlight by day and dews by night for several days, after the R. americana, but having apparently a longer bill, which the fibrous bast layer is peeled with ease off the whence he named it R. macrorhyncha, more slender tarsi, woody core, and the separated fibres are thereafter treated and shorter toes, while its general colour is very much
with boiling water to remove as far as possible adherent darker, the body and wings being of a brownish-grey gummy and resinous matter in which the fibres are emmixed with black. The precise geographical range of bedded in the stalks. The fibre so obtained is usually these three species is still undetermined. While R, bleached by exposure on the grass, and it comes into the americana is known to extend from Paraguay and market as brilliant white filaments with a fine silky gloss, southern Brazil through the state of La Plata to an having a strength, lustre, and smoothness unequalled by uncertain distance in Patagonia, R. durwini seems to be
any other vegetable fibre. the proper inhabitant of the country last named, though
The fibre first appeared in the European market in 1810, and a
cord then spun from it was found to sustain a weight of 252 lb, 1 The ninth edition of the Companion to this collection (1810, p. while a similar cord of Russian hemp was estimated by Admiralty 121) states that the specimen “was brought alive" [? to England]. test not to bear more than 87 ib. A fibre possessed of such strength
2 Interesting accounts of the breeding of this bird in confinement and beauty immediately attracted great attention, and throughout are given, with much other valuable matter, by Mr Ilarting in the the early half of the century numerous efforts were made by the East work already cited.
India Company to introduce it as a textile staplo. But many diffi
otel de Ville'
culties have been encountered in its working, some of which are not The whole cathedral, with the exception of the façade, was comyet overcome. The fibre itself is very difficult of extraction owing pleted by 1231 ; but it has undergone numerons alterations. The to the large amount of adhesivo matter in which it is einbeelded, present façade was erected in the 14th century after 13th-century and it is proportionately so expensive that it practically comes into designs,—the nave having in the meantime been lengthened so as competition only with silk and wool. Further, rhea is hard and in to afford room for the vast crowds that attended the coronations. clastic, and on the machinery adapted for spinning other textiles it In 1481 a terrible fire destroyed the roof and also the spires, which can only be spun into a rough, harsh, and hairy yarn, while fabrics have never been restored to their original state. În 1875 the into which it is woven are rigid, and show permanent creases at National Assembly voted £80,000 for repairs of the façade and every fold. In the form of cordage, moreover, it cuts and gives balustrades. This façaıle is the finest portion of the building, and way at sharp kuots and twists. Notwithstanding all disappoint one of the most perfect masterpieces of the Middle Ages. The ments and drawbacks, the Indian Government considered the fibre portals and the rose window are laden with statues and statuettes ; of such importance that in 1869 two prizes of £5000 and £2000 the "gallery of the kings" above has the baptism of Clovis in the and again in 1877 prizes of £5000 and £1000 were offered for centre, and also has statues of Charlemagne and his father Pippin machinery or processes by which the fibre could be prepared at such the Short. The towers, 267 feet high, were originally designed to a cost per ton as woull render its introduction into the market prac rise 394 feet; that on the south contains two great bells, one of ticablo. Competitive trials were made at Saharanpur in 1872 and which, namel by Cardinal de Lorraine in 1570, weighs more than 1879, but no machine was found to satisfy the conditions of success, 11 tons. The transepts are also decorated with sculptures,—that although in 1872 a reward of £1500 was granted to Mr John Greig, on the north with statues of the principal bishops of Rheims, a jun., of Edinburgh, and in 1879 £500 and £100 respectively were representation of the last judgment, and a figure of Christ, while paid to two of the competitors. The extraction of thea continues that on the south sidle has beautiful rose window with the to attract attention, and quite recently (1885) it has been announce that Prof. Frémy of Paris, assisted by M. Urbain, has successfully overcome all dilliculties. The raw material used by Prof. Frémy is obtained by a process devised by M. Fevier, which con
Clair Mabais sists in submitting the newly cut stoms to low-pressure steam for twenty minutes, after which the whole rin separated in ribands from its woody core with the utmost ease. These ribands are then dried, and on them l'rof. Frémy operates with alkaline solutions which are varieel in strength according to the appearance of the material dealt with, and a pure fibre in fino working condition is thus obtained. Rhea has yet to establish its position among Euro
IT) pean textiles, but in the East its value is well recognizcil. It is extensively used for cordays, fishing nets, &c.; and it is very little affected by water. The Chinese prepare an exceedingly tine grass
DU cloth" from single filaments of rhea, knotted or gummel enl to end in the way they employ tho finest filaments of Manila hemp for making “ l'ina" gauze.
LRT'T, DET RIEGIUM. Seo REGGIO.
RHEIMS, a city of France, chief town of an arrondissement of the department of Marne, lies 81 miles east-northcast of Paris (99 miles by rail) on the right bank of the
wyboseyoud Veslo, a tributary of the Aisne, and on the canal which connects tlie Aisne with the Marne. To the south and West rise the "montagne de Rheims” and the vine-clad hills where the wine is grown which constitutes the chief object of the industry anıl commerce of the town. Rheims has been, since the last Franco-Prussian War, surrounded with detached forts that render it a great entrenched camp, and it still preserves eleven of the gates of its olid enceinte, that of Paris, constructed on Occasion of the coronation of Louis XVI., being specially noticeable. Beyond the boulevards the town spreads out in several suburby-the faubourgs of St Anne on the south, Vesle on the west, Laon on the north-west, and ('éres on the north
CATZ " IT TRISTE) cast. The town is well planned and built, and its streets are triverseel by tramways.
:1 The spinning and weaving of wool is carried on in seventy factories, employs 10,000 bands, and annually turns 1:3,500,000 worth of the raw material into tlannels,
taluri merinoes, cloth, blankets, etc. Dyeing and “Tressing are carried on in the outskirts of the town. Filty firms
Plan of Primus. with 2000 workmen are employed in the champagne manufacture; the cellars are väst excavations in the chalk
p.toplines and appa!Oi the four tower while formerly flanket
ilin u 11144pof nothing insure the light of the poof since rock. Rheims is also famous for its biscuits, ginger the time of 1:11. Above their rinnaloogant 14-11-20lbs in bread, and dried pears. Machinery; chemical products, timbul anul 1, 11, 391..t hollarucot 1 in ihe 15th century. cannelles, soap, stained glass, common glass and papers are
Tingsinf of the material in 1:31.:lol:. !!! Lire while in the
Min, Jul 1:2 fill in th: 1111:14. It 1:1:1 pirulri-jon of al manufactureil. In respect of population (953.653 in
Pillirohuoltlolit-1,.. in fiul siin! will INSI) Rheims ranks as the cleventh city of France's
3109 of 1. 15:!1 . !hlwil : 17" option 11. p.... The clelist monument in Rheims in the Miss Gian wrello window'udirchi min lill:2.1 ... Vrlo...hair of 13: from a triple to Mars in the nighbourhool, trillupul ni!
to?!! LOL: IN! ...1:11:30 1.5 Ri 104 fire in lingth by :3 in hvisht liv the lui !! ... Lawrt, liv thi!!!!!,,V. of i'ruir 91 10:91-015 when rippmal that I'm toto TISK , !.110 , 1.11!... Visit: mimin it the town. Init viinity betri "THE il - Oi?*);:"!!.4.7:11
.; L:1:110 P. ! los with thirty-five millions piparim::....:) 1.17.
1.1.1; 0, 1:,,!!!!!}", nl. x: l vlasy. I discoveret i leil. 1.1 lis furt! 1! ;) hite turul fiitit of t!e fus! is file irlf
::. ;! Vin Delhi, where the king of Irina lisilto !pol. li
-: :::::::::: pii medan alles church lud in 1911, which hall..?) !il; !:
11...ic.: : the six of tholm-ilica wise Clovis m. liepti: 11.5 si 11.!."14.
: Kl. 1
weaver of Charleville. The Canticles tapestries, four pieces repre Louis XI. The town sided with the League (1585), but submitted senting scenes in Louis XIV.'s youth, originally belonged to the to Henry IV. after the battle of Ivry. In the foreign invasions of castle of Hauteville. In the right transept are two great Gobelins 1814 it was captured and recaptured ; in 1870–71 it was made by tapestries executed after Raphael's designs, and dealing with the the Germans the seat of a governor-general and impoverished by life of St Paul. The left transept contains a fine organ in heavy requisitions. flamboyant Gothic with 3516 pipes and 53 stops. The choir RHEINGAU. See RHINE. clock is ornamented with curious mechanical devices. Several paintings, by Titian, Tintoretto, Nicolas Poussin, and others, and
RHENANUS, BEATUS (c. 1485–1547), German humanthe carved woodwork and the railings of the choir, also deserve to ist, was born about 1485 at Schlettstadt in Alsace, where be mentioned; and among the numerous objects of antiquarian his father, a native of Rheinau, was a prosperous butcher. interest in the cathedral“ treasury” is the reliquary of the sacred He received his early education in Schlettstadt, and phial which contained the oil used in anointing the kings, but afterwards (1503) went to Paris, where he came under the was broken during the Revolution. The archiepiscopal palace, influence of Faber Stapulensis ; here, among his other built between 1498 and 1509, and in part rebuilt in 1675, was occupied by the kings on the occasion of their coronation. The learned pursuits, we must include that of correcting the saloon chamber, where the royal banquet was held, has an immense
press for Henry Estienne. In 1511 he removed to Basel, stone chimney of the 15th century, medallions of the archbishops where he became intimate with Erasmus, and took an of Rheims, and portraits of fourteen kings crowned in the city. Among the other rooms of the royal suite, all of which are of great active share in the publishing enterprises of Frobenius. beauty and richness, is that now used for the meetings of the Some time after 1520 he became a comparatively wealthy Rheims Academy; the building also contains a library of 16,000 man through the death of his father; returning to volumes. The chapel of the archiepiscopal palace consists of two Schlettstadt he devoted himself to a life of learned leisure, stories, the upper of which still serves as a place of worship, while tho lower is occupied by an antiquarian museum, in which is pre
enlivened with free epistolary and personal intercourse served the marble cenotaph (almost entire) of the consul Jovinus, with Erasmus, Reuchlin, Pirckheimer, Lasky, and many who in the 4th century led his fellow-townsmen at Rheims to other scholars of his time. He died at Strasburg, while church is that of st Remi, built in the 11th and 12th centuries returning from Baden in Switzerland, whither he had gone on the site of an older place of worship. The valuable monuments
for his health, in 1547, leaving behind him a high reputawith which it was at one time filled were pillaged during the tion not only for sound learning but also for singular Revolution, and even the tomb of the saint is a modern piece of gentleness, modesty, and simplicity. work ; but there still remain the 13th-century glass windows of
His earliest publication was a life of Geiler of Strasburg (1510). the apse and tapestries representing the history of St Remigius.
Of his subsequent works the principal are Rerum Germanicarum The churches of St Jacques, St Maurice (partly rebuilt in 1867), St André, and St Thomas (erected in 1817, under the patronage of from a MS. discovered by himself, 1520); Tacitus (1533, exclusive
Libri III. (1531), and editions of Velleius Paterculus (ed. princeps, Carlinal Gousset, now buried within its walls), as well as the of the IIistories); Livy (1535); and Erasmus (with a life, 9 vols. fol., chapels of the lycée and of several monasteries, are all more or less
1540-41). interesting. There are also in the city two Protestant churches and a synagogne.
RHENISH PRUSSIA. See PRUSSIA, RHENISH. The town-house, crected in the 17th century and enlarged in RHETICUS, or RHÆTICUS, a surname given to GEORGE 1880, has a pediment with an cquestrian statue of Louis XV. and JOACHIM (1514-1576) from his birth at Feldkirch in that a tall and elegant campanile. It contains a picture gallery, a part of Tyrol which was anciently the territory of the natural history museum, and a library of 60,000 volumes and
Rhæti. Born in 1514, he was appointed professor of 1500 MSS. Of the many curious old houses which still exist in the town it is enough to mention the llouse of the Musicians, so
mathematics at Wittenberg in 1537. His first appearance called from the seated figures of musicians which decorate the before the public was in the character of an enthusiastic front. Rheims is the seat of an academy of science, arts, and convert to the newly broached opinions of Copernicus. No literature, founded in 1841 and composed of forty-five members, a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, several hospitals,
sooner had he adopted these opinions than, resigning his and a modern theatre. It is the headquarters of one of the chair, he repaired to Frauenberg to sit at the feet of their divisions of the 6th corps d’arnée (Châlons). Colbert's statue great promulgator. All his energy was forth with devoted to adorns the Cours ; Louis XV.'s (in bronze) stands in the centre the new system, and, as has been mentioned under COPERof the handsome Place Royale; and Marshal Drouet d'Erlou’s is in another of the public squares.
NICUS, it was he who superintended the printing of the De IIistory. - Rheims (Durocortorum), an important town in the time Orbium Revolutione. Rheticus now commenced his great of Cæsar, made voluntary submission to the Romans and by its treatise, Opus Palatinum de Triangulis, and continued to fidelity throughout the various Gallic insurrections secured the work at it while he occupied his old chair at Wittenberg, special favour of its conquerors. Christianity was introduced about the iniddle of the 4th century. Jovinus, already mentioned
while he taught mathematics at Leipsic, while he travelled as an influential supporter of the new faitlı, repulsed the barbarians
over different parts of the Continent, and indeed up to his who invaded Champagne in 336 ; but the Vandals captured the death in Hungary in 1576. The Opus Palatinum of town in 406 and slew St Nicasus, and Attila afterwards put Rheticus was published by Otho in 1596. It gives tables everything to fire and sword. Clovis, after his victory at Soissons
of sines and cosines, tangents, &c., for every 10 seconds, (186), was baptized at Rheims in 496 by St REMIGI'S (9.2.). From this period the see acquired new lustro. The kings of the second calculated to ten places. He had projected à table of the and third dynasties desired to be consecrated at Rheims with the same kind to fifteen places, but did not live to complete it. oil of the sacred phial which was believed to have been brought from The sine table, however, was afterwards published on this heaven by a clove for the baptism of Clovis and was preserved in scale under the name of Thesaurus Asathematicus (Frankfort, the abbey of St Remi. Historical meetings of Pope Stephen III. with Pippin the Short, and of Leo III. with Charlemagne, took place 1613) by Pitiscus, who himself carried the calculation of a at Rheims; and there Louis the Debonnaire was crowned by Stephen few of the earlier sines to twenty-two places. IV. In the 10th century Rheims had become a centre of intellec RHETORIC. A lost work of Aristotle is quoted by tual culture, Archbishop Adalberon, seconded by the monk Gerbert Diogenes Laertius (viii. 57) as saying that Empedocles (Sylvester II.), having founded schools where the “liberal arts” were taught. Adalberon was also one of the prime authors of the revolu
"invented” (eupei) rhetoric; Zeno, dialectic. This is certion which put the Capet house in the place of the Carlovingians. tainly not to be understood as meaning that Empedocles The archbishops of Rheims held the temporal lordship of the city composed the first “art” of rhetoric. It is rather to be and coined money till the close of the 14th century. But their explained by Aristotle's own remark, cited by Laertius most important prerogativo was the consecration of the king from another lost treatise, that Empedocles was privilege which was regularly exercised from the time of tbbil'a of expression and skilled in the use of metaphor "— quali
a master Augustus to that of Charles X. Louis VII. granted the town à coinmunal charter in 1139. Councils met within its walls in 1119 ties which may have found scope in his political oratory, and 1148. The treaty of Troyes (1420) ceded it to the English, who when, after the fall of Thrasydæus in 472 B.C., he opposed had inacle a futile attempt to take it by siege in 1360, but they the restoration of a tyranny at Agrigentum. The founder were expelled on the approach of Joan of Arc, who in 1429 caused Charles VII. to be duly consecrated in the cathedral. A revolt at
of rhetoric as an art was Corax of Syracuse (c. 466 Rheims caused by the salt tax in 1461 was cruelly repressed by B.c.). In 466 Thrasybulus the despot of Syracuse was