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imaginable. The fox did say the grapes We know that there are many creatures were sour; the wolf did fix an uncon- on the earth which are utterly unconscionable quarrel upon the poor little scious of the existence of man; and we lamb which he wanted to devour; and the might, if we were not too proud, ask ourlion did really express to the man his can- selves, in like manner, if there may not did opinion upon the favouritism of portrait- be many things in the animal creation of painting. At all events, the youthful which man is necessarily unconscious. If I imagination sees no absurdity in the idea. walk through the woods on a bright sumThis brings me to my subject-Is fable mer's day, or sit under the oaken or entirely wrong in these little matters, and beechen shadows, I am conscious of a have not all animals a language of their tide and tremor of life around me. I hear own? Have not birds a language which the birds singing, twittering, and chatterother birds understand ? and insects ? and ing, each species with its own peculiar for that matter, fishes? In the pride of note. I hear the bees and the flies our superior knowledge, we assert of our buzzing with more or less vigour, pertiselves that Man is the only animal who nacity, and volume of sound ; while a kindles a fire, cooks food, makes clothes, faint echo comes from the distant pastures and is endowed with the faculty of arti- of the bleating of sheep, the lowing of culate speech. While granting our own cattle, the barking of shepherds' dogs, monopoly of fire-making, cookery, and and the lusty crowing of the cocks in the tailoring, are we quite sure that we do not farm-yard. I ask myself whether all arrogate to ourselves a little too much these various sounds may not be as many superiority when we claim that to us alone languages, perfectly intelligible to the is accorded the glorious privilege of lan- creatures which speak them to each other, guage ? Philosophers are very dogmatic though unintelligible to me. I know that on the subject. “ However much,” says some animals—the dog especially-underProfessor Max Müller, “the frontiers of stand many words that I employ, if I the animal kingdom have been pushed speak emphatically, and that my own dog forward, so that at one time the line of will do what I tell him ; but, if I do not demarcation between animal and man understand what one dog says to another, seemed to depend on a mere fold of the whose fault is it, mine or the dog's? Man brain, there is one barrier which no one may doubtless claim that he has a larger has yet ventured to touch - the barrier of vocabulary than the inferior creation. He

The professor proceeds to has wants more numerous, ideas more quote Lord Monboddo and John Locke. abundant ; hopes, fears, recollections, and The first

says as yet no animal has aspirations, unknown perhaps to their been discovered in the possession of lan- limited intelligence, and must consequently guage, not even the beaver, who of all have a language more copious than theirs. the animals we know, that are not like Language keeps pace with knowledge, the ourang-outang, of our own species, intelligence, and imagination. A Shakecomes nearest to us in sagacity.” Locke speare may require fourteen thousand says, “ The power of abstracting is not at words to express all his thoughts, and tell all in brutes; and the having of general all his marvellous stories ; a scientific ideas is that which puts a perfect distinc- writer, obliged to be accurate, may retion between man and brutes. For it is quire a few thousand more ; a modern evident we observe no footsteps in these gentleman, of average education, may of making use of general signs for univer- manage to express all his wants, wishes, sal ideas; from which we have reason to and emotions, and carry on the usual imagine that they have not the faculty of intercourse of life and society, with four abstracting or making general ideas, since thousand ; while an ordinary peasant in they have no use of wordsorof other general some of our rural districts sometimes gets signs.” Are not these philosophers a on satisfactorily to himself, his family, little too confident ?

and his associates, with about five hun


that “

friend the dog, may be susceptible of a great variety of meanings, according to the tone and accentuation he gives to those fundamental words or syllables of his language, or the number of repetitions either of the "bow" or the "wow?" Sometimes, when a dog barks, he will omit the "bow" altogether, and say, "wow! wow! wow!" very sharply and


dred, and can manage to transact all his business with his horse in half a dozen. And as it does not follow that we can truly call such a peasant a man without a language, even when speaking to his horse, neither does it follow in the case of a quadruped, that may have but four or five, or even but one word or sound to express its meaning, that such quadruped is without a language which its fellow-rapidly; and it can be scarcely supposed quadrupeds may understand? A single that so very intelligent a creature has no sound, with a rising or a falling accent, or reason for this little change in its customary a stronger or weaker emphasis, may ex- phraseology. Mr. Max Miller positively press different meanings; and the same states that "no animal thinks, and no sound, repeated, twice, thrice, or four animal speaks, except man.' Every one times, with the rising or the falling accent who has made a friend of an animal-and at the first, second, third, or fourth repe- there are few who have not-must distition, may contain a whole vocabulary pute the first part of this assertion. When for the simple creatures who emit and a dog is presented with a bone after he understand the sound, and whose wants has had his dinner and satisfied his hunand emotions are as circumscribed as ger, he thinks the bone is too good to be their speech. rejected, and it would be wise in him to put it into a place of safety, to be ready when required, just as a man puts his money in the bank. Accordingly, he takes his opportunity to go into the garden and bury it; and, if watched in the process, will dig it up again with his nose, and carry it off to a safer spot. Is not this thinking? When I put on my hat and overcoat, and take my walking stick from its accustomed place in the hall, my dog thinks, and speedily knows, that I am going out; and very plainly asks me, not only by the sudden sparkling of his expressive eyes and the wagging of his equally expressive tail, but by a succession of joyous barks and yelps, whether I mean to take him along with me; and, if I refuse the request, very plainly expresses his sorrow for my decision.

Professor Max Müller supplies us with an illustration in point. He says that in the Chinese, the Annamitic, and likewise in the Siamese and Burmese languages, one single sound does duty in this way for a great variety of meanings. "Thus,” he says, in Annamitic, 'ba,' pronounced with the grave accent, means a lady or an ancestor; pronounced with a sharp accent, it means the favourite of a prince; pronounced with the semi-grave accent, it means what has been thrown away; pronounced with the grave circumflex, it means what is left of a fruit after the juice has been squeezed out; pronounced with no accent, it means three; pronounced with the ascending or interrogative accent, it means a box on the ear. Thus,

Ba, Bà, Bâ, Bả

is said to mean, if properly pronounced. 'Three ladies gave a box on the ear to the favourite of the prince.'



In our own and in several European languages identical sounds have various meanings; the English "box" being one example, and the French "sang," "s'en,' "sans," cent," another. If we consider this subject without a prejudice, may we not see reason to think that the "Bow! wow! wow!" of our estimable


Mr. Max Müller says elsewhere in his lecture, that "language and thought are inseparable." If this statement be correct, it follows from his own showing, that if we can prove the possession of a faculty for thinking in the members of the inferior creation, we must admit that they may possess a language which they may thoroughly understand, and which may be quite sufficient for the expression of their limited ideas. It is difficult to believe that the crow has not two or three,


and the nightingale at least a dozen notes the lex non scripta of their community in its voice, and that these notes may not, which calls for reprobation or punishin their interchange, reiteration, and ment. . At all events, something marvelsuccession, expresses ideas with which lously like a trial takes place, with a judge crows are familiar, and whole poems or or presiding officer, and the whole comhistories, such as nightingales love to tell munity for the jurors. The prisoner, and repeat to one another; and that any looking dejected, penitent, and woebeone of the many notes in the sweet song gone, is perched in the middle. A series of the skylark may not, according to its of caw-cawings ensues, which, as Lord accentuation, or even to its place in the Dundreary might say, no fellow can gamut, express as many shades of mean- understand," but which cannot be othering as the Annamitic "ba" of which Mr. wise than intelligible to the sachems and Max Müller discourses.

members of the corvine tribe-or why Most people who are gifted with the should the sounds be uttered ?- and faculty of observing, and blessed with the which, protracted sometimes for twenty privilege of enjoying, the sights and or thirty minutes, or even for an hour, sounds of nature, and who have either results in a decision of some kind. If resided in, or been frequent visitors to, the the defendant flies away comfortably with country, must at one time or other have the judge and jury at the conclusion of the remarked the actions and behaviour of council, we have a right to suppose that crows and rooks, or, in the quaint lan- he has been acquitted. If, on the conguage of the old Scottish poet, Alexander trary, as often happens, the whole tribe Montgomery, must have listened to, and pounce upon him with beak and claw, and been “deaved with the din

peck him to death, screeching and caw“And jargon of the jangling jays,

cawing all the while, we must suppose, on The craiking craws, and keckling kays." the same principle, that he has been No one who has at all studied the habits found guilty of some crime or otherof these birds will think it a very daring perhaps of being hopelessly unwell-senassertion that the cry or sound of “caw" tenced to death, and executed accordingly. may be as susceptible of a variety of If there be thought in these matters meanings as the Annamitic “ba,” or the among the birds, is it not right, even acEnglish “ box,” or the French “sang, cording to the theory of Mr. Max Müller or the canine “bow-wow !”—and that and the other philosophers, to suppose its duplication into “caw! caw !” or that there is language also ? And if a into a still greater number of repetitions, stray rook or crow happened to make its is not without a purpose and signification way into the Central Criminal Court as intelligible to the birds which utter as while a trial was pending, and perched to those which hear them. The rooks himself, like Edgar Poe's raven, on the and crows have often been observed to top of a bookcase or the cross-beam of a hold public meetings of all the individuals door, and listened attentively to the in the tribe or colony-male and female pleadings, to the examination of the wit-to debate on matters of importance. nesses, and the judge's charge, without As far as we know and can understand understanding a word that was said, would the objects of these assemblages, the tribe Mr. Crow or Mr. Rook be justified, if he is summoned to decide whether a sickly could get back to his comrades in the bird is so sickly as to be beyond hope of woods, in asserting that men had no artirecovery, and therefore to be put out of culate language ? its misery, they having no doctors among If, descending in the scale of creation them; whether an interloper from a from the quadrupeds and birds that emit neighbouring colony has not violently or sounds which are perfectly audible to surreptitiously endeavoured to establish themselves and us—whatever those sounds himself among them ; or whether he has may mean-to that lower world of insect not committed some other offence against I life which emits little and sometimes no

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sound that our ears can detect, we may instinct is but a kind and degree of reason, still discover reason to believe that they and, in a world full of balances and commay have some power of speech-possibly pensation, its very inferiority has its com. by means of sound, possibly by means of pensation in the fact that, unlike reason, touch and signs. Take bees and ants as instinct never goes wrong. If animals familiar examples. When the bees in a cannot understand our language unless hive select one particular bee, and station in very few instances of ordinary occurher at the entrance--like a hall-porter at rence and when accompanied by sign, a club in Pall-Mall-and assign to her gesture, and the expression of the eye, the duty, which she well performs, of neither can we understand their language, allowing none but members of the hive to except it have the same mute accompanipass in, is it not certain that the function- ments.

Emmerson says,

" that we are ary has been chosen for sufficient reasons wiser than we know;" I say, it is possible, from out the rest, and informed of the with all our undoubted superiority, and wishes of the community? This cannot all our pride of intellect, that we are not be done without a language of some sort, so wise as we think. whether of the eye, the touch, or the expression of a sound or series of sounds. When black ants make war against red ants, for the purpose of taking the chil

[WILLIAM HOWARD RUSSELL.] dren of the latter into captivity and making THE BATTLE OF BALAKLAVA. slaves of them, is war declared without preliminary consultation ? and, if not, Never did the painter's eye rest on a must not these belligerent Formicans have more beautiful scene than I beheld from a language ?

the ridge. The fleecy vapours still hung Without dogmatising on the subject, a around the mountain-tops, and mingled student of Nature may be permitted to with the ascending volumes of smoke; express his belief that the all-wise and the patch of sea sparkled in the rays of infinitely beneficent Creator has not only the morning sun, but its light was eclipsed given to every living creature, great or by the flashes which gleamed from the small, the capacity for enjoyment, and the masses of armed men below. Looking consequent capacity for pain, but the to the left towards the gorge, we beheld power of expressing to its own kind its six compact masses of Russian infantry, joy or sorrow, its fears, its wishes, and its which had just debouched from the mounwants; and that man is not so wholly a tain-passes near the Tchernaya, and were monopolist of speech and reason as the slowly advancing with solemn stateliness philosophers have imagined.

up the valley. Immediately in their It may be fairly argued that the non- front was a regular line of artillery, of existence of speech among animals, and at least twenty pieces strong. Two even among insects, is (to use the Scottish batteries of light guns were already a law phrase) “not proven.” The sun may mile in advance of them, and were playspread around a very great and glorious ing with energy on the redoubts, from radiance, and a candle may emit a very which feeble puffs of smoke came at long small glimmer ; but there is light in both intervals. Behind these guns, in front of

Man's reasoning powers, and the the infantry, were enormous bodies of speech that accompanies them, when cavalry. They were in six compact compared with the reasoning faculty and squares, three on each flank, moving the speech of all the inferior inhabitants of down en échelon towards us, and the the globe, may be as greatly in excess of valley was lit up with the blaze of their theirs as the noonday sunshine is in excess sabres, and lance points, and gay accoutreof the ray of a farthing candle; but the ments. In their front, and extending least particle of reasoning power is reason along the intervals between each battery as far as it extends. What we call of guns, were clouds of mounted skirmishers, wheeling and whirling in the they gathered up their skirmishers with front of their march like autumn leaves great speed and in excellent order—the tossed by the wind. The Zouaves close shifting trails of men, which played all to us were lying like tigers at the spring, over the valley like moonlight on the with ready rifles in hand, hidden chin water, contracted, gathered up, and the deep by the earthworks which run along little peloton in a few moments became the line of these ridges on our rear ; but solid column. Then up came their guns, the quick-eyed Russians were manoeuvring in rushed their gunners to the abandoned on the other side of the valley, and did redoubt, and the guns of No. 2 Redoubt not expose their columns to attack. Below soon played with deadly effect upon the the Zouaves we could see the Turkish dispirited defenders of No. 3 Redoubt. gunners in the redoubts, all in confusion Two or three shots in return from the as the shells burst over them. Just as I earthworks, and all is silent. The Turks came up, the Russians had carried No. 1 swarm over the earthworks, and run in Redoubt, the furthest and most elevated confusion towards the town, firing their of all, and their horsemen were chasing muskets at the enemy as they run. Again the Turks across the interval which lay the solid column of cavalry opens like a between it and Redoubt No. 2. At that fan, and resolves itself into a " long moment the cavalry, under Lord Lucan, spray” of skirmishers. It laps the flying were formed in glittering masses – the Turks, steel flashes in the air, and down Light Brigade, under Lord Cardigan, in go the poor Moslem quivering on the advance ; the Heavy Brigade, under plain, split through fez and musket-guard Brigadier-general Scarlett, in reserve. to the chin and breast-belt! There is no They were drawn up just in front of their support for them. It is evident the Rusencampment, and were concealed from sians have been too quick for us. The the view of the enemy by a slight "wave” | Turks have been too quick also, for they in the plain. Considerably to the rear of have not held their redoubts long enough their right, the 93rd Highlanders were to enable us to bring them help. In drawn up in line, in front of the approach vain the naval guns on the heights fire to Balaklava. Above and behind them, on the Russian cavalry; the distance is on the heights, the marines were visible too great for shot or shell to reach. In through the glass, drawn up under arms, vain the Turkish gunners in the earthen and the gunners could be seen ready in batteries, which are placed along the the earth works, in which were placed the French intrenchments, strive to protect heavy ships' guns. The 93rd had origi- their flying countrymen ; their shot fly nally been advanced somewhat more into wide and short of the swarming masses. the plain, but the instant the Russians The Turks betake themselves towards the got possession of the first redoubt they Highlanders, where they check their fight, opened fire on them from our own guns, and form into companies on the flanks of which inflicted some injury, and Sir Colin the Highlanders. As the Russian cavalry Campbell “retired” his men to a better on the left of their line crown the hill position. Meantime the enemy advanced across the valley, they perceive the Highhis cavalry rapidly. To our inexpressible landers drawn up at the distance of some disgust we saw the Turks in Redoubt half-mile, calmly waiting their approach. No. 2 fly at their approach. They ran in They halt, -and squadron after squadron scattered groups across towards Redoubt flies up from the rear, till they have a No. 3, and towards Balaklava; but the body of some 1,500 men along the ridge horse-hoof of the Cossack was too quick – lancers, and dragoons, and hussars. for them, and sword and lance were busily Then they move en échelon in two bodies, plied among the retreating herd. The with another in reserve. The cavalry, yells of the pursuers and pursued were who have been pursuing the Turks on the plainly audible. As the Lancers and right, are coming up to the ridge beneath Light Cavalry of the Russians advanced, I us, which conceals our cavalry from view.


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