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MUNICIPAL FINANCE.

LOCAL TAXATION.

LOCAL taxation is intrinsically hardly so fascinating a subject for discussion as Members of Parliament appear to find it. It is a question involved and difficult beyond belief; yet there is scarcely a single member who is not ready to talk glibly about it, as though he were complete raster of all its intricacies. There is endless variation in the suggestions made for the reform of local taxation, but the practical outcome of them all is the same : that the particular industry in which the suggestor is interested must be relieved. Radicals are at one with Conservatives in holding that the incidence of local taxation is unjust ; but while the Conservative looks upon the landowner as the person whose imposts must be decreased, the Radical is eloquent about the burdens of the urban taxpayer. The divergence of opinion upon these points was strikingly brought out in the debate upon the general subject, into which the House of Commons was betrayed on the 5th instant en Sir Massey Lopes' amendment with reference to the expenses of registration. The amendment was to the effect that, as registration is a matter of imperial rather than local concern, the expenses connected therewith should not be imposed upon ratepayers in counties and boroughs, and levied in respect of the occupation of a single description of property. This was aimed at the proposal of the Government to make a temporary advance of 20,000l. towards the increased expenses of registration in counties this year, and was only defeated by 2 votes. We are not concerned for the moment with the merits of the proposal, or with the question whether the occasion was a legitimate opportunity for raising anew the whole subject of local taxation. But we may properly insist on the great injustice of the present mode of levying local imposts, and the need which exists for its reform being speedily and closely grappled with. As has been well said, at present honourable members throw the whole question of taxation into the crucible at once, without any clearer idea of what is to come out than that they want their own burdens reduced anyhow.' The President of the Local Government Board has more than once given an alluring sketch of the great measure of local government which he has in his despatch box, all ready for production as soon as opportunity serves. In 1881 the Government announced that they were about to consult Parliament on the whole subject of local taxation in a comprehensive manner. In the Queen's Speech of 1882 the House was invited to consider the most equitable form of contribution from imperial rates in relief of local charges ; and the Government were only saved from defeat on a motion of Mr. Paget by undertaking to deal with the whole question. In 1883 Mr. Pell urged that no further delay should take place, and the Government had a bare majority of 12 votes. On a subsequent occasion Mr. Pell obtained a majority for a similar motion, and now the Government have barely ercaped an adverse vote on a resolution which inferentially raised the whole question again. There is no hope that the matter can be settled this year ; but it will obviously be one of the very first subjects to which the new Parliament must set its hand, even is, as suggested by Sir Charles Dilke, a whole session has to be devoted to its solution.

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£ *Metropolitan 31 p.c. Stock 16,984,326 3! 3 P.C.

7,250,000 *Birmingham Corporation Stock 3,445,693 31 Blackburn Corp. 4 p.c. Stock ..

330, 290 Bradford Corp. 4 p.c. Stock 31 p.c. Stock..

647,900 3 1,568,437 507,500

272,745 3. p.c.

16,663 3 Bristo Corp. Debenture Stock

1,209, 380 *Croydon Corp Stock

400,000 Dundee Corp. Stocks

500,000 Glasgow Corp. Red. Stock

500,000 Huddersfield Corp. Stock

250,000 *Hull Corp. Stock....

500,000 Lee Conservancy Deb. Stock.. 196,417 Leeds Corp. Cons. Deb. Stock 2,389,630

558,720 3 Leicester Corp. Gas "and Water Deb. Stock....

628,153

4 Leicester Redeemable Stock 280,553 31 *Liverpool Corp. Stock

6,000,000 Longton Corp. Stock...

105,000 Manchester Corp. 4 p.c. Stock.

3,775,735 34 p.c.

91,035 31 Middlesbrough Corp. Red Deb. Stock

300,000 37 Newcastle Corp. Stock

450,000 31 *Nottingham Corp. Stock

2,000,000 Oldham Corp. Deb. Stock

423,040 † Portsmouth Corp. Stock...

400,000 Reading Corp. Stock

500,000 Rotherham Corp. Stock

253,188 Sheffield Corp. Stock

108,150 3 *Swansea Corp. Stock .... 600,000 Wigan Corp. Stocks

336,940 Var. Wolverhampton Corp. Stock.. 600,000 3!

963 Ioo 108 981

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6th Jan., April, July, Oct. . 6th Oct., 1929.. 113
ist Feb., May, Aug., Nov.. 1st Feb., 1941.. 1031
ist Jan., ist July.. } May 07, 1916 1041
ist Jan., ist July..

Irredeemable
Ist Jan., ist July

Irredeemable

98 Various....

Various.. ist April, ist Oct.

Various.

Various
Ist May, ist Nov.

Perpetual..
5th Jan., 5th July

Within 40 years.

992
15th May, itth Nov.. Purchased
15th May, 11th Nov. 15th May, 1914.
ist Jan., ist July.

Ist July, 1934
Ist Jan., ist july.

1943

1011 ist Jan., ist July

Perpetual..

103

II2 ist Jan., ist July.

ist July, 1927, }

Ist July, 1927...102} ist Jan., ist July.. {

months' notice.
ist Jan., ist July.:

zist Dec., 1934..
ist Jan., April, July, Oct.. Purchased 1051
ist Jan., ist July.... ist July, 1932 .. 987
24th June, 24th Dec. Irredeemable

1193
24th June, 24th Dec. Irredeemable
Ist Jan., ist July.. ist Jan., 1909 ..
ist Jan., ist July.

Ist July, 1936
ist May, ist Nov.

Irredeemable 864 ist Jan., ist July.

Irredeemable
Ist Jan., Ist July... 1st Jan., 1924
ist April, ist Oct.

Irredeemable
25th March, 29th Sept. 1927
Ist March, ist Sept.

1914-34 ..
ist Jan., ist July.... 18th July, 1951.

99
Ist Jan., ist July...
ist March, ist Sept. 1932 and 1942 .. 99

1094--1093 99 100

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Note.--The Stocks marked with an asterisk (*) are transferable in books kept at the Bank of England; those marked with a dagger(t) at other London Banks. The rest are transferable by deed in the usual way, and the Agents are officials of the several Corporations.

sewers,

REPORTS OF MEDICAL OFFICERS

statutory hospital, which was largely appreciated by all

classes. He also referred to the mistaken efforts of a OF HEALTH.

local body of anti-vaccinators, and placed on record some

figures indicating the value of vaccination as a prophylactic "Something attempted, something done.'

of small-pox, which the agitators will find difficult to disAYLESBURY RURAL.- Dr. Harvey Hilliard's report

prove. Both in 1883 and in the past year the importation

of a case of the disease led to the adoption of the usual for 1884 is in every respect satisfactory. He records a

precautionary measures, and with complete success, for no distinct improvement in the general aspect of the district,

further illness was heard of. An outbreak of measles and although no works of importance were carried out, the

(fatal in 39 cases) increased the zymotic death-rate from inhabitants in many localities have been more attentive to the purity of their wells and to the disposal of sewage,

0:9 per 1,000 to l'l; but the health officer points out

that, as in 1883 when whooping-cough was very destructive, and removal of offensive accumulations. Moreover, there

the large proportion of the mortality arose- not from the was a notable decline in the mortality from zymotic

existence of sanitary defects, but from want of care and from causes, the deaths numbering nine as compared with twenty-seven in 1883 and thirty-seven in the previous

unnecessary exposure. The report does not contain any

account of the circumstances attending the eleven deaths year. The general death-rate was also below the average.

ascribed to typhoid fever in 1884, but the prevalence of Forty-seven cases of scarlatina were investigated by Dr. Hilliard, four of which at the beginning of the year proved compared with the previous year

, there was a considerable

scarlatina is attributed principally to school influence. As fatal. The disease threatened to become epidemic at

decline in the mortality from chest affections, notably Whitchurch, where twenty-four cases occurred within a few days, but it was fortunately stamped out by prompt phthisis

, and there were eleven fewer deaths from cancer. action on the part of the sanitary officials, assisted by the

GLOUCESTER. – The sanitary authority of this important inmates of the infected cottages. An outbreak of diph- city and port district will do well to carry out without theria also occurred at the beginning of the year, the delay the sanitary improvements which their health officer circumstances of which were specially investigated. Five lays before them in his annual report for 1884, more cases of typhoid fever were heard of during the year, none especially as his recommendations are all reasonable, and of which proved fatal, and neither measles nor small-pox

can be effected without difficulty. Finding that a concontributed to the death-roll. The district, however, was siderable proportion of the houses in the town derive their invaded on two occasions by this last-named disease, which water supply from pumps and shallow wells which are was imported from London. The immediate persormance more or less exposed to pollution, he urges that every of re-vaccination, together with prompt isolation and disin. house in the district should be connected with the city section, prevented any spread of the infection, and Dr. water system, and that wells should be closed. He also Hilliard regrets that the public cannot be persuaded that points out that a flushing box provided with water from the universal adoption of vaccination and re-vaccination the city mains should be secured for every water-closet ; would soon completely relegate this fatal and foul disease and that every house should be connected with the city to the archives of the past, to keep company with the

At considerable length Mr. Wilion enters into plagues, spotted fevers, and black deaths of the good old the important question of hospital provision for infectious times' before sanitation was so much thought of.

diseases, laying stress on the insufficiency and inadequacy BARNSTAPLE. --Mr. Henry Jackson, the new health

of the present accommodation in the Stroud Road, and officer for the borough of Barnstaple, appears to have

he expresses, in effect, a hope that will be generally shared,

that the necessary entered vigorously into the sanitary work of his district.

*sufficient and efficient hospital His report for the last nine months of 1884 (the period

accommodation will soon be provided for the city and since his appointment as medical officer of health) shows port. With this view he concurs in the recommendation the district to have been generally fairly healthy, the

of Dr. Blaxall, who recently visited the district on behalf death-rate from all causes for that period being 19:4

per for the joint use of the urban, port, and rural districts of

of the Local Government Board, that a hospital provided 1,000 (including a 'zymotic' death rate of 82 per 1,000) among a population of 12,493. The principal sanitary Gloucester would best meet the requirements of the case. defect, which was brought out in connection with some of The necessary watchfulness over lodging-houses, bakethe enteric fever cases that occurred, seems to be that of houses, milk shops, and meat and fish markets was not ventilation of the sewers and drains. The entire system neglected by Mr. Wilton during the year. The general of sewers is stated, however, to be now receiving the con

death-rate of the city was 17'2 per 1,000, reckoned on a sideration of the sanitary authority, who have adopted the population of 39, 373. advice of the medical officer and consulted an eminent HANLEY.–Dr. Walker has taken considerable pains in engineer on the subject. Mr. Jackson gives the further working out the statistical portion of his annual report for good advice that the action to be taken should be carried 1884; but it has been to the exclusion of any general out before the warm season sets in. Another matler to statement of his own work during the year or of the saniwhich the medical officer of health has given particular tary condition of his district. Nor does he indicate the prominence is the supervision of the slaughter-houses. directions in which the sanitary authority should put forth Having received information that considerable traffic was their energies ; but he has possibly availed himself of going on in meat unfit for human food, he instructed the other opportunities of doing this. The inspector's report sanitary inspector to exercise great vigilance in this which is appended, shows ihat the work of nuisance inmatter, and, as a result, no less than 102 visits were paid spection, &c., is not at all at a standstill, 10,000 houses, to the slaughter-houses in the borough during the last half &c., having been inspected during the year (468 by the of 1884. On five occasions unwholesome food (meat and medical officer of health himself), 500 re-inspected, 3,000, fish) was seized and condemned, resulting in four prose- cleansed, &c. The general death-rate is somewhat high, cutions and three convictions. The water supply of the being 21'o per 1,000, and includes a zymotic rate of 3-6 town, which has been very good, is being augmented to per 1,000. A high rate of infantile mortality has premeet the requirements of the increased population. By- vailed in Hanley for some years past. laws for the regulation of common lodging-houses seem to be required ; and it is to be hoped that the endeavours to

TORQUAY.—The sanitorium which was opened at Tor. find a suitable site for a small-pox hospital or sanitorium

quay in 1883 seems to have proved a great boon to the will soon result in success.

district, as was to have been expected. Mr. Karkeek

gives numerous instances of his i aving been able by reBATH.--In his account of the precautions adopted moving the first case in a locality to prevent the spread of during 1883 for restricting the spread of infectious disease infection. This he has been especially in a position to in this city Dr. Brabazon was loud in his praises of the test during the past year, as scarlatina was always present.

During the twelve months 53 patients were admitted to whilst the inhabitants have become so reconciled to the the sanitorium ; and the medical officer of health records sanitary officers and their duties in pursuing house-tothe satisfactory experience that parents are becoming less house visitations that people have become, so to speak, opposed to their children being removed to that institution. educated to cleanly habits and keeping their houses in They find that their children are well cared for there, order. All these circumstances tend materially to resist whilst, by the removal, the bread-winning in the family is the chances of any serious spread of typhoid fever. There saved from disastrous interruption. The water supply of were in all 88 deaths registered from the principal zymotic the district has been considerably increased by the opening causes, against 121 in the previous year. Scarlet fever of a new reservoir-an important matter in case of the re- seems to be endemic in the district, having been more or currer.ce of such a dry summer as was experienced in 1884. less preval. nt since 1877. In 1878 the great wave was The dangers to which the public are unconsciously ex- reached, when scarlatina was responsible for 90 deaths. posed, through the reckless use of doubtful water in manu- A declension was experienced in 1879, but another surging facturing processes, is exemplified by a case, recorded by of the wave occurred in the following year. From that Mr. Karkeek, in which a well, long closed on account of date the mortality has steadily declined, and Mr. Garman pollution by sewage, was found to have been re-opened, hopes that, now the disease has shown signs of abating, and its waters used for washing bottles in a house where further progress in the sanitary improvement of the district artificial drinks were made. There is always more or less may be the means of completing its entire exhaustion and difficulty in estimating properly the death-rate of a sea- effacement. Of the 21 deaths registered from diarrhea, side resort, but, after deducting the mortality among 17 occurred in children under five, though Mr. Garman, in visitors and strangers, the death-rate for the year was only recording this mortality, protests against its being regarded 1395 per 1,000 from all causes.

as of a zymotic origin. Whooping-cough, a disease over WALSALL.- The details of the sanitary work done in

which sanitary authorities can exercise but little control, this borough, with its 60,000 inhabitants, are given in the

was unusually fatal, and there was some prevalence of tabular statements of the inspectors of nuisances, appended Several cases of smalk pox appeared in the district, and

diphtheria which was concurrent with scarlet fever. to the annual reports of the medical officer of healih. It would be more satisfactory if the medical officer of health's

there was a mild epidemic of measles. Pulmonary affecreport afforded a better index to the sanitary condition

of the mortality amongst infants was below the average.

tions were much more fatal than in the previous year, but the district. The death-rate in 1884 was 21•14 per 1,000, as compared with 20'03 in 1883, 18.4 in 1882, and 17.08

WITHINGTON.-In reporting on the sanitary condition in 1881. The zymotic death-rate was 4'03 per 1,000. of this growing district during 1884, Dr. Railton records Scarlet fever and diarrhoea have been exceptionally pre- that in view of the prevalence of cholera in Europe the valent and fatal during the last two years. In connection local board last year issued a useful circular urging owners with an epidemic of small-pox in 1883, which caused 14 and occupiers to put their houses in order, and pointing deaths, Mr. Maclachlan remarks that the effective manner

out the essentials of a healthy house and the directions in in which the epidemic was stamped out should be recog: which they should criticise their dwellings. This seems nised. Why, he asks, did the epidemic which, during to have had the beneficial effect of arousing an anxiety 1872.3, carried off no less than 450 of the population of among many householders to ascertain the sanitary deficiThe borough, and caused the illness of 1,600, subside in encies of their dwellings and have them remedied. The 1883 with so comparatively slight a loss of life? Increasing keeping of pigs seems to require regulation in Withington, care as to vaccination doubtless must be credited with some and the medical officer of health suggests the adoption of proportion of this result ; but the confidence of the general a by-law on the subject. He observes that there can be public in the Infectious Hospital is the chief factor, and no doubt that pigs create a disgusting nuisance, however ihe prompt isolation of infected patients, which this con- clean their styes may be maintained, and it appears to be fidence enabled the inspectors to secure, was rewarded by an injustice to others that the law should permit persons the safety of hundreds of lives.

to keep them within a certain distance from the houses.'

The death-rate frora all causes was only 13'0 per 1,000, WATFORD.—Dr. Brett's Annual Report for 1884 shows that he has not been idle as regards sanitary work in his

but this includes a somewhat high infantile mortality

which is evidently a source of anxiety to the medical district, although he has no striking sanitary defect to report upon at the close of the year. The need for a suit infants as more generally attributable to improper feeding

officer of health. He, however, looks on diarrhoea among able hospital for insectious non-pauper cases is again and careless treatment than to bad sanitary conditions. brought forward by Dr. Brett, who points to the recent experiences of his district as sufficient evidence of the

The advantage of the removal to hospital of early cases want of such provision. There is little in the water supply the outbreak of scarlet fever in the district during 1884

of infectious disease was demonstrated in connection with for the health officer to find fault with, but having regard Sixteen cases in all were removed to the Monsall Hospital

, to the fact that the supply is not unlimited, he remarks

and the extension of the disease was thereby undoubtedly that there is still a great waste of water in the town. The

limited. sewers, he adds, must be ventilated, and the best means of effecting this is by open gratings in the road.' During the year many courts and yards were much iinproved, but still some of the houses are hardly fit for human habita

A new feature in sewage treatment is that just opened at tion,' The death-rate was 17.8 per 1,000 (including a

Buxton, where a superior sample of effluent water is being zymotic rate of 1.6 per 1,000) reckoned on an estimated discharged from settling tanks in wbich precipitation is population of 12,950.

effected by a process hit upon by a happy accident and the

ingenuity of Dr. Thresh. Defæcation is accomplished by WEDNESBURY.-Mr. Garman does not devote any a natural chalybeate spring flowing out of a disused mine ; portion of his report to an account of the action taken for and this mixed with milk of lime is stirred into the improving the sanitary condition of the district. In sewage, and not only sends down all the visible impurities speaking of the decreased mortality from typhoid fever, in a focculent precipitate, but also removes a considerable however, he observes that it is a source of gratification to proportion of the dissolved organic matter. The resulting know that this disease of late years has only appeared in sludge is declared to be of higher value than the majority a sporadic form, which, he ihinks, indicates a general of manures made from water-carried sewage. The chaly, improvement The good wa'er supply which the town beate stream contains about two grains of carbonate of possesses, more scrupulous attention to the midden system, iron and ferric oxide per gallon, also fifty grains per gallon frequent emptying of ashpits, and the complete super of mixed crystalline sulphates, or salts of alumina,' magvision of all nuisances injurious to health, have done much, nesia, lime, and soda.

SURVEYORS' AND SANITARY

observed when the old piping was removed. Consider

able improvements were effected in the drainage. Out of INSPECTORS' REPORTS.

a total of 170 dwellings examined, five only were found in

anything like a wholesome condition. The drains of the BARTON Eccles.—Mr. Heywood, the surveyor of this

other 165 were so imperfect in workmanship as to neces. district, enumerates in his report the number of streets

sitate considerable repairs or total reconstruction. To do which were sewered and paved in 1883, and records how

this, 1,613 yards of new glazed fire-clay 4, 6, and 9-inch many plans of new buildings were passed. Four addi.

pipes were used, and 894 yards relaid and properly tional connections were made between the shallow sewer

jointed. In addition, 98 ventilating traps, having fresh and the deep one in Eccles to prevent the flooding of drains, to isolate the buildings from all direct communica.

air perforated iron inlet plates, were placed upon the cellars, and a number of storm and other grids were fixed

tion with the main sewer. during the year. The report of the sanitary inspector,

In other respects sanitary Mr. Lee, indicates that particular vigilance was exercised

improvements were rapidly pushed on, whilst the dairies in securing the trapping of gullies and the fixing of venti

and milkshops, common lodging houses, &c., did not lating shafts to soil-pipes. A distinct improvement was

escape a close inspection, regard also being had to the

abatement of smoke nuisances. the diversion of the drains of a considerable number of

The year under notice houses, which had been so constructed as to allow the

seems, indeed, to have been a laborious one for Mr.

Kinnear. sewage to flow into watercourses, and their connection with the main sewer. The removal of refuse seems to GOVAN.—The yearly statistical tables prepared by Mr. have been fairly well performed; but Mr. Lee regrets that McKay, the sanitary inspector for the Burgh of Govan, the inhabitants cannot be persuaded to exercise more present a great variety of work performed by the departeconomy by consuming the cinders and keeping the rub- ment. The report is divided into nine different heads, bish out of the ashpits, which would considerably reduce beginning with infectious diseases, of which there were alike the nuisance and expense.

349 cases registered, 430 apartments fumigated and white

washed, the clothing of 250 families washed and disinBLACKPOOL.-Mr. MacDonald's report consists of a

fected, 2,058 visits made to houses in infected localities, stat-ment of the nuisances abated by him in 1883, which

and 259 notices sent to School Board and teachers regard. amounted to no less than 29,395. In this number, how

ing infected houses. There were 1,107 nuisances removed, ever, the inspector includes the emptying and purifying of

of which 452 refer to drainage. Sixty.one new houses 22,021 ashpits and tubs, and the removal of 6,564 loads

have been placed on the register of houses let in lodgof ashes. The principal work of the year included the

ings,' while 652 daily and 307 nightly visits were made draining of thirty houses into the main sewers, the trap- to enforce ventilation and cleanliness and prevent overping of thirty down-spouts, the disconnection of forty

crowding ; 5.263 reports were sent to the cleansing conslopstone pipes, the furnishing of eighteen houses with a

tractor, and 348 occupiers in tenements were notified to proper supply of water, and the erection of twenty closets.

sweep and clean back courts. Under the heading of Fifiy manure middens were removed, twelve cellars were

*Unwholesome Food and Sale of Food and Drugs Acts' drained, and twenty a hoits were reconstructed. On the

we find 21 inspections under the former and 7 samples whole, the routine work seems to have been satisfactorily

procured under the latter. There seems to have been a performed, but in future re orts Mr. MacDonald would do

great amount of alterations effe cted under the provisions well to supplement his statement with some comments or

of the Cattle Sheds Act in providing or repairing floorings, explanatory remarks.

gripps, drainage, &c. The smoke test seems to be pretty CHELTENHAM.-Mr. Long reports that in 1883 he well employed, as 178 houses had their drainage tested, issued a large number of noiices, of which 172 required

resulting in the removal of offensive smells and other the opening, cleansing, or trapping of drains, 75 the defects. A very important suggestion has been made by removal of pigs, 120 the limewashing of cottages and

Mr. McKay in effecting an arrangement whereby every closets, 13 ihe abatement of overcrowding, 17 the re

death from infectious disease should be daily reported to pairing of pumps, and four the provision of water. It him, which we believe has received the sanction of the would be desirable, however, ihat the report should state

Board. the result of these notices, as in the absence of this infor- HEBDEN BRIDGE.—Mr. Smith reports that the strucmation it is impossible for the uninitiated to appraise the tural works carried out during 1883 for improving the value of the inspector's work. The sanitary organisation sanitary condition of this district were of more than usual of Cheltenham is, as a matter of fact, particularly good ; magnitude and importance. The most conspicuous and but it is better to put the results of work upon record. costly undertaking of this kind was the draining and paving DUNDEE.--In his report for 1883, which is well and

of several streets; whilst in a number of others, in which practically written, Mr. Kinnear dwells at length upon the

the drains were laid in a very imperfect manner, the pipes evils arising from defective plum .ing which were observed

were taken up and larger ones fixed in their place. In by him during the year. Altogether there were 180

addition to this, 57 house-drains were repaired or entirely dwellings examined on this account, and with but five replaced, 46. were trapped and 18 disconnected. The exceptions all were found in need of improvement through number of nuisances dealt with amounted to 169, of which defective material, and sometimes through the carelessness 50 arose from offensive accumulations, 23 from defective or maliciousness of the occupants. În iwelve of the privies, and 81 from choked or otherwise imperfect drains. houses it was necessary to replace the existing water

The scavengers emptied 2,606 closet-tubs, as against 2,080 closets with new ones, a d eighteen old dwellings, which

in the previous year, and removed 360 loads of ashes and formerly had no conveniences whatever, were provided other refuse. Frequent visits were paid by the inspector with closets on the wash-out principle. The cesspools or

to the common lodging-houses, and in two some important water-seals under, and the soil-pipe piping from a number improvements were carried out. of closets and sinks within houses, were badly perforated IPSWICH.--Mr. Moss reports that in 1883 he inspected with holes, leaving a free passage for gas from the sewer 3,844 houses and premises, and issued 341 notices for the to enter the houses. The complaints lodged at the office removal of nuisances or the execution of minor sanitary were principally from this cause. In a large proportion of improvements, all of which were attended to. the lead-piping and cesspools, or water-seals taken out, as 333 private drains were reconstructed, repaired, numerous corroded holes were found, clearly traceable to cleansed, and trapped, and a considerable number of the action of sewer air. Tradesmen, Mr. Kinnear adds, privies were altered for the better. In nine cases the were not altogether free from blame for the imperfect public supply of water was laid on to dwellings, and two workmanship and light lead material which was frequently 1 polluted wells were closed. Some trouble seems to have

As many

nesses.

been caused by the improper keeping of animals; but in Saltley.--Mr. Payne's report, which is in the form of no case, either as regards these or other nuisances, was it a statement, shows that sanitary work was actively carried necessary to resort to legal proceedings to secure com- on in this district during 1883. The public water supply pliance with the inspector's reqnirements.

was extended to 43 houses, and 36 drains were connected KNARESBOROUGH RURAL.-In his annual statement for

with the main sewer, 57 being cleansed, altered, and 1884 Mr. Gray, the sanitary inspector, reports that 634 repaired. Proper regard was had to the removal of refuse, nuisances had been recognised and 634 formal notices

946 privy. pans and 740 ashpits having been emptied issued, 66 houses disinfected, 109 complaints registered,

during the year. Mr. Payne issued 124 notices for the 14 wells cleaned out and effectually covered, 4 new wells

abatement of nuisances, which, with four exceptions, sunk in pursuance of Water Act, 615 nuisances removed,

received attention. The plans for the building and altera. and 1,385 yards of new drains had been laid. Four

tion of 43 dwellings were approved, and the slaughtersamples of milk had been tested by the public analyst and

houses and bakehouses were periodically inspected. found pure. Certain minor matters, to which the attention SCARBOROUGH.-Few sanitary inspectors have been of the authority was directed in the report, appear to have able to record the persormance of so much useful and been satisfactorily disposed of.

permanent work as Mr. Finlay chronicles in his last report LEEDS. - That a very large amount of work was got

on this popular health-resort. Especial attention was through by the officials of the Sanitary Department of this

directed to altering the defective sanitary arrangements of borough in 1883, the fact that something like 15,000

private dwellings, and the inspector observes with satishouses were inspected sufficiently proves. Yet the super

faction that there are now many persons who recognise the intendent, Mr. Newhouse, confesses that he does not feel

need of sanitation. , Out of a total of 1,854 houses in. satisfied with this return, large though it be, for there can

spected, 72 certificates of sanitary excellence were granted be no doubt, he states, that it is in the house itself that the to lodging-house keepers. As many as 500 pan-closets most serious evils which the department has to contend

were altered on an improved plan, and a large number of with arise. He thinks, however, that with the limited

soil-pipes were brought outside and properly ventilated. power local authorities possess under the present Acts,

In 432 houses sanitary gullies were fixed in the place of more cannot be done ; but he hopes the time is not far

old and dilapidated brick ones, nine large cesspools and distant when their powers in this respect will be enlarged.

three wells were abolished ; upwards of 50 rain-water Another difficulty is met with in dealing with the drainage

cisterns under dwelling-room floors were done away with, of houses both old and new. A dwelling-house, to be

and 20 old brick drains were destroyed, and sanitary pipeproperly drained, should have the connection with the

drains laid in their place. Care was taken to strictly sewer completely cut off by running the sink-pipe on to

enforce the by-laws relating to slaughterhouses, bakehouses, the surface, and then near to, but not into, a gully with

&c., and a sharp look-out was kept on offensive busiintercepting ventilators. In Leeds, however, this object

Mr. Finlay's report, which deserves a word of can rarely be attained, owing to the existing plan of back

praise for its excellent arrangement, concludes with an to-back houses, which are Aush with the streets. Ex

account of the system of refuse removal and street watering tended powers are needed to compel owners of property to

and cleansing, and some useful statistical tables. make improvements in this direction. While admitting SHIPLEY.-Mr. Smith seems to have been unusually that the Order in Council for the Inspection of Cowsheds, active in this district, and his report for 1883 contains a Dairies, &c., is right in making it incumbent upon local lengthy list of the improvements effected during the year. authorities to inspect such places, and order the alterations Thus he records that as many as 987 sink-pipes were required to put them into a proper sanitary condition, Mr. either trapped or disconnected, and that a change for the Newhouse is of opinion, at the same time, that it is a great better was made in the drains of 50 houses. A large injustice to the occupiers to make him, and not the owner, number of nuisances arising from offensive accumulations responsible for the carrying out of the necessary altera- were immediately abated, and 2,000 notices were issued to tions and repairs before the premises can be registered. the inhabitants, warning them of the danger of permitting LEEK.—The epidemic prevalence of scarlet fever in

masses of filth near their dwellings. În common with this district entailed considerable labour on Mr. Farrow,

many other inspectors, Mr. Smith found that many of the who had to see to the removal of 212 cases of this disease,

better-class houses were in a far worse sanitary condition and the disinfection of 33 houses and of 1,112 articles of soil-pipes inside the dwelling, which had become per:

than cottages, as for the most part they had dangerous clothing and bedding. In addition to this, a large number of nuisances were abated, which arose for the most part

forated, worm-eaten, or su destroyed as to readily permit from defective drainage. In 19 houses the closets were

of the escape of sewer-gas. There were 246 notices improved, and in 9 a proper supply of water was provided.

issued during the year for the abatement of nuisances, of The contracior for the removal of refuse and night soil

which 222 had been complied with at the date of the seems to have done his work well, but several nuisances

report. arose from the carriage of offensive matter through the TODMORDEN.-In reporting that the sanitary condition

The report concludes with some tables of local of his district was fairly satisfactory at the close of 1883, interest, including the number of admissions to the hos- Mr. Blackburn notes with satisfaction that some of the pital and a statement of the number of interments in the owners of property, as well as the occupiers, have cotown.

operated with him in removing, and in a number of cases Newcastle.— The annual report of Mr. W. T. Clark, preventing nuisances.

As many as 21,460 privies were chief inspector of nuisances, presented to the Town Im- emptied during the year, but the mode of removal does provement Committee of the Corporation, shows that

not seem of the best. Five street sewers were laid or during the past year 1,344 complaints were received, 9,879 repaired, and 27 house drains were cleansed and othernotices were served, exclusive of 2,063 letters written, and wise improved. As in the previous year there were 3,918 special inspections were made. The number of several cases of typhoid fever which arose from the constreets inspected was 532; houses, 10,821 ; and tenements, sumption of polluted water, and scarlatina assumed at one 14,899.

There arrived and were inspected during the time the proportions of an epidemic. Proper regard was year 236 boats, with 39,932 packages of fish, being a con- had to the disinfection of infected houses, and in other siderable increase on the previous year.

We also learn respects the sanitary welfare of the district received with much satisfaction that it has not been found necessary

attention. to institute magisterial proceedings during the year, as WALSALL.-An enormous number of nuisances were owners and agents of property have, upon full explanation abated in this borough by the sanitary inspectors, Messrs. of requirements being given, willingly done all the neces- Stephens and Harries, whose joint report consists of a sary works. May we add-Other districts, please copy. number of statistical tables with occasional comments. In

streets.

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