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Matthew, confirmed by James I.; the third by Nathaniel | office of lord privy seal. He was one of a Cabinet comLord Crew, 1684 (afterwards redelivered to the bishop, the mittee of four who were intrusted with the preparation of corporation acting under the second charter), and the the Reform Bill, the others being Sir James Graham, Lord fourth by John Egerton, 1780.
| John Russell, and Lord Duncannon. It was understood at Durham can scarcely be said to have any staple trade or, the time that his influence was exerted to make the measure manufacture, though it possesses one carpet factory and one as liberal as possible, and in particular that he wished to large mill for the preparation of " Durham mustard.” introduce the ballot as one of its provisions. In the It is now a very different place, socially, from what debates on the bill in the Lords he did not take the leading it was when there were twelve prebendaries with much part that might naturally have been expected from the only larger incomes than the six canons now have, and when peer who had been on the Cabinet committee for its “The College” was a noted centre for dignified and liberal preparation. This was owing partly to his own indifferent hospitality. At that time, canonical residence was kept health and partly to grief at the death of his eldest son, the with much more strictness than it is at present, and the Master Lambton of one of Lawrence's most admired prebendary in residence entertained guests of all classes. portraits. Continued ill-health led him to resign office in Noblemen and gentlemen then resided in houses in Fram- March 1833, when he was raised to the dignity of Viscount wellgate and Elvet, now let out into tenements and serving Lambton and earl of Durham. In the summer of the same as the squalid homes of the very poorest class. The year, however, he was able to undertake a special embassy Bailey and Old Elvet are, however, still chiefly occupied by to the court of St Petersburg, the chief object of which the upper classes, and Western Hill is a new and rapidly was to secure lenient treatment for the insurgent Poles. In increasing suburb. The Palace Green is an open space this he was unsuccessful. When the party that had having the cathedral on the south side, the castle, now carried reform began to be divided, Lord Durham was University College, on the north, the Exchequer Buildings, generally regarded as a likely leader of the more advanced now the university library, together with Bishop Cosin's section, and a strongly ridical speech which he delivered library, on the west, and the museum, alms-houses, and at the celebrated Grey banquet at Edinburgh in 1834 helped other offices on the east. The museum contains an almost to strengthen his claims to the position. It took the form complete collection of British birds. Six out of the seven of a reply to a previous speech of Lord Brougham, whose parish churches are ancient, and possess features of interest. enmity Lord Durham thus provoked. In 1837 be accepted The high banks of the river on which the cathedral and the post of ambassador at St Petersburg, which he occupied castle stand are richly wooded, and traversed in all directions for about a year. Meanwhile a very serious insurrection by well-kept paths, which afford ever-changing views of had broken out in Canada, and early in 1838 the Governwood, water, rocks, bridges, the cathedral, the castle, pic- ment found it necessary to suspend the colonial constitution turesque old houses, and terraced gardens.
and send out a new governor with special powers. Lord In 1861 the municipal borough of Durham had within Durham was selected to undertake the difficult task, for its area of 880 acres 2007 inhabited houses, with a popu- which his extensive experience and his well-known advanced lation of 14,088. In 1871, the number of inhabited houses liberalism were supposed specially to qualify him. Somewas 2349, and the population comprised 6956 males and what hasty and irascible in his temperament, he unfor7450 females, or 14,406 in all. · The parliamentary borough, tunately adopted measures which were beyond the powers which with an area of 967 acres had 14,833 inhabitants in conferred upon him by the special Act of Parliament under 1871, returns two members to Parliament. (J. T. F.) which he had been appointed. These measures were dis
DURHAM, JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, FIRST EARL OF approved of by a vote of the House of Lords on the motion (1792–1840), born at Lambton Castle, Durham, on the of Lord Brougham, who imported the bitterness of his 12th April 1792, was the eldest son of William Henry earlier arrel with Lord Durham into the debate, and the Lambton, M.P. for the city of Durham. It is note-Government were compelled to disallow the ordinances in worthy that the family to which he belonged had held which they were embodied. Lord Durham was so deeply the Lambton estate in uninterrupted male succession from incensed at this that he took the extraordinary step of the 12th century. Educated at Eton, he held for a short returning home without waiting for his recall, and the time a commission in a regiment of hussarg. In 1813, Government marked its disapproval of his conduct by soon after attaining his majority, he was returned to directing that he should not receive the customary salute on Parliament as representative of his native county. He was landing in England. He defended his plan of administraan advanced Liberal from the beginning to the end of his tion in an able and elaborate report addressed to the queen, pohitical career, and distinguished himself by his uncom- and his policy was practically justified by being adopted by promising opposition to the reactionary measures of the his successor. He had returned to England in shattered Tory Government. His political position was strengthened health, and he died at Cowes, in the Islo of Wight, on the by his marriage in 1816 to the eldest daughter of Earl | 28th July 1840. Grey. In 1819 he championed the rights of the people by DURIAN (Malay, duri, a thorn), the fruit of Durio his denunciation, in the House of Commons and at zibethinus, a tree of the natural order Sterculiacea, which numerous public meetings, of the coercive measures proposed attains a height of 70 or 80 feet, has oblong, tapering by the Government against the Chartists. In April 1821 leaves, rounded at the base, and yellowish-green flowers, he proposed in the House a scheme of parliamentary reform and bears a general resemblance to the elm. The durio is which was in some points, notably in regard to the redis- cultivated in Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and the Moluccas, tribution of seats, more thoroughgoing than that which was and northwards as far as Mindanao in the Philippines ; carried eleven years later. The delicate state of his health also in the Malay Peninsula, in Tenasserim, on the Bay compelled him in 1826 to proceed to Naples, where he of Bengal, to 14° N. lat., and in Siam to the 13th and resided for about a year. He was a prominent supporter 14th parallels. The fruit is spherical and 6 to 8 inches in of the Canning administration of 1827, and of that of Lord diameter, approaching the size of a large cocoa-nut ; it has Goderich by which it was succeeded. When the latter a hard external husk or shell, is completely armed with fell to pieces owing to its inherent weakness in January strong pyramidal tubercles, meeting one another at the 1828, Lambton's services were acknowledged by his eleva- base, and terminating in sharp thorny points; these sometion to the peerage as Baron Durham. On the accession times inflict severe injuries on persons upon whom the fruit of Lord Grey to power in 1830 Lord Durham obtained the may chance to fall when ripe. On dividing the fruit at the
sutures of the carpels, where the spines arch a little, it is DURRA, 'or INDIAN MILLET, Sorghum vulgare, is a found to contain five oval cells, each filled with a cream- species of grass of the tribe Andropogonea. The terms coloured, glutinous, smooth pulp, in which are imbedded from durra and zurrut are applied to the plant in Arabia; in one to five seeds about the size of chostnuts. The pulp India it is known as jawari (Hindustani), jowari (Bengali), and the seeds, which latter are eaten roasted, are the edible cholum (Tamil), and jonna (Telugu), and in the West Indies parts of the fruit. With regard to the taste of the pulp as Negro Guinea Corn. It is a strong grass, growing to Mr Wallace remarks, “A rich butter-like custard, highly a height of from 4 to 8 or even 16 feet; the leaves are lavoured with almonds, gives the best idea of it, but sheathing, solitary, and about 2 inches broad and 24 feet intermingled with it come wafts of flavour that call to mind in length; the panicles are contracted, dense, and cream cheese, onion-sauce, brown sherry, and other incon- hermaphrodite ; and the seeds, which are inclosed in husks, gruitias; . : : . it is neither acid, nor sweet, nor juicy, and protected by awns, are round, hard, smooth, shining, yet one feels the want of none of these qualities, for it is brownish-red, and somewhat larger than mustard seeds. perfect as it is.” The fruit, especially when not fresh from The plant is cultivated in various parts of India and other the tree, has, notwithstanding, a most offensive smell, which countries of Asia, in the United States, and in the south of has been compared to that of rotten onions or of putrid | Europe. Its culms and leaves afford excellent fodder for animal matter. The Dyaks of the Sarawak river in Borneo cattle; and the grain, of which the yield in favourable esteem the durian above all other fruit, eat it unripe both situations is upwards of a hundredfold, is used for the same cooked and raw, and salt the pulp for use as a relish with purposes as maize, rice, corn, and other cereals. Allied rice.
species are s. bicolor, much valued in India as a forageSee Linschoten, Discours of Voyages, bk. i., chap. 67, p. 102, plant, and S. saccharatum, commonly called sorghum or fol. Lond. 1598; Bickmore, I ravels in the East Indian Archipelago, Chinese sugar cane, which is extensively cultivated in p. 91, 1868 ; Wallace, The Malay Archipelago, 3rd. ed. 1872.
China, North India, and Africa. The latter species is DÜRKHEIM, a town in the Palatinate of the Rhine, grown in America chiefly for the manufacture of molasses near the foot of the Hardt Mountain, and at the entrance from its juice, and in France as a source of alcohol. The of the valley of the Isenach, 15 miles north-west of Spire, total quantity of sorghum molasses made in the United on the railway between Monsheim and Neustadt. Besides States in 1870 has been estimated at 16,050,089 gallons. being the seat of various administrative offices, it possesses DUSSEK, JOHANN LUDWIG (1761-1812), pianist and three churches and a synagogue, a town-hall occupying the composer, was born at Czaslau, in Bohemia, on the 9th site of the castle of the princes of Leiningen-Hartenburg, February 1761. His father, Johann Joseph Dussek, a an antiquarian and a scientific society, a public library, and musician of high reputation, was organist and choir-master a high school. It is well known as a resort for invalids, in the collegiate church of Czaslau, and several other who may either indulge in the grape-cure or have recourse members of the family were distinguished as organists. to the salt-springs of Philippshall in the neighbourhood, He had thus the most favourable opportunity for the which not only supply the bathing establishment, but development of the musical talent which he displayed produce annually about 8000 cwt. of marketable salt. The almost from infancy. Under the careful instruction of his inhabitants have a good trade in wine, and manufacture father he made such rapid progress that he appeared in oil, tobacco, glass, and paper.
public as a pianist at the age of six. A year or two later As a dependency of the Benedictine abbey of Limburg, which he was placed as a choir boy at the convent of Iglau, and which was built and endowed by Conrad II., Dürkheim or Thurnig he obtained his first instruction in counterpoint from the 13th century made it the seat of a fortress, and in the 19th Spenar, the choir-master. When his voice broke he inclosed it with wall and ditch. In the three following centuries it
entered on a course of general study, first at the Jesuits' bad its full share of the military vicissitudes of the Palatinate ; but college, and then at the university of Prague, where he it was rebuilt after the French invasion of 1689, and greatly fostered took his bachelor's degree in philosophy. During his by its counts in the beginning of next century. In 1794 its new
curriculum of two and a half years he had paid unremitting castle was sacked by the French, and in 1849 it was the scene of a çontest between the Prussians and the insurrectionists.
attention to the practice and study of his art, and bad ruins of the abbey of Limburg are still to be seen about a mile 8.W. received farther instruction in composition from a of the town; and in the neighbourhood rises the Kastanienberg, Benedictine monk. In 1779 he was for a short time with the ancient rude stone fortification of the Heidenmauer or
organist in the church of St Rombaut at Mechlin. At the Heathen's Wall. Population in 1871, 5572.
close of this engagement he proceeded to Holland, where DURLACH, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Carlsruhe, he attained great distinction as a pianist, and was employed 24 miles by rail from the city of that name, with which it by the stadtholder as musical instructor to his fao ily. is connected by a canal and an avenue of poplars. It lies on the left bank of the Pfinz, at the foot of the vineyard form of several sonatas and concertos for the piano. He
While at the Hague he published his first works in the covered Thurmberg, which is crowned by a watch-tower; had already composed at the age of thirteen a solemn mass and it possesses a castle erected in 1565 and now used as
and several small oratorios, which still exist in manuscript barracks, an ancient Rathhaus, a church with an excellent In 1783 he visted Hamburg, and placed himself under the organ, an upper Bürgerschule, an orphan asylum, and in the
instruction of Emmanuel Bach. Though he believed himmarket-place a statue of the margrave Charles II. Its in- self to have derived great benefit from this, it may be habitants manufacture tobacco, beer, vinegar, and chicory, questioned whether his genius was not fettered rather than and engage in agriculture and gardening. A chalybeate stimulated by the enthusiastic veneration with which he spring is utilized at the bathing establishment of regarded his model. From Hamburg he proceeded to Amalienbad.
Berlin, where his powers as a pianist met with their Durlach was bestowed by the emperor Frederick on Hermann V. accustomed recognition. After spending two years in of Zähringen as an allodial possession, but afterwards came into
Lithuania in the service of Prince Radziwill, he went in the hands of Rudolf of Hapsburg. It was chosen as his residence by the margrave Charles II., in 1565, and retained this distinction 1786 to Paris, where he remained, with the exception of a till the foundation of Carlsruhe in 1715, though it was almost short period spent at Milan, until the outbreak of the destroyed by the French in 1688. In 1848 it was the seat of a Revolution, enjoying the special patronage of Marie congress of the liberal party of the Baden parliament; and in 1849 it was the scene of an encounter between the Prussians and tho
Antoinette and great popularity with the public. Towards insurgents. Reichenbach the mechanician and Posselt the historian
the close of 1789 he removed to London, where three years are natives of the town.
later he married a daughter of Dominico Corri, who was
herself a clever harpist and pianist. In London he obtained into four portions,—the Old Town, the Karlstadt, which his greatest success alike as composer, performer, and dates from 1787 and is called after the electoral priuce teacher. Unfortunately, however, he was tempted by the Charles Theodore, the New Town, which was in process large sale of his numerous compositions to open a music of formation from 1690 to 1716, and the Friedrichsstadt, publishing warehouse in partnership with Montague Corri, laid out within recent years. New streets are rapidly a relative of his wife. The result was injurious to his stretching out in all directions, and the villages of fame and disastrous to his fortune. Writing solely for the Pempelfort, Bilk, and Derendorf are already almost insake of sale, he composed many pieces that were quite corporated. Within the area of the town proper there are unworthy of his genius; and, as he was entirely destitute numerous open grounds and public squares, which prevent of business capacity, bankruptcy was inevitable. In 1800 the regularity of its plan degenerating into monotony: he was obliged to flee to Hamburg to escape the claims of the market-place, with the colossal bronze statute of the his creditors. Some years later he was attached in the electoral prince Johann Wilhelm, the parade, the Allée capacity of musician to the household of Prince Louis Strasse, the King's Alley, and the King's Platz may be Ferdinand of Prussia, with whom he formed an intimate specially mentioned. Of the ten churches the most noticefriendship. On the death of his patron in 1806 he passed able are-St Andrew's, formerly the Jesuit or court church, into the service of Prince Ysenburg as court musician. In with frescoes by Hübner, Deger, and Mucke, and tho 1809 he went to Paris to fill a similar situation in the embalmed bodies of several of the electors ; St Lambert's, household of Prince Talleyrand, which he held until his with a tower 180 feet high, and containing monuments death in March 1812. Dussek had an important influence in honour of Duke William IV. and Voetius; and on the development of pianoforte music. As a performer | Maximilian's, with frescoes by Settegast and others. he was distinguished by the purity of his tone, the com- Besides the old ducal palace, laid in ruins by the French bined power and delicacy of his touch, and the facility of in 1794, but restored in 1846, the secular buildings bis execution. As a composer he possessed a distinct comprise the former Jesuit college, now occupied by tho individuality of style, and, while much that he wrote has administrative offices, a town-bouse dating from 1567, a Jittle value, his best works rank high among pianoforte penitentiary, a lunatic asylum, several hospitals and classics. His sonatas known as The Invocation, The infirmaries, a theatre completed in 1875, a music hall, a Farewell, and The Harmonic Elegy, though not equally gymnasium, and a polytechnical school. The town also sustained throughout, contain movements that have scarcely possesses a library of 50,000 volumes, and is the seat of a been surpassed for solemnity and beauty of idea. Two great number of commercial and intellectual associations ; operas, which he composed during his residence in London, but to nothing is it more indebted for its celebrity than to were failures.
the Academy of Painting. This famous institution, DUSSELDORF, a town of Prussia, at the head of a originally founded by the electoral prince Charles Theodore government in the province of the Rhine, on the right in 1767, was reorganized by King Frederick William in
1822, and has since attained a high degree of prosperity as a centre of artistic culture. From 1822 till 1826 it was under the direction of Cornelius, a native of the town, from 1826 to 1859 under Scbadow, and from 1859 to 1864 under Bendemann. From Bendemann's resignation it continued in the hands of a body of curators till 1873, when Wiscelinus of Weimar was chosen director. The noble collection of paintings which formerly adorned the Düsseldorf gallery was removed to Munich in 1805, and has not since been restored ; but there is no lack of artistic treasures in the town. The academy possesses 14,000 original drawings and sketches by the great masters, 24,000 engravings, and 248 water-colour copies of Italian originals ; the municipal gallery contains valuable specimens of the local school; and the same is the case with the Schulte collection. The principal names are Cornelius, Lessing, Achenbach, Baur, Tidemann, and Knaus. An annual exhibition is held under the auspices of the Art Union; and the members of the Artist's Society, or Malkasten, as they are called, annually celebrate festivities and masquerades of a remarkable description. Not only is Düsseldorf situated in the greatest manufacturing province of Prussia, but it is itself the seat of various important industries, cotton and carpet weaving, iron-founding, wire-drawing, sugar-refining, brewing, distillation, and the making of pianos and carriages. The surrounding country is largely devoted to market-gardening, and the Düsseldorf mustard is in special repute. A very extensive trade is carried on both by river and by rail; the port was declared free in
1829, and is consequently one of the most frequented on Plan of Düsseldorf.
the Rhine. The Düsseldorf Steam-buat Company maintaing 1. Ursula Church 9. Town Hall.
regular communication with Mayence on the one hand and 2 Government Buildings
10. Elector Wilhelm Statue
Rotterdam on the other. A little to the north of the towy 4. St Lambert's Church.
12. Court of Justice. 8. School of Art 13. Gymnasium.
lies the village of Düsselthal, with Count Recka
Volmarstein's establishment for homeless children in the 7. Hauptwacho
15. Garrison Church. 8. Old Castle 16. Post Omice.
former Trappist monastery; and in the suburban village bank of the river, 25 miles below Cologne. It is divided of Pempelfort is the Jägerhof, the residence at one tilus or
Prince Frederick of Prussia, and afterwards of the prince , anity against the French philosophers, and published anonymousiy: of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen. In 1780 the number of Explication de quelques médailles de Peuples, de Villes, et de Rois, inhabitants was about 8000; by 1831 it was over 23,000.
Grecqucs et Pheniciennes (1773, 4to); Explication de quelques The census of 1861 gave 41,290 (of which 3376 were
médailles du cabinet de Duane (1774, 4to); Troisième Dissertation
sur quelques médailles Grecques et Pheniciennes (1776, 4to); Logique, military); that of 1871, 69,348.
ou l'Art de raisonner (1773, 12mo); Des pierres précicuses et des Düsseldorf, as the form of the name—the village on the Düssel | pierres fines, avec les moyens de les connaitre et de les évaluer -clearly indicates, was long a place of small consideration. In (1776, 12mo); Itinéraire des routes les plus frequentées, cu Journal 1288 it was raised to the rank of a town by Count Adolt of Berg; d'un Voyage aux principales Villes d'Europe (1775, 8vo), .frefrom his successors it obtained varions privileges, and in 1385 was quently republished; Considérations Théologiques sur les moyens de chosen as their residence. After it had suffered greatly in the réunir toutes les Eglises Chrétiennes (1798, 8vo); Guvres melécs, Thirty Years' War and the war of the Spanish succession, it recovered containing his most important works published up to the date its prosperity under the patronage of the electoral prince John (London, 1797, 4 vols. 4to); L'Ami des étrangers qui voyagent en Willium of the Palatinate, who dwelt in the castle till the restoration Angleterre (1789, 8vo); Histoire de ce qui s'est passé pour, le of Heidelberg. In 1794 the town was violently bombarded by the rétablissement d'une régence en Angleterre, (1789, 8vo); Recherches French; and after the peace of Luneville it was deprived of its forti. sur le tems le plus reculé de l'usage des Voutes chez les anciens fications. In 1805 it became the capital of the Napoleonic duchy (1795); Mémoires d'un Voyageur qui se repose (Paris, 1786, 3 vols. of Berg; and in 1815 it passed with the duchy into Prussian rosscs. 8vo). The first two volumes of the last named work contain the life sion. Among its celebrities are George and Friedrich Heinrich of the author, written in a romantic style ; the third bears the title Jakobi, Schenk, Heine, Varnhagen, Cornelius, Camphausen, and of Dutensiana, and is filled with remarks, anecdotes, and bon-mots. H. von Sybel.
(See memoir of Dutens in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1812.) DUTENS, LOUIS (1730-1812), a French writer of DUTROCHET, RENÉ JOACHIM HENRI (1776-1847), a somo celebrity, was born at Tours, of Protestant parents, French physiologist and natural philosopher, was born at January 15, 1730. In his youth he devoted himself to Château de Néon, Poitou, November 14, 1776, and died poetry; and in 1748 he composed a tragedy, entitled The at Paris, February 4, 1847. In 1799 he entered the Return of Ulysses to Ithaca, which failed in Paris, but was military marine at Rochefort, which, bowever, he soon represented with great applause at Orleans. The author, deserted to join the Vendean army. In 1802 he began the however, soon became sensible of the faults of his work, study of medicine at Paris ; and in 1808 he was made and abandoned a species of composition in which he found physician to Joseph Bonaparte, king of Spain. Appointed he was not destined to excel He soon afterwards went to chief physician to the hospital at Burgos, he distinguisbed England with an introduction to Pitt, which he had received himself during the prevalence of typhus in that city. He from a sister of the statesman. His first residence in returned in 1809 to France, where he devoted himself to London was brief, but he soon returned and obtained the study of the natural sciences. The number of his a situation as tutor in a private family. The father of scientific publications, which relate to a great variety of the pupil was a man of considerable literary and scientific topics, is very great. His Recherches sur l'accroissement attainments, who instructed him in those branches of et la reproduction des végétaux, published in the Mémoires knowledge in which he was deficient. In this manner he du Muséum d'Histoire naturelle for 1821, procured him in learnt Greek and mathematics, and studied the Oriental that year the French Academy's prize for experimental languages, and Italian and Spanish. Soon after the termi-physiology. In 1837 appeared his Mémoires pour servir à nation of this engagement he was appointed chaplain and l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des secretary to Mr Mackenzie, the English minister at the animaux, a collection of all his biological papers of any im. court of Turin, and left England in October 1758. In portance. 1760, when Mr Mackenzie returned to England, the DUVAL, JULES (1813–1870), a French economist, was secretary remained at Turin as chargé d'affaires, until 1762, born at Rodez, in the department of Aveyron, received his when he returned to England and attached himself to the early education at the college of St Geniez d'Olt, passed as family of Lord Bute, who, before retiring from office in advocate at the age of twenty-three, and for eight years 1763, procured him a pension. He again went to Turin as held an official position first at St Affrique and afterwards chargé d'affaires ; and during this second mission he under- in his native town. On the pacification of Algeria he took took the task of collecting and publishing a complete edition an active part in the foundation of the Union Agricole of the works of Leibnitz (Genova, 6 vols. 1769) and wrote d'Afrique; and in 1847 he established an agricultural his work on the Discoveries of the Ancients. On again colony in the plain of Siz. Obliged by ill health to returning to England he attached himself to the duke of abandon in 1850 the personal charge of the enterprise, he Northumberland, who procured him the living of Elsdon, did not leave the country, but in 1852 became editor of the in Northumberland. He accompanied the duke's son, Echo d'Oran, and from 1858 to 1861 acted as member and Lord Algernon Percy, in his travels through France, Italy, secretary of the general council of the province of Oran. Germany, and Holland ; and while at Paris he was chosen Removing to Paris in the latter year, he there devoted hima member of the Academy of Inscriptions, in 1775. In self to the literary exposition of his views; and among the same year he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. numerous other enterprises founded and edited till his death In 1776 be returned to England, and soon afterwards the Economiste Français, a weekly periodical devoted to accompanied Mr Mackenzie and his wife on a tour to the treatment of all matters connected with colonization and Naples. On his return Dutens was invited by Lord Mount social reform, which bore his favourite device of libre et stuart, who had been appointed envoy extraordinary, to ac harmonique essor des forces. He was killed at Plessis-lèscompany him to Turin, and found himself for the third time Tours in a railway accident on the 20th of September chargé d'affaires at that court, during a short absence of 1870, while on his way to his native town. the envoy. From Turin be went to Florence, and thence Besides a series of contributions to the Journal des Débats and to 'Rome. He was in Paris in 1783, and returned to
the Revue des Deux Mondes, he wrote Tableau de l'Algérie (1854),
Les colonies et l'Algérie au concours général et national d'agriculture London the following year. The revenue he derived from de Paris en 1860, Gheel ou une colonie d'aliénés (1860), Histoire de his living amounting to £800 per annum, together with a l'émigration europénne, asiatique, et africaine au XIX. siècle (1862,-considerable legacy left him by Mr Mackenzie, and estimated probably his masterpiece, and the work by which he gained the at £15,000, enabled him to pass the remainder of his life
prize offered by the Académie des sciences morales in 1860), Les
colonies et la politique coloniale de la France (1864), Des rapports in affluence. He died at London, May 23, 1812.
entre la géographie et l'économie politiques (1864), Menoire sur Ant. The principal works of Dutens were his frecherches sur l'origine de Mont Chrétien, auteur du premier traité économie politiqus des Découvertes attribuées aux Modernes (1766, 2 vols. 8vo); Appel (1868), Notre Pays (1869), Notre planète (1869). See Levasseur's au bout Sons (London, 1777, 8vo), directed in defence of Christi. I "Notice sur J. Duval" in Bulletin de la Soc. de Géogr., 1876.
DUVERGIER DE HAURANNE, JEAN (1581-1643), ( application of the proverb,
cum sis, cede," abbé of St Cyran, a celebrated French theologian, was born equivalent to "little people must not be in our way!” at Bayonne in 1581. He studied theology at the university Various have been the recipes for dwarfing children from of Louvain, where he formed an intimate friendship with birth. The most effective, according to report, was anointJansen, who was his fellow student. After quitting ing the back bone with the grease of moles, bats, and Louvain he went to Paris, where his intimacy with Jansen dormice. It is also said that pups were dwarfed by continued, and with him he pursued with great ardow the frequently washing their feet and backbone; the consequent study of the fathers. Leaving Paris in 1611, they con- drying and hardening of those parts hindered, it was alleged, tinued the same studies at Bayonne, where Duvergier their extension. In England, the growth of boys intended received the canonry of the cathedral. When Jansen left for riders in horse-races is kept down to some extent by Bayonne, Duvergier returned again to Paris, and shortly | the weakening process of “sweating.” after his arrival there his inflexible and ascetic character There is a familiar story of a partnership entered into secured for him the esteem of the bishop of Poitiers, who between a dwarf and a giant. The dwarf had the intellect, gave him a canonry, and in 1620 made him abbé of St the giant had the strength; the result of this limited Cyran. He established in the monastery the order of St liability was that the giant received all the blows, and the Beroît in all its rigour; but his zeal for reform was so great dwarf all the profits. The partnership was consequently that it awakened opposition, and he found it expedient to broken up. A fact, of which we are reminded by this quit his diocese and return to Paris. Here he formed a fiction, occurred in Austria in the 17th century. To please connection with the influential Amauld family, and along the caprice of an empress, all the giants and dwarfs in the with Angelique Arnauld, directress of the convent of Port empire were brought together to Vienna, and were lodged Royul, he completely reformed that institution. His rigor. in one building. The dwarfs were told they had nothing ous asceticisin acquiring for him great ascendency over to fear from the giants; but the latter were soon put in feminine minds, his fame and influence increased with great bodily fear of the dwarfs, who made the life of their rapidity, and he soon began to number among his disciples stupendous companions unbearable by teazing them, members of the highest classes of society, and to have as molesting them, tripping them up, and unscrupulously his personal friends some of the chief dignitaries of church robbing them. The giants, with tears as big as pearls in and state. Soon, however, his enemies came to be as their eyes, prayed the authorities to relieve them from the numerous as his friends. His rigid and domineering dis- persecution of their tiny enemies, and the prayer was position began to alienate from him many of his disciples ; granted. At a later period, another German princess and, taking a leading part in the Jansenist controversy, he promoted marriages among dwarfs, but without succeeding excited against himself the peculiar animosity of the Jesuits. in the object she had in view. When Lady Mary Wortley At last his views came to be suspected by Richelieu, and Montague was in Germany, in the last century, she found he was arrested and thrown into prison at Vincennes, 14th that a dwarf was a necessary appendage to every noble March 1638. No evidence could be obtained from his family. At that time English ladies kept monkeys. The papers sufficient to criminate him, but to limit his influence imperial dwarfs at the Viennese court were described by he was retained in durance at Vincennes—where, however, Lady Mary as "as ugly as devils" and " bedaubed with he was able to keep up intercourse with his penitents and diamonds." They had succeeded the court fools, and exerdisciples. On the death of Richelieu he regained his liberty, cised some part of the more ancient office. Absolute princes and resumed his religious duties and his war with the could not stoop to familiar discourse with mankind of less Jesuits with the same energy as before ; but he enjoyed degree. Therefore, did they hold dwarfs to be outside only six months of freedom, dying from a stroke of apoplexy, humanity, made intimate associates of them, and allowed 10th October 1643.
them an unrestrained freedom of speech, by the exercise of DWARAKÂ, DWARKA, or Jigat, a town of British which the dwarfs imparted to their masters wholesome India, in Guzerat, near the extremity of the peninsula of truths which on the lips of ordinary men would have been Kattywar, in 22° 15' N. lat. and 69° 1' E. long. It is sur treason. One of the kings of Denmark is said to have rounded by a wall, has about 2000 permanent inhabitants, made a prime-minister of his dwarf, in order to get at rough and trades in chalk. As the birthplace and residence of truths which a minister of ordinary stature would have Krishna, it is the most sacred spot in this part of India, and been afraid to ytter. its principal temple is visited annually by many thousand It could not have been for this reason that Stanislas, ex. pilgrims. The approach from the sea is by a fine flight king of Poland and duke of Lorraine, was so attached to of stone steps, and the great pyramid rises to a height his dwarf, Nicholas Ferry, otherwise known as “Bébé," for of 140 feet." Dwaraka is of course frequently mentioned this dwarf was weak in mind and body. Bébé was one of in the Mahabharata. It was occupied by the British in three dwarf children of peasant parents in the Vosges. He 1816.
was 3 feet in height, and his fame has not died out at DWARF (Saxon dwerg, dweorg; German, Zwerg), a term Nancy and the department of the Meurthe. At his death applied to men, animals, and plants that fail to reach even in 1764 he was in his twenty-third year; and, among the the mediocrity of growth natural to their respective classes. fine phrases of which his epitaph is composed, the world is It is also otherwise applied. In France, for instance, a
still assured that Bébé was “ chéri du nouvel Antonin.” yolkless egg is termed “un euf nain,” or dwarf egg; and But Bébé was not so remarkable a dwarf as Richebourg, an imitation of fine English cloth is called “nain Londrin,” who died in Paris in 1858, at the age of ninety. He was technically “ London dwarf.”
only 23 inches in height. In his childhood he was a servant The nanus or pumilo of the Romans might be a dwarf (without especial duty) in the Orleans family. In later by nature or a person dwarfed by cruel art. In the former years, Richebourg was their pensioner. He is said to have case, his lack of height found compensation in increased been put to strange use in the Revolutionary period, strength, as exemplified in the line by Propertius, “Nanus et passing in and out of Paris as an infant in a nurse's arms, ipse suos breviter concretus in artus," &c.; in the latter, but with despatches, dangerous to carry, in the little man's where growth had been early suppressed by the dealers baby wrappings! At present, on the Continent, Russia who manufactured monstrosities for fashionable people in and Turkey alone have e common sympathy for dwarfs. Rome, weakness bred contempt. The nanus, or, if he were At the court of the sultan, should the dwarf, besides being more than usually diminutive, the nanium, was exposed to of elfish height, be deaf, dumb, and qualified to hold a placa