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CHONDROSTEI, ii. 459
Chondrostoma, ii. 452
Choneziphius, European Pliocene, i. 112
Chordeiles, ii. 320
Chough, Alpine, figure of, i. 193
Choughs, ii. 274
CHROMIDÆ, ii. 438
Chromis, ii. 438
Chrysichthys, ii. 442
Chrysobronchus, ii. 108
Chrysococcyz, ii. 310
CHRYSOCHLORIDÆ, ii. 189
Chrysochloris, ii. 189
Chrysocolaptes, ii. 303
Chrysocyon. ii. 197
Chrysolampis, ii. 108
Chrysomitris, ii. 283
Chrysopelea, ii. 379
Chrysophrys, ii, 427
Chrysoptilus, ii. 303
Chrysothrir, ii. 175
Chrysotis, ii. 328
Chrysuronia, ii. 109
Chthonicola, ii, 258
Ciccaba, ii. 350
Cichla, ii. 439
Cichladusa, ii. 201
Cichlopsis, ii. 260
Cicigna, ii. 392
Cicindela, ii. 486
CICINDELIDÆ, ii. 486
Cicinnurus, ii 275
Ciconia, ii. 360
Ciconiidæ, ii. 360
CINCLIDÆ, ii. 202
Cincloeerthia, ii. 256
Cinclodes, ii. 103
Cinolor hamphus, ii. 260
Cinclosoma, ii. 261
Cinclus, ii. 263

Cinnicerthia, ii. 264
Cinnyricinclus, ii. 276

ii. 288
Cinosternon, ii. 408
Cinyris, ii, 408
Cionella, ii, 515
Circaetus, ii. 348
Circe, ii. 109
Circumpolar zones, objections to system of,

i. 67
Circus, ii. 347
Cirrhina, ii. 451
CIRRHITIDÆ, ii 427
Cirrhochroa, ii. 474
CIRRHOSTOMI, ii. 464
Cissa, ii. 273
Cissopis, ii. 99
Cisticola, ii, 257
Cistothorus, ii. 263
Cistula, ii. 521
Cithara, ii. 508
Citharinus, ii. 445
Cittura, ii. 316
Clodognathus, ii. 493
Clais, ii. 108
Clam-shells, ii. 535
Clarias, ii. 441
Clarotes, ii. 442
Classification as affecting the study of distri.

bution, i. 83
Claudius, ii. 408
Clausilio, Eocene, i. 169

ii. 514
Clerome, ii, 472
Clibanornis, ii. 103
Climacteris, ii. 265

Climate, as a limit to the range of maminalia,

i. 11
gradual change of, before the glacial epoch,

i. 41
Clinteria, ii. 494
CLIONIDÆ, ii. 531
Clostophis, ii. 520
Clupea, ii. 454
CLUPEIDÆ, ii. 454
Clymenia, ii. 209
Clypeicterus, ii. 282
Clytoctantes, ii. 104
Clytolæna, il 108
Clytus, ii. 501
Cnidogianis, ii. 441
Cnipodectes, ii. 101
Cnipolegus, ii. 101, 291
Cobitis, ii. 453
Cobras, ii. 382
Coccothraustes, ii. 284
Coccygus, ii. 309
Coccystes, ii. 310
Cochlognathus, ii. 452
Cochlostyla, ii, 514
Cochlothraustes, ii. 309
Cochoa, ii. 269
Cockatoos, ii. 324
Cockles, ii. 535
Cocos Islands, bird of, ii. 60
Cocytia, ii. 481
Creligena, ii. 107
Cælodon, ii. 245
Colonotus, ii. 457
Calopeltis, ii. 377
Calosterna, ii. 501
Canonympha, ii. 471
Cæreba, ii. 278
CEREBIDÆ, ii, 278
Cogia, ii. 208
Colaptes, ii. 304
Coleoptera, families selected for study, i. 103

Palæarctic, i. 188
number of Palæarctic species, i. 189
of Central Europe, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of the Cape Verd Islands, i. 215
of the Ethiopian region, i. 256
8. African, i. 268
of Madagascar, i. 282, 283
of the Oriental region, 1. 319
of Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 342
of the Australian region, i. 405
affinity of Australian and South American,

i. 406, 407
of Celebes, i. 435
of New Zealand, i. 457
of the Neotropical region, ii. 15
of S. Temperate America, ii. 44
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 56
of the Antilles, ii. 74

of the Nearctic region, ii. 123
COLEOPTERA, ii. 486

general observations on the distribution

of, ii. 502 (see also Beetles)
Colias, ii. 478
Colies, ii. 307
COLIIDÆ, ii. 307
Colius, ii. 307
Coliuspasser, ii. 286
Collocalia, European Miocene, i. 161

ii. 320
Colluricincla, ii. 272
Collyris, ii. 486, 487
Colobus, European Miocene, i. 117

ii. 172
Colænis, ii. 474

Colonoceras, N. American Tertiary, i. 136
Colopterus, ii. 101
Colossochelys of Indian Miocene, i, 123, 165
Colpodes, ii. 489
Coluber, ii. 375
COLUBRIDÆ, ii. 375
COLUBRINÆ, ii. 375
Columbæ, classification of, i. 96

range of Palæarctic genera of, i. 248
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. 311
range of Oriental genera of, i. 384

range of Australian genera of, i. 485
Columba, ii, 332
COLUMBÆ, ii. 331
general remarks on the distribution of,

ii. 335
COLUMBIDÆ, ii. 331
Columbula, ii. 333
Columna, ii. 516
COLYMBIDÆ, ii. 366
Colymbus, ii. 366
COMEPHORIDÆ, ii. 432
Comephorus, ii. 549
Comoro islands, zoology of, i. 281
Compsosoma, ii. 98, 375
CONCHIFER 1, il. 533
Condylura, il 190
Cones, ii. 508
Conger, ii. 456
CONIDÆ, ii. 508
Conirostrum, ii. 278
Conognatha, ii. 496
Conophaga, ii, 100
CONOPHAGINÆ, ii. 291
Conophis, ii. 375
Conopias, ii. 101
Conorhynchus, ii. 443
Conostomu, i1. 262
Continents, distribution of, i. 37

recent changes of, i. 38
Continental extension in Mesozoic times, i. 156
Contopus, ii. 102, 291
CONURIDÆ, ii. 327
Conurus, ii. 328
Conus, ii. 508
Copea, ii. 416
Cophoscincus, ii. 397
Copidoglanis, ii. 441
Coptolera, ii. 489, 492
Copurus, ii. 101
Copsychus, ii. 259
Coracias, ii. 311
CORACIIDÆ, ii. 311
Corocopsis, ii. 328
Corudes, ii. 471
Corallus, ii. 381
Corbis, il 535
Cordylosaurus, ii. 392
Cordylus, ii. 392
Coregonus, ii. 447
Coriphilus, ii. 327
Coris, ii 497
Coronella, ii. 375
CORONELLINÆ, il. 375
Coronis, i. 481
Cornufer, ii. 419
CORVIDÆ, ii, 272
Corvina, ii, 428
Corvinella, ii. 272
Cervultur, ii, 274
Corvus, European Miocene, i. 161

ii, 274
Corydalla, ii. 290
Corydon, ii. 295
Corynopoma, ií. 445
Coryphistera, ii. 103

| Coryphodon, European Eocene, i. 126

Coryphospingus, il 284
Corythaix, ii. 307
Corythopis, ii. 100
Corythornis, ii. 316
Cosmeteira, il. 277
Cosmetornis, ii. 320
Cosmopolitan gruups enumerated, i. 175
Cossypha, ii. 256
Cotinga, ii. 102, 294
COTINGIDÆ, ii. 293
Cottus, ii. 428
Coturniculus, ii. 284
Coturnix, ii. 338
Cotyle, ii. 281
Coun, ii. 309
Couchia, ii. 439
Coues, Dr., on the blue crow of the Rocky

Mountains, ii. 128
Coursers, ii. 355
Cowries, ii. 508
Coypu, ii. 238
CRĂCIDÆ, ii. 342
CRACINÆ, ii. 343
Cracticus, ii. 273
Cranes, ii. 357
CRANIADÆ, ii. 532
Cranorrhinus, ii. 317
Craspedocephalus, ii. 385
Craspedopoma, ii. 521
Crateropus, ii. 261
Crat, il 343
Creadion, ii. 287
Creagrus, ii. 364
Creagrutus, ii. 445
Creepers, ii. 264
Cremna, ii. 475
Crenici la, ii. 439
Crenilabrus, ii. 437
Crenuchus, ii. 445
Creurgops, ii. 99
Cricetodon, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 230
Cricetomys, ii. 230
Cricetulus, ii. 230
Cricetus, European Pliocene, i. 113

ii. 230
Cricosoma, ii. 476
Crinia, ii. 420
Criniger, ii. 267
Crithagra, ii. 285
Crocidura, ii. 191
Crocodiles, Eocene, i. 165

ii. 406

lines of migration of, ii. 548
Crocodilia, classification of, i. 100
CROCODILIA, il 405,

general remarks on the distribution of, ii.

400

fossil, ii. 407
CROCODILIDÆ, ii. 406
Crocodilurus ii. 390
Crocodilus, ii. 406
Crook-billed plovers of New Zealand, i. 456
Crossarchus, ji 195
Crossochilus, ii. 451
Crossodactylus, ii. 419
Crossoptilon, ii. 340
Crossopus, ii. 191
CROTALIDÆ, ii. 384
Crotalophorus, ii. 385
Crotalus, ii. 385
Crotch, Mr., on beetles of the Azores, i. 209
Crotophaga, ii. 309
Crowned-pigeon, figure of, i. 415
Crows, ii. 273

Crypsirhina, ii. 273
Cryptoblepharus, ii. 395
Cryptodacus, ii. 375
Cryptoprocti, ii. 194
CRYPTOPROCTIDÆ, ii. 194
Cryptopterus, ii. 441
Cryptornis, European Eocene, i. 103
Cryptoris, l. 421
Crypturus, ii. 344
Ctenodactyla, ii. 490
Ctenodactylus, ii, 238
Ctenolabrus, ii. 437
Ctenomys, S. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 238
Ctenopharyngodon, ii. 452
Ctenopoma, ii. 521
Ctenostoma, ii. 486
Cuba, extinct mammalia of, i. 148
Curculionidium, Oolític insect, i. 167
Cubina, ii. 400
CUCULIDÆ, ii. 308
Cuculus, ii. 309
Cuckoo-shrikes, il 268
Cuckoos, ii. 308
Culter, ii. 453
Cunningham, Professor, lizard discovered by,

in Tierra-del-Fuego, ii. 41
Cuniculus, ii. 230
Cuphopterus, ii. 272
Cupidonia, ii. 339
Curassows, ii. 342
Curcus, ii. 282
Curetis, ii. 477
Curimatus, ii. 445
Currica, ii. 259
Cursoria, ii. 382
Cursorius, ii. 355
Cuscus, ii. 252
Custa, ii. 390
Cutia, ii. 266
Cuttle fish, ij. 505
Cyanecula, ii. 259
Cyanocorax, i. 273
Cyanomyia, ii. 109
Cyanopica, ii, 273
Cyanoptila, ii. 270
Cyanorhamphus, ii. 325
Cyanospiza, ii. 284
Cyanotis, ii. 101
Cyanurus, ii. 273
Cybernetes, ii. 101
Cychloris. ii. 280
Cychrus, ii. 489
CYCLADIDÆ, ii. 535
Cyclas, ii. 535
Cyclocorus, íi. 380
Cycloderma, ii. 409
Cyclodina, ii. 397
Cyclodus, ii. 397
Cyclophis, ii. 376
Cyclophorus, ii. 520
Cyclopterus, ii. 430
Cyclopsitta, ii, 326
Cyclothamphus, ii, 420
Cyclostoma, Eocene, i. 169
CYCLOSTOMATA, ii. 463
CYCLOSTOMIDÆ, ii. 620
Cyclostomus, ii. 521
Cyclothorus, ii. 247
Cyclotopsis, ii. 521
Cyclotus, ii. 521
Cyclusa, ii. 401
Cygnus, ii. 363
Cylindrella, jí. 515
Cylindrophis, ii, 373
Cyllo sepulta, European Cretaceous, i. 167

Cymba, ii. 508
Cymbilanius, ii. 104
Cymbirhynchus, ii. 295
Cymindis, ii. 489
Cyno'lurus, in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 193
Cynanthus, ii. 108
Cynictis, ii. 195
Cynocephalus, i. 173
Cynodictis, ii. 198
Cynodon, ii. 445
Cynogale, ii. 195
CYNOPÍTHECIDÆ, ii. 172
Cynopithecus of Celebes, affinities of, L. 427
Cynopithecus, ii. 173
Cynomys, ii. 235
Cyornis, ii. 270
Cyotherium, European Eocene, i. 125

ii. 198
Cyphogastra, ii. 496
Cyphorhinus, ii. 264
CYPRÆIDÆ, ii. 508
Cyprina, ii. 535
CYPRINIDÆ, ii. 451

ii. 535
Cyprinus, ii. 451
Cyprinion, ii. 452
Cyprinodon, ii. 450
CYPRINODONTIDÆ, ii. 450
CYPSELIDÆ, ii. 320
Cypseloides, ii. 320
Cypselus, ii. 320
Cypsnagra, ii. 99
Cyrena, ii, 535
Cyrestis, ii. 474
Cyrtonotus, ii. 489
Cyrtonyz, ii 339
Cyrtophis, ii. 383
Cystignathus, ii. 420
Cystophora, ii. 204

D.

Dacelo, ii. 316
Dacnis, ii. 278
Dactylethra, ii. 422
DACTYLETHRIDÆ, ii. 422
Dactylomys, ii. 239
Dactylops ila, ii. 249
Dactylozodes, ii. 496
Dafila, ii. 363
Dama, ii. 219
Damias, ii. 481
Damophila, ii. 109
DANAIDÆ, ii. 470
Danais, ii. 470
Dangila, ii. 451
Danio, ii. 452
Daptophilus, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Darters, ii. 365
Darwin, Mr., his explanation of the cause of

the abundance of apterous insects in

Madeira, i. 211
on the relation of flowers and insects, i.

469
amphibia collected by, in S. Temperate

America, ii. 41
mice collected by, in S. Temperate

America, ii. 37
on physical geography of the Galapagos.

ii. 33
Dasia, ii. 397
Dasylophus, ii. 309
Dasyopthalma, ii. 472
Dasypeltis, ii. 377

DASYPODIDÆ, ii. 245
Dasyprocta, European Miocene, L 121

in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 241
Dasyptilus, ii. 329
Dasypus, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 246
DASYURIDÆ, ii. 249.
Dasyurus, Australian Post-Tertiary, i. 157

ii. 249
Daudebardia, ii. 516
David, Père, lis researches in China and Thi.

bet, i. 221, 222

on birds of N. China, L. 226
Debis, ii. 471
Deer, fossil in N. American Tertiary forina-

tions, i. 138
Palæurctic, i. 182
probable cause of absence fronu tropical

Africa, 291

ii. 218
Deilephila, ii. 482
Deltatria, ii. 107
Delma, ii. 395
Deloneura, ii. 477
Delphinapterus, ii. 209
DELPHINIDÆ, ii. 208
Delphinus, European Pliocene, i. 112

ii. 209
DENDRASPIDIDÆ, ii. 383
Dendraspis, ii. 383
Dendreretastes, ii. 104
Dendrochelidon, ii. 320
Dendrocitta, ii. 273
Dendrocolaptes, ii. 103
DENDROCOLAPTIDÆ, ii. 295
DENDROCOLAPTINÆ, ii. 295
Dendrocincla, ii. 103
Dendrocygna, European Miocene, i. 162

ii. 363
Dendroeca, ii. 279
Dendrohyrax, ii. 229
Dendrolagus, ii, 251
Dendromus, ii. 303
Dendromys, ii. 230
Dendrophila, ii. 265
DENDROPHIDÆ, fi. 378
Dendrophis, ii. 378
Dendropicus, ii. 303
Dendropler, ii. 103
Dendrornis, ii. 103
Denal rortyz, ii. 339
Denisonia, ii, 383
DENTALIADÆ, ii. 512
Dentalium, il. 512

ii. 5.39
Dentex, ii. 426
Derous, ii. 478
Dermatemys, ii. 408
Dermatocera, ii. 520
Dermatochelys, ii. 409
Deroptyus, ii. 328
Dermognathus, ii. 413
Desert-snakes, ii. 377
Desman of 8. Russia, figure of, i. 219
Desmodus, ii. 182
Deudoris, il 477
Diadema, ii. 474
Diagramma, ii. 426
Dihamus, ii. 372
DIBRANCHIATA, ii. 505
DICÆIDÆ, ii, 277
Dicælus, ii. 490
Diarum, ii. 277
Dicallaneura, ii. 475

Dicamptodon, ii. 413
Diceratherium, N. American Tertiary, i 137
Dicerca, ii. 496
Dicerobatis, ii. 463
Dichobune, European Eocene, i. 126
Dicotyles, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130

N. American Tertiary, i. 137
in Brazilian caves, i. 144
8. American Pliocene, i. 146
birthplace and migrations of, i. 155

ii. 215
Dicotylince, ii. 214
Dicrocerus, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 220
Dicrodon, ii. 390
Dicroglossus, ii. 421
Dicrorrhagia, ii. 474
DICRURIDÆ, ü. 269
Dicrurus, ii. 269
DIDELPHYIDÆ, ii. 248
Didelphys, European Eocene, i. 126

N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
in Brazilian caves, i. 145

ii. 248
Didida, i. 164
DIDIDÆ, ii. 334
Didocus, ii. 417
DIDUNCULIDÆ, ii. 333
Didunculus, ii. 334
Didus, ii. 334
Dieba, ii. 197
Diemenia, ii. 383
Diglossa, ii. 278
Diglossopis, ii. 278
Dilophus, ii. 287
Dilophyrus, ii. 402
Dimodes, ii. 377
Dimylus, ii. 190
Dinictis, ii. 194
Dinoceras, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Dinocerata, N. American Tertiary, i. 189
Dinornis, allied forin in European Eocene,

i. 163
of New Zealand and Australia, L. 164

ii. 369
Dinornithidæ of New Zealand, i. 164)
DINORNITHIDÆ, ii. 269
Dinotherium, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

European Miocene, i. 120

Miocene of Perim Island, i. 123
Dinyctis, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Dinylus, European Miocene, i. 117
Diomedia, ii. 365
Dioplodon, ii. 208
Diorhina, ii. 476
Diphlogæna, ii. 108
Diphylla, ü. 182
Diphyllodes, ii. 274
Diplacodon, N. American Tertiary, i 136
Diplodactylus, ii. 399
Diploglossus, ii. 897
Diplolæmus, ii. 401
Diplomesodon, ii. 191
DIPLOMMATINIDÆ, ii. 519
Diplommatina, ii. 520
Diplomystaz, ii. 443
Diplopelma, ii. 416
Diplopoma, ii. 521
Diplopterus, ii. 309
DIPNOI, ii. 458
DIPODIDÆ, ii. 231
Dipodomys, il 233
Dippers, ii. 263
Diprotodon, Australian Post-Tertiary, i. 157

ii. 251
DIPSADIDÆ, ii. 379

Dipsdoboa, ii. 379
Dipes, ii. 379
Diptychus, ii. 452
Dipus, ii. 232
Dircenno, ii. 470
Discina, ii. 539
DISCINIDÆ, ii. 532
Discoboli, ii. 430
DISCOGLOSSIDÆ, ii. 421
Discoglossus, ii. 421
Discognathus, ii. 451
Discophora, ii. 472
Discura, ii. 107
Dispersal of animals, i. 10

of mainmalia, i. 10

of reptiles and amphibia, i. 28
Disteira, li. 384
Distichodus, ii. 445
Distribution, affected by climate, i. 5

affected by physical features, i. 5
contrasts of, in similar climates, i. 5
similarities of, in diverse climates, i. 6
barriers as affecting, i. 6
study of, dependent on a good classifica-

tion, i. 83
of animals an adjunct to geology, i 8
of animals • requires certain preliminary

studies, i. 8
of animals dependent on physical geo-

graphy, i. 35
of animals, as affected by the glacial

epoch, i. 40
of animals, as affected by changes of

vegetation, i 43
of animals, as affected by organic changes,

i. 44
of animals, hypothetical illustration of,

i. 46
of animals, complexity of the causes af-

fecting the, i. 49
of animals, problems in, i. 51
of plants, as affected by the glacial epoch

I. 42
Distrigus, ii. 490
Diuca, ii. 284
Diucopis, ii. 99
Diva, ii. 98
Divers, ii. 366
Docimastes, ii. 108
Dodo of Mauritius, i. 282

ii. 334
Dodona, ii. 475
Dolerisca, ii. 107
Dolichodon, ii. 208
Dolichonyr, ii. 282
Dolichopterus, European Miocene, i. 162
Dolichotis, ii. 241
Doliophis, ii, 383
Dolium, ii. 507
Dommina, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Donacobius, ii. 264
Donacola, ii. 287
Donacospiza, ii. 284
Doras, ii. 443
Dorcotherium, European Miocene, i. 120
Dorvopsis, ii. 251
Dorcus, ii. 493
Doricha, ii. 108
DORIDÆ, ii. 530
Doritis, ii. 479
Dormice, ii. 232
Doryichthys, ii. 457
Doryphora, ii, 107
Douroucoulis, ii. 175
Draco, ii. 402
Dremotherium, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

Dremotherium, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 218
DREPANIDIDÆ, ii. 277
Drepanis, ii. 277
Drepanornis, ii. 275

ii. 276
Dresser, Mr. H. E., on northern range of

European birds, i. 193
Drimostoma, ii. 489
Dromæus, ii. 368
Dromas, ii. 356
Dromatherium, N. American Triassic, i. 134

oldest American mammal, í. 160
Dromia, ii. 486, 487
Dromicia, ii. 252
Dromicus, ii, 375
Dromius, ii. 489
Dromococcyr, ii. 309
Dromolma, ii. 260
Dromophis, ii. 377
Drongo-shrike, Malayan, figure of, i. 340

ii. 269
DRYADINÆ, ii. 375
DRYIOPHIDÆ, ii. 379
Dryiophis, ii. 379
Drymocataphus, ii. 261
Drymodes, ii. 259
Drymarca, ii. 257
DRYMECINA, ii. 257
Drymomys, ii. 230
Drymornis, ii. 103
Dryocopus, ii 303
Dryopithecus, European Miocene, 1 117

ii. 178
Dryospiza, ti. 284
Dryotriorchis, ii. 348
Dubusia, ii. 98
Ducks, ií 363
Dulus, 280
Dumerilia, ii. 408
Dumetia, ii. 261
Dumeticola, ii. 258
Duncan, Dr., on fossil corals of the Antilles,

ii. 21
D'Urbania, li. 477
Dwarf-ground snakes, ii. 374
Dynastor, ii. 472
Dyschirus, ii. 489
Dysauris, ii. 481
Dysithamnus, ii. 104
Dysopes, ii. 184

Eagles, ii. 347
Eared Seals, ii. 202
Ear-shells, ii. 511
East Africa, geographical features of, i. 258

wide range of genera and species over,

i. 259
few special types in, i. 260
East African sub-region, description of, i.

268
genera and species ranging over the whole

of, i. 259
mammalia of, i, 260
birds of, i. 260
reptiles of, i. 260
amphibia and fishes of, i. 260
insects of, i. 260
few peculiar types in, i. 280

illustration of zoology of, i. 261
East Australia, peculiar birds of, i. 440

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