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East Thibet, mammalia of, i. 222
Eaton, Rev., A. E., on insects of Kerguelen

Island, i. 211
Eburna, ii. 507
Echidna, ji. 254
ECHIDNIDÆ, ii. 254
Echimyidæ, in Brazilian caves, 1. 145
ECHIMYIDÆ, ii. 238
Echimys, ii. 239
Echinogale, European Miocene, i. 118
Echinope, ii. 188, 189
Echinorhinus, ii. 461
Echiothrix, ii. 230
Echis, ii. 386
Eclectus, ii. 326
Eclognathus, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Ectopistes, ii. 332
Edentata, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

European Miocene, i 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
N. American Pliocene, i. 140
of Brazilian caves, i. 145

S. American Pliocene, i. 147
Edentata, classification of, i. 90

probable birthplace of, i. 155
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. 305

range of Oriental genus of, i. 375
EDENTATA, ii. 244

general remarks on the distribution of, ii.

247

summary and conclusion, ii. 543
Ega, ii. 490
Egerina, ii. 397
Elainea, ii. 101, 291
ELAINEINÆ, ii. 291
El nia, ii. 397
Elinoides, ii. 349
Elanus, ij. 349
Elaphodus, ii. 220
Elaphrus, ii. 489
ELAPIDÆ, ii. 382
Elapochrus, ii. 375
Elaps, ii 383
Elapsoideu, ii. 383
Elusinognathus, ii. 212
Electra, ii. 209
ELEPHANTIDÆ. ii. 227
Elephants, fossil, of Indian Miocene, 1. 123

fossil in N. American Post-Pliocene for-

mations, i. 130
birthplace and migrations of, i. 155

ii. 227
Elephant shrews, S. African, i. 267

ii. 186
Elephas, Post-Pliocene, i. 112

fossil in N. China, i. 123
N. American Tertiary, i. 138

ii, 227
Eliomys, ii. 232
Elliot, Mr., his great work on the birds of

paradise, i. 415
on classification of the birds of paradise,

ii. 274
Ellipesurus, fi. 463
Ellipsoglossa, ii. 413
EUisia, ii. 258
EUobius, ii. 231
Elminia, ii. 271
Elodina, ii. 478
Elopichthys, ii. 453
Elornis, European Miocene, i. 162
Elosia, ii. 419
Elotherium, N. American Tertiary, i. 137, 139

ii, 215, 216
Florya, vi. 408
Elwes, Mr., on birds of Persia, 1. 204

Elwes, Mr., on true relations of the birds of

Central India, i. 323
Elymnias, ii. 471
ELYMNIIDÆ, ii. 471
ELSIADÆ, ii. 530
Embasis, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Emberiza, ii. 285
EMBERIZINÆ, ii. 285
Emberizoides, ii. 284
Emblema, ii. 287
Embernagra, ii, 284
EMBROTOCIDÆ, ii. 438
Emesis, ii. 476
Emeu, figure of, i. 441
Emeus, ii. 368
Emininia, ii. 390
Empidagra, ii. 101
Empidins, ii. 102, 291
Empidochanes, ii. 102
Empidonaz, ii. 102, 291
Empidonomus, ii. 102
Emyda, ii. 409
Emydida, Indian Miocene, i. 123
Emydocephalus, ii. 384
Emys, Indian Miocene, i. 123

Miocene and Eocene, i. 165

ii. 408
Enes, il. 501
Engystoma, il. 416
ENGYSTOMIDÆ, ii. 416
Enhydrina, ii. 384
Enhydrion, Indian Miocene, L 121

ii. 200
Enhydris, ii. 199
Enicurus, ii. 203
Enispe, ii

. 472
Enodes, ii. 288
Enophrys, ii. 375
Ensophleus, ii. 420
Entelopes, íi. 501
Entomiza, ii. 276
Entomophila, ii. 275
Enygrus, ii. 331
Eobasileus, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Eocene period, i. 124

fauna of 8. America, i. 148
Eophona, ii. 284
Eopsaltria, ii. 271
Eos, ii. 327
Epalzeorhynchus, ii. 451
Ephemera, from the Lias, i. 167
Ephthianura, ii. 260
Epicalia, ii. 474
Epicrates ii. 381
EPIMACHINÆ, ii. 275
Epimachus, ii. 275
Epiodon, ii. 208
Epirhiris, ii. 419
Epitolo, ií. 477
Eporeodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 138
EQUIDÆ, ii. 211
Equide, European Pliocene, 1. 112

Miocene of Greece, i. 115

European Eocene, i 125
Equus, European Pliocene, i. 112

Post Pliocene, i. 112
Indian Miocene, i. 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
N. American Tertiary, i. 135
Brazilian caves, i, 144
8. American Pliocene, i. 146

ii. 211
Erebia, ii. 471
Eremias, ii. 391
Eremomela, ii 258
Eremophilus, ii. 444

Ereptodon, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
Eresia, ii. 474
Erethistes, ii. 444
Ereth izon, ii. 239
Ereunetes, ii. 353
Ergaticus, ii. 279
Ergolis, ií. 474
Ericulus, ii. 188
Ericymba, ii. 452
ERINACEIDÆ, ii. 187
Erinaceus, European Miocene, i. 117

ii. 187
Eriocnemis, ii. 109
Eriodes, ii. 174
Erismatura. ii. 364
Krithacus, ii. 259
Eroessa, ii. 258
Eronia, ii. 478
Erpornis, ii. 267
ERYCIDÆ, ii. 381
ERYCINIDÆ, ii. 476
Erynnis, ii. 480
Erythrinus, ii. 445
Erythrocercus, ii. 270
Erythrocnema, ii. 347
Erythrogonys, ii. 356
Erythrolammis, ii. 375
Erythromachus of Rodriguez, i. 164

ii. 352
Erythrospiza, ii. 285
Erythrosterna, ií. 270
Erythrura, ii. 387
Eryr, ii. 382
ESOCIDÆ, ii. 449
Esor, ii 449
Esthemopsis, ii. 476
Esthonyo, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Estrilia, ii. 286
Etheria, ii. 534
Ethiopian region should not include any part

of India, i. 63
defined, i 73
subdivisions of, i. 73
general features of, i. 251
zoological characteristics of, i. 252
mamınalia of, i. 253
great speciality of, i. 253
birds of, i. 253
reptiles of, í. 254
amphibia of, í 255
fresh-water fish of, i. 255
suminary of vertebrates of, i. 255
insects of, i. 255
coleoptera of, i. 256
terrestrial mollusca of, i. 257
sub-regions of, i. 258
Atlantic islands of, i. 269
the probable past history of, i. 285
tables of distribution of animals of, i.

293
Euanemus, ii. 443
Eubagis, ii. 474
Eucephala, ii. 109
Euchretes, ii. 98
Eucometis, ií. 99
Euchromia, ii. 481
Eucichla, ii, 298
Euclyptosternum, ii. 443
Erromias, ii. 356
Eudynamis, ii. 310
Eudyptes, ií. 366
Ereides, ii. 473
Eugenes, ii. 107
Eugenia, ii. 107
Euhyrax, ii. 229
Eulabeornis, ii. 352

Eulabes, ii. 287
Eulampis, ii. 107
Ermous, ii. 477
Eu meces, ii. 397
Eumetopias, ii. 203
Eumomota, ii. 313
Eumys, N. American Tertiary, i 140

ii. 231
Eumyias, ii. 270
Eunectes, ii. 381
Eunica, ii. 474
Eunogyra, ii. 475
Eupetes, ii. 263
Eupetomena, ii. 107
Euphema, ii. 325
Eupherusa, ii. 109
Euphonia, ii. 98
Euphractus, S. American Pliocene, i. 147
Euphryne, ii. 401
Euphysetes, ii. 208
Eupleres, ii, 195
Euploa, ii

. 470
EUPLOCAMINÆ, ii. 340
Euplocamus, ii. 340
Eupodotis, ii. 356
Euprepes, ii. 897
Eupsychortyx, ii. 339
Euptilotis, ii. 314
Euptychia, ii. 471
Eurinorhynchus, ii. 353
Eurocephalus, ii. 272
Europe, recent changes in physical geography

of, i. 89
Miocene fauna of Central, i. 117
Miocene fauna of, allied to existing fauna

of tropical Asia and Africa, i. 124
European sub-region, description of, i. 191

forests of, i. 192
mammalia of, i. 192
birds of, i 193
reptiles and amphibia of, i. 195
fresh-water fish of, i. 196
insects of, i. 190

islands of, i. 197
Eurostopodus, ii. 320
Euryades, ii. 479
Euryapteryz, ii. 370
Euryarthrium, ii. 501
Eurybia, ii. 475
Euryceros of Madagascar, figure of, i. 278
Euryceros, ii. 288
Eurycus, ii. 479
Eurygona, il. 476
EURYGONIDÆ, ii. 476
EURYLÆMIDÆ, ii. 294
Eurylomus, ii, 295
Euryodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

ii. 246
Euryphene, ii. 474
Eurypyga, ii. 358
EURYPYGIDÆ, ii. 358
Eurystomus, ii. 312
Eurytela, ii. 474
Eurytherium, European Eocene, i. 126
Eurytrichus, ii. 490
Euscarthmus, ii. 101
Euschemon, ii. 480

ii. 481
Eusemia, ii. 482
Euspiza, ii. 285
Eustephanus, ii, 108
Eustira, ii. 453
Eutatus, 8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 246
Eutelodon, European Eocene, i. 126
Eutemnodis, S. American Eocene, i. 148

Euterpe, ii. 285
Euthyrhynchus, ii. 276
Eutoseres, ii. 107
Eutriorchis, ii. 348
Eutropia, ii. 209
Eutropiichthys, ii. 441
Eutropius, ii. 442
Eutroplus, ii. 438
Evoceius, ii. 449
Eroglossum, ii. 452
Erostoma, ii. 444
Extinct mammalian fauna of Europe, general

considerations on, i. 126
mammalia of N. America and Europe,

comparison of, i. 140
mammalia of the Antilles, i. 148
mammalia of the Old and New Worlds,

general remarks on, i. 148
fauna of New Zealand, i. 459
Amphibia, ii. 423
Ant-eaters, ii. 247
Armadillos, ii. 246
Bovidæ, ii. 225
Bradypodidæ, ii, 245
Camelidæ, ii. 217
Camelopardalidæ, ii. 221
Canidæ, ii. 197
Castoridæ, ii. 234
Caviidæ, 241
Centetidæ, ii. 189
Cercolabidæ, ii. 240
Cetacea, ii. 209
Chinchillidæ, ii. 237
Chiroptera, ii. 185
Crocodiles, ii. 407
Deer, ii. 220
Didelphyidæ, if. 249
Dipodidæ, ii. 232
Echidnidae, ii. 254
Echimyida, ii. 239
Elephants, ii. 227
Equidæ, ii. 211
Erinaceidæ, ii. 188
Felidæ, ii. 193
Hippopotami, ii. 214
Hyænas, ii. 196
Hystricidæ, ii. 240
Insectivora, ii. 192
Lacertilia, ii. 404
Lagomyidæ, ii. 242
Leporida, ii. 243
Macropodidæ, ii. 251
Muridae, ii. 230
Mustelidæ, 199
Myoxidæ, ii. 232
Octodontidæ, ii. 238
Ophidia, ii. 387
Orycteropodida, ii. 246
Otariidæ, ii. 203
Procyonidæ, ii. 201
Quadrumana, ii. 178,
Rallidæ, ii. 252
Rhinocerotidæ, ii. 213
Sciuridæ, ii. 236
Seals, ii. 204
Sironia, ii. 210
Struthionidæ, ii. 369
Suidæ, fi. 215
Talpidæ, ii. 190
Tapirs, il. 212
Tortoises, ii. 410
Tragulidae, ii. 218
Tupalidæ, ii. 186
Urside, ií. 202

Viverridæ, ii. 195
Extinction of large animals, causes of, i. 158

Falcinellus, ii. 360
Falco, ii. 349
FALCONIDÆ, ii. 347
FALCONINÆ, ii. 349
Falcons, ii. 347
Palculia, ii. 228
Falkland Islands, zoology of, ii. 49
Fanged ground-snakes, ii. 380
Parancia, ii. 377
Fauna of Japan, general character and affini.

ties of, i. 230
of Palæarctic region, general conclusions

as to, i. 231
extinct, of Madagascar and Mascarene

Islands, i. 282
Malayan, probable origin of, i. 359
Moluccan, peculiarities of, i. 419
Timorese, origin of, i. 422
of Celebes, origin of, i. 486
of New Zealand, origin of, i. 460
of Galapagos, origin of, ii. 33
of Central America, origin of, ii. 57
of Antilles, origin of, ii. 78

of Neotropical region, origin of, ii. 80
FELIDÆ, ii. 192
Felis, Miocene of Greece, i. 115

European Miocene, i 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 129
in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 193
Felis spelæa, i. 110
Feniseca, ii. 477
Fennecus, ii. 197
Ferania, ii, 376
Fernando Po, zoological features of, i. 265
Feroculus, ii, 191
Fiber, ii. 230
Figulus, ii. 493
Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa Islands, birds of, i. 443
Finches, il. 283
FIROLIDÆ, ii. 531
Fishes, means of dispersal of, i. 29

classification of, i. 101
cosmopolitan groups of, i. 176
of the Palæarctic region, i. 186
of the European sub-region, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 227
fresh water, table of Palæarctic families

of, i. 22
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255
of South Africa, i. 268
fresh water, table of Ethiopian families of,

i. 298
fresh-water, of the Oriental region, i. 318
of the Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 341
fresh-water, table of Oriental families of

i. 369
fresh-water, of the Australian region, i

397
fresh-water, resemblance of Australian and

S. American, i. 400
how the transmission may have taken

place, i. 401
fresh-water, of New Zealand, i. 457
fresh-water, table of Neotropical fanilies

of, ii. 89
of Central N. America, ii. 131
of Eastern United States, ii. 134
of Canada, ii. 137
fresh-water, table of Nearctic families of,

ii. 143

Fishes, remarks on the distribution of, ii. 464

fossil, ii. 466
Fishing-hawks, ii. 349
FISSURELLIDÆ, ii. 511
FISTULARIDÆ, ii. 436
Fitzrnya, ii. 450
Flamingoes, European Miocene, i. 162

ii. 361
Flora, of New Zealand, as influenced by

scarcity of insects, i. 462

fossil of Australia, I. 467
Floras, cretaceous and tertiary, of North

America, ii. 155
Florisuga, ii. 107
Flower-peckers, il. 277
Flower, Professor, on classification of mam-

malia, 1. 85

classification of carnivora, i. 87
Fluvicola, ii. 100
Flycatchers, ii. 270
Flying Lemur, Malayan, figure of, i. 337

ii. 186
Flying Lizards, ii. 401
Flying Opossum, figure of, i. 442
Fordonia, ii. 376
Forests, essential to existence of many Euro-

pean animals, i, 192

Siberian, greatest extent of, i. 216
FORMICARUIDÆ, ii. 297
FORMICARIINÆ, ii. 298
Formicurius, ii. 104
Formicivora, ii. 104
FORMICIVORINÆ, ii. 297
Formosa, zoology of, i. 332
Fossa, ii. 195
Foudia, ii. 286
Fruncolinus, ii. 338
Fraseria, ii. 272
Fratercula, ii, 367
Fregetta, ii. 365
Fregilupus, ii. 288
Fregilus, ií. 274
Fresh-water fishes, Neotropical, ii. 12

of 8. Temperate America, ii. 42
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 54
of the Antilles, ii 73
of the Nearctic region, ii. 120
of California, ii. 128

summary and conclusion, ii. 549
Fresh-water mussels, ii. 534

shell, the most Arctic, ii, 518
snakes, ii. 376

snails, ii. 518
Fringilla, il. 283
Fringillaria, ii. 285
Fringillauda, ii. 282
FRINGILLIDÆ, ii. 284
Frog-mouths, ii. 318
Frogs, ii. 420
Fulica, ii, 352
Fuligula, ii. 364
Fulmarus, ii. 365
Fundulus, ii. 450
FURNARIINÆ, il. 295
Furnarius, ii. 103
Fusus, ii. 507

Galapagos islands, ii. 29

mainmalia of, ii, 29
birds of, ii. 30
reptiles of, ii. 32
insects of, ii. 33
land-shells of, ii. 83
conclusions as to the origin of their fauna,

ii. 33
Galatea, ii. 536
Galarias, ii. 448
GALAXIDÆ, ii. 448
Galbalcyrhynchus, ii. 311
Galbula, ii. 311
GALBULIDÆ, ii. 311
Galecynus, in European Pliocene, i. 112

ii. 198
Galeichthys, ii. 443
GALEOPITHECIDÆ, ii. 186
Galeoscoptes, ií. 256
Galeospalaz, European Miocene, i. 118

ii. 190
Galeotherium, Post-Pliocene, i. 111
Galera, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
Galerella, ii. 195
Galerita, ii, 289

ii. 490
Galerir, ii. 188
Galethylax, European Eocene, i. 125

ii. 198
Greleus, ii. 460
Galictis, in Brazilian cares, 1 144

ii. 199
Galidia, ii. 195
Galidictis, ii. 195
Gallina, classification of, i. 96

range of Palæarctic genera of, i. 248
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. $11
range of Oriental genera of, i. 384

range of Australian genera of, i. 485
GALLINÆ, ii. 337

ii. 340
general remarks on the distribution of, li.

344
Gallinago, ii. 353
Gallinula, ii. 352
Gallus, Miocene of Greece, i, 116

ii. 340
Gallus bravardi, European Pliocene, i. 161
Galogale, ii. 195
Gambusia, ii. 450
Gampson yx, ii. 349
Gampsorhynchus, ii. 261
Gannets, ii. 365
GANOIDEI, ii. 458
Gape-eyed Scinks, ii. 395
Gar fish, ii. 459
Garrod, Professor, on the Classification of

Parrots, ii. 324
Garrulax, ií. 261
Garrulus, ii. 273
GASTEROPODA, II. 507
GASTEROSTEIDÆ, ii. 424
Gasterosteus, ii. 424
Gastornis, European Eocene, i. 163
GASTROCHÆNIDÆ, ii. 537
Gastropelecus, ii. 445
GAVIALIDÆ, ii. 405
Gavialis, ii. 405
Gavials, ii. 405
Gazella, ii. 223
G. ELLINÆ, il. 22
Gazera, ii. 481
Gecinulus, ii. 303
Gecinus, ii. 303
Gecko, ii. 399
GECKOTIDÆ, ii. 399

G.

GADIDÆ, ii. 439
GADOPSIDÆ, ii. 439
Gadus, ii. 439
Galago, ii. 177
Galapagos, scarcity of insects in, i. 463

Geese, ii. 363
Gehyra, ii. 400
Genera common to Post-Pliocene and Pliocene

faunas of N. America, i. 132
Genetta, ii. 195
Genidens, ii. 443
Geobates, ii. 103
Geobiastes, ii. 312
Geocichla, ii, 256
Geococcyz, ii. 309
Geocolaptes, ii. 304
GEODÉPHAGA, ii. 486
Geoffroyus, ii. 326
Geographical zoology, introduction, ii. 167

materials for, ii. 168
Geological history of Oriental region, i. 362
Geology and Physical Geography of the

Antilles, ii. 62, 79
Geomelania, ii. 519
Geomys, i. 233
Geopelin, ii. 332
Geophaps, ií. 333
Geophagus, ii. 439
Geopsittacus, ii. 325
Georissa, ii. 522
Georychus, ii. 231
Creositta, ií. 103
Geospizá, ji. 284
Geothlypis, ii. 279
Geotrochus, ii. 523
Geotryon, ii. 339
Geotrypus, ii. 190
Geranospiza, ii. 347
Gerbillus, ii. 230

ii. 232
Geronticus, ii. 360
Gerrhonotus, ii. 392
Gerrhosourus, ii. 392
GERRIDÆ, ii. 438
Gerrasia, ii. 260
Gerygone, ii, 258
Giant-Clams, ii. 534
Gibbon. ii. 171
Gibraltar, cave fauna of, i. 114
Giraffes, il. 2:21
Girardinus, ii. 450
Glacial epoch, as affecting the distribution of

animals, i. 40
as a cause of the great change in the

fauna of the temperato zones, since

Pliocene times, i. 151
probably simultaneous in both hemi-

spheres, i. 151
causing a general subsidence of the

ocean, i. 152
Glandina, Eocene, i. 169

ii. 515
Glareola, ii. 355
GLAREOLIDÆ, ii. 355
Glaucis, ii. 107
Glaucidium, ii. 350
Glauconeza, ii. 536
Glaucopis, ii. 481
Gliciphila, ii. 275
Glis, ii. 232
Globiocephalus, il. 209
Glossoptila, ii. 278
Glossotherium, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

8. American Pliocene, i. 147

11. 247
Glycimeris, ii. 536
Glyphidodon, ii. 437
Glyphoglossus, ii. 416
Glyphorhynchus, ii. 103
Glyplodon, S. American Pliocene, i. 147
Glyptosternum, ii. 443

Gnaphodes, ii. 471
Gnathodon, ii. 536
Gnathopsis, S. American Pliocene, i. 147
Goats, Palæarctic, i. 182

ii. 221
Goat-suckers, ii. 519
GOBIESOCIDÆ, ii. 436
GOBIIDÆ, ii. 430
Gobio, ii. 452
Gobius, ii. 480
Godman, Mr., on Natural History of the

Azores, i. 207
Golden Moles, S. African, i. 267
Goliathi, ii. 494
Gonepteryt, ji. 478
Goniodactylus, ii. 400
Gongylophis, ii. 382
Gonorhynchido, ii 453
Gonyocephalus, ii. 402
Gonyosoma, ii, 379
Gouldia, ii. 107
Goura, ii. 333
Gracularus, N. American Cretaceous, i. 164
Gralla, arrangement of, i. 97

peculiar or characteristic Palæarctic ge-

nera, i. 249
peculiar Ethiopian genera of, i. 31
peculiar Oriental genera of, 386

peculiar Australian genera of, i. 486
GRALLÆ, ii. 351

general remarks on the distribution of, il

362
Grallaria, ii. 104
Grallaricula, ii. 104.
Grullina, ii. 273
Grammatophorus, ii. 402
Grammatoptila, ii. 261
Grampus, ii. 209
Granatellus, ii. 279
Grundala, ii. 259
Graphidurus, ii. 232
Graphipterus, ii. 491
Graucalus, ii. 268
Gray, Dr. J. E., on classification of Cetacea, i.

88
Grayia, ii. 376
Grayson, Col, on birds of Tres Marias, ii. 59
Grebes, ii. 367
Greece, Upper Miocene deposits of, i. 115

sunumary of Miocene fauna of, i. 116
Green Bulbuls, ii. 267
Greenland, zoology of, ii. 138
Greenlets, ii. 280
Groups peculiar to a region, how defined, ii.

184
Grouse, ii. 328
GRUIDÆ, ii. 356
Grus, ii. 357
Grypsicus, ii. 421
Grypus, ii. 107
Guacharo, ii, 107
Guans, ii. 342
Guaraunas, ii. 357
Gubernatrix, ii. 285
Guillemots, ii. 267
Guira, ii. 309
Guiraca, ii. 285
Curlick, Rev. J. T., on Achatinellidæ of the

Sandwich Islands, i. 446
Gulls, ii. 364
Gulo, ii. 199
Günther, Dr., his classification of reptiles,

i. 98
his classification of fishes, i. 101
on gigantic tortoises of Galapagos and the

Mascarene Islands, i. 289

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