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Ereptodon, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
Eresia, ii. 474
Ereinistes, ii. 144
Ercth izon, ii. 239
Ercunetes, ii. 353
Ergaticus, ii. 279
Ergolis, ii. 474
Ericulus, ii. 188
Ericymba, ii. 452
ERINACEIDÆ, ii. 187
Erinaceus, European Miocene, i. 117

ii. 187
Eriocnemis, ii. 109
Eriodes, ii. 174
Erismatura, ii. 364
Erithacus, ii. 259
Eroessa, ii. 258
Eronia, ii. 478
Erpornis, ii. 267
ERYCIDÆ, ii. 381
ERYCINIDÆ, ii. 478
Erynnis, ii, 480
Erythrinus, ii. 413
Erythrocercus, ii. 270
Erythrocnema, ii. 347
Erythrogonys, ii. 356
Erythrolamines, ii. 375
Erythromachus of Rodriguez, 1. 104

ii. 352
Erythrospiza, ii. 285
Erythrosierna, ii. 270
Erythrura, ii, 387
Eryr, ii. 982
ESOCIDÆ, ii. 449
Esox, ii 449
Esthemopsis, ii. 476
Esthonyr, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Estrilda, ii. 280
Etheria, ii. 534
Ethiopian region should not include any part

of India, i. 63
defined, i. 73
subdivisions of, i. 73
general features of, i. 251
zoological characteristics of, i. 252
mammalia of, i. 253
great speciality of, i. 253
birds of, i. 253
reptiles of, i. 254
amphibia of, i. 255
fresh-water fish of, i. 255
suminary of vertebrates of, i. 255
insects of, i. 255
coleoptera of, i. 256
terrestrial mollusca of, i. 257
sub-regions of, i. 258
Atlantic islands of, i. 269
the probable past history of, i. 285
tables of distribution of animals of, i.

293
Eu nemus, ii. 443
Eubugis, ii. 474
Eucephala, ii. 109
Euchretes, ii. 98
Eucometis, ii. 99
Euchromia, ii. 481
Eucichla, ii. 298
Euclyptosternum, ii. 443
Eudromias, ii. 356
Eudynamis, ii. 310
Eudyptes, ii 366
Eveides, ii. 473
Eugenes, ii. 107
Eugenia, ii. 107
Euhyrar, ii. 229
Eulabeornis, ii. 352

Eulabes, ii. 287
Eulampis, ii. 107
Eumaus, ii. 477
Eu meces, ii. 397
Eumetopias, ii. 203
Eumomota, ii. 313
Eumys, N. American Tertiary, i, 140

ii. 231
Eumyias, ii. 270
Eunectes, ii. 381
Eunica, ii. 474
Eunogyra, ii. 475
Eupetes, ii. 263
Eupetomena, ii. 107
Euphema, ii. 325
Eupherusa, ii. 109
Euphonia, ii. 98
Euphractus, S. Anierican Pliocene, i 147
Euphryne, ii. 401
Euphysetes, ii. 208
Eupleres, ii. 195
Euploa, ii. 470
EUPLOCAMINÆ, ii, 340
Euplocamus, ii. 340
Enpodotis, ii. 356
Eu prepes, ii. 397
Eupsychortyr, ii. 339
Erptilotis, ii. 314
Euptychia, ii. 471
Eurinorhynchus, ii. 353
Eurocephalus, ii, 272
Europe, recent changes in physical geography

of, i. 39
Miocene fauna of Central, i. 117
Miocene fauna of, allied to existing fauna

of tropical Asia and Africa, i. 124
European sub-region, description of, i. 191

forests of, i. 192
mammalia of, i. 192
birds of, i 193
reptiles and amphibia of, i. 195
fresh-water fish of, i. 196
insects of, i. 196

islands of, i. 197
Eurostopodus, ii. 320
Euryades, ii. 479
Euryapteryx, ii. 370
Euryarthrium, ii. 501
Eurybia, ii. 475
Euryceros of Madagascar, figure of, 1 278
Euryceros, ii. 288
Eurycus, ii. 479
Eurygona, ii. 476
EURYGONIDÆ, ii. 476
EURYLAMIDÆ, ii. 294
Eurylemus, ii, 295
Euryodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

ii. 246
Euryphene, ii. 474
Eurypuga, ii. 358
EURYPYGIDÆ, ii, 358
Eurystomus, ij. 312
Eurytela, ii. 474
Eurytherium, European Eocene, i. 126
Eurytrichus, ii. 490
Euscarthmus, ii. 101
Euschemon, ií. 480

ii. 481
Eusemia, ii. 482
Fuspisa, ii. 285
Eustephanus, ii. 108
Eustira, ii. 453
Eutatus, S. American Pliocene, I. 147

ii. 246
Eutelodon, European Eocene, i. 126
Eutem nodus, S. American Eocene, 1. 148

F.

Euterpe, ii. 285
Euthyrhynchus, ii. 276
Eutoreres, ii. 107
Eutriorchis, ii. 348
Eutropia, ii. 209
Eutropiichthys, ii. 441
Eutropius, ii. 442
Eutroplus, ii. 438
Erocetus, ii. 449
Eroglossum, ii. 452
Erostoma, ii. 444
Extinct mammalian fauna of Europe, general

considerations on, i. 1:6
mammalia of N. America and Europe,

comparison of, i, 140
mammalia of the Antilles, i 148
mammalia of the Old and New Worlds,

general remarks on, i. 148
fauna of New Zealand, i. 459
Amphibia, ii. 423
Ant-eaters, ii. 247
Armadillos, ii. 246
Bovidæ, ii. 225
Bradypodidae, ii, 245
Camelidae, ii. 217
Camelopardalidæ, ii. 221
Canidæ, ii. 197
Castoridæ, ii. 234
Caviidæ, 241
Centetidæ, ii. 189
Cercolabidæ, ii. 240
Cetacea, ii. 209
Chinchillidæ, ii. 237
Chiroptera, ií. 185
Crocodiles, ii. 407
Deer, ii. 220
Didelphyidæ, ii. 249
Dipodidæ, ii. 232
Echidnide, ii. 254
Echimyidae, ii. 239
Elephants, ii. 227
Equidæ, ii. 211
Erinaceidæ, ii. 188
Felidæ, ii. 193
Hippopotami, ii. 214
Hyenas, ii. 196
Hystricidæ, ii. 240
Insectivora, ii. 192
Lacertilia, ii. 404
Lagomyidæ, ii. 242
Leporida, ii. 243
Macropodide, ii, 251
Muridx, ii. 230
Mustelidæ, ii. 199
Myoxide, 232
Octodontida, ii. 238
Ophidia, ii. 387
Orycteropodida, ii. 246
Otariidze, ii. 203
Procyonidie, ii. 201
Quadrumana, ii. 178
Ralliklæ, ii. 252
Rhinocerotidæ, ii. 213
Sciuridæ, ii. 236
Seals, ii. 204
Sirenia, ii. 210
Struthionidæ, ii. 369
Suide, ii. 215
Talpidæ, ii. 190
Tapirs, ii. 212
Tortoises, ii. 410
Tragulidae, ii. 218
Tupaiidæ, ii. 186
Ursidae, ii. 202

Viverridæ, ii. 195
Extinction of large animals, causes of, i, 158

Falcinellus, ii. 360
Falco, ii. 349
FAL NIDÆ, ii. 347
FALCONINÆ, ii. 349
Falcons, ii. 347
Falculia, ii. 228
Falkland Islands, zoology of, ii. 49
Fanged ground-snakes, ii. 380
Parancia, ii. 377
Fauna of Japan, general character and affini-

ties of, i. 230
of Palæarctic region, general conclusions

as to, i. 231
extinct, of Madagascar and Mascarane

Islands, i. 282
Malayan, probable origin of, i. 359
Moluccan, peculiarities of, i. 419
Timorose, origin of, i. 422
of Celebes, origin of, i. 496
of New Zealand, origin of, i. 460
of Galapagos, origin of, ii. 33
of Central America, origin of, ii. 57
of Antilles, origin of, ii. 78

of Neotropical region, origin of, ii. 80
FELIDÆ, ii. 192
Felis, Miocene of Greece, i. 115

European Miocene, i 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, i 129
in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 193
Felis spelæa, i. 110
Feniscca, ii. 477
Fennecus, ii. 197
Ferania, ii. 376
Fernando Po, zoological features of, i. 265
Feroculus, ii. 191
Fiber, ii. 230
Figulus, ii. 493
Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa Islands, birds of, i. 443
Finches, il. 283
FIROLIDE, ii. 531
Fishes, means of dispersal of, i. 29

classification of, i. 101
cosmopolitan groups of, i. 178
of the Palæarctic region, i. 186
of the European sub-region, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 227
fresh water, table of Palaaritic families

of, i. 227
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255
of South Africa, i. 268
fresh-water, table of Ethiopian families of,

i. 298
fresh-water, of the Oriental region, i. 318
of the Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 341
fresh-water, table of Oriental families of

i. 369
fresh-water, of the Australian region, i.

397
fresh-water, resemblance of Australian and

S. American, i. 400
how the transmission may have taken

place, i. 401
fresh water, of New Zealand, i 457
fresh-water, table of Neotropical families

of, ii, 89
of Central N. America, il. 131
of Eastern United States, ii. 134
of Canada, ii. 137
fresh-water, table of Searctic families of,

ji. 143

Fishes, remarks on the distribution of, ii. 464

fossil, ii. 466
Fishing-hawks, ii. 349
FISSURELLIDÆ, ii, 511
FISTULARIDÆ, ii. 436
Fitsroya, ii. 450
Flamingoes, European Miocene, i. 162

ii. 361
Flora, of New Zealand, as influenced by

scarcity of insects, i. 462

fossil of Australia, i. 467
Floras, cretaceous and tertiary, of North

America, ii. 155
Florisuga, ii. 107
Flower-peckers, ii. 277
Flower, Professor, on classification of main-

malia, i. 85

classification of carnivora, i. 87
Fluvicola, ii. 100
Flycatchers, ii. 270
Flying Lemur, Malayan, figure of, i. 337

ii. 186
Flying Lizards, ii. 401
Flying Opossum, figure of, i. 442
Fordonia, ii. 376
Forests, essential to existence of many Euro-

pean animals, i. 192

Siberian, greatest extent of, i. 216
FORMICARIIDÆ, ii. 297
FORMICARIINE, ii. 298
Formicarius, 104
Formicivora, 101
FORMICIVORINÆ, ii. 297
Formosa, zoology of, i, 332
Fossa, ii. 195
Foudia, ii. 286
Francolinus, ii. 338
Fraseria, ii. 272
Frateru ii. 367
Fregetta, ii. 365
Fregilupus, ii. 288
Fregilus, ii. 274
Fresh-water fishes, Neotropical, ii. 12

of S. Temperate America, ií. 42
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 54
of the Antilles, ii 73
of the Nearctic region, ii. 120
of California, ii, 128

summary and conclusion, ii. 549
Fresh-water mussels, ii. 534

shell, the most Arctic, ii. 518
snakes, ii. 376

snails, ii. 518
Fringilla, ii. 283
Fringillaria, ii. 285
Fringillauda, ii. 282
FRINGILLIDÆ, ii. 284
Frog-mouths, ii. 318
Frogs, ii. 420
Fulica, ii. 352
Fuligula, ii. 364
Fulmarus, ii 365
Fundulus, ii. 450
FURNARIINÆ, ii, 295
Furnarius, ii. 103
Fusus, ii. 507

Galapagos islands, ii.-29

mammalia of, ii. 29
birds of, ii. 30
reptiles of, ii. 32
insects of, ii. 33
land-shells of, ii. 33
conclusions as to the origin of their fauna,

ii. 33
Galatea, ii. 536
Galaxias, ii. 448
GALAXIDÆ, ii. 448
Galbalcyrhynchus, ii. 311
Galbula, ii. 311
GALBULIDÆ, ii. 311
Galecynus, in European Pliocene, i, 112

ii. 198
Galeichthys, ii. 443
GALEOPITHECIDÆ, ii, 186
Galeoscoptes, ii, 256
Galeospalaz, European Miocene, i. 118

ii. 190
Galeotherium, Post-Pliocene, i. 111
Galera, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
Galerella, ii. 195
Galerita, ü. 289

ii, 490
Galerir, ii. 188
Galethylax, European Eocene, i. 125

ii. 198
Galeus, ii. 460
Galictis, in Brazilian cares, i. 144

ii. 199
Galidia, ii. 195
Galidictis, ii. 195
Gallina, classification of, i. 96

range of Palæårctic genera of, i. 248
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. $11
range of Oriental genera of, i. 384

range of Australian genera i. 485
GALLINÆ, ii. 337

ii. 340

general remarks on the distribution of, ii.
Gallinago, ii. 353
Gallinula, ii. 352
Gallus, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

ii. 340
Gallus bravardi, European Pliocene, i. 161
Galogale, ii. 195
Gambusia, ii. 450
Gampsonyx, ii. 349
Gampsorhynchus, i. 261
Gannets, ii. 365
GANOIDEI, ii. 158
Gape-eyed Scinks, ii. 395
Gar fish, ii. 459
Garrod, Professor, on the Classification of

Parrots, ii. 324
Garrulax, ii. 201
Garrulus, ii, 273
GASTEROPODA, ii. 507
GASTEROSTEIDÆ, ji. 424
Gasterosteus, ii. 424
Gastornis, European Eocene, i. 163
GASTROCHANIDÆ, ii. 537
Gastropelecus, ii. 445
GAVIALIDÆ, ii. 405
Gavialis, ii. 405
Gavials, ii. 405
Gazella, ii. 223
GAZELLINÆ, ii. 223
Gazera, ii. 481
Gecinulus, ii. 303
Gecinus, ii. 303
Gecko, ii. 399
GECKOTIDÆ, ii. 399

GADIDA, ii, 439
GADOPSIDE, ii. 439
Gadus, ii. 439
Galago, ii. 177
Galapagos, scarcity of insects in, i 463

Geese, ii. 363
Gehyra, ii. 400
Genera common to Post-Pliocene and Pliocene

faunas of N. America, i. 132
Genetta, ii. 195
Genidens, ii. 443
Geobates, ii. 103
Geobiastes, ii, 312
Geocichla, ii, 256
Geococcyx, ii. 309
Geocolaptes, ii. 304
GEODÉPHAGA, ii. 486
Geoffroyus, ii. 326
Geographicel zoology, introduction, ii. 167

inaterials for, ii. 168
Geological history of Oriental region, i. 362
Geology and Physical Geography of

the
Antilles, ii. 62, 79
Geomelania, ii. 519
Geomys, ii. 233
Geopelia, ii. 332
Geophaps, ii. 333
Geophagus, ii. 439
Geopsittacus, ji. 325
Georissa, ii. 522
Georychus, ii. 231
Geositta, ii. 103
Geosprzá, ii. 284
Geothlypis, ii. 279
Geotrochus, ii. 523
Geotryon, ii. 333
Geotrypus, ii. 190
Geranospiza, ii. 347
Gerbillus, ii. 230

ii. 232
Geronticus, ii. 360
Gerrhonotus, ii. 392
Gerrhosaurus, ii. 392
GERRIDE, ii, 438
Gervasia, ii. 260
Gerygone, ii. 258
Giant-Clams, ii. 534
Gibbon, ii, 171
Gibraltar, cave fauna of, i. 114
Giraffes, ii. 221
Girardinus, ii. 450
Glacial epoch, as affecting the distribution of

animals, i. 40
as a cause of the great change in the

fauna of the temperate zones, since

Pliocene times, i. 151
probably simultaneous in both hemi-

spheres, i. 151
causing a general subsidence of the

ocean, i. 152
Glandina, Eocene, i. 169

ii. 515
Glareola, ii. 355
GLAREOLIDÆ, ii. 355
Glaucis, ii. 107
Glaucidium, ii. 350
Glaucoruza,'ii. 536
Glaucopis, ii. 481
Gliciphila, ii. 275
Glis, ii. 232
Globiocephalus, ii. 209
Glossoptila, ii. 278
Glossotherium, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

S. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 247
Glycimeris, ii. 536
Glyphidodon, ii. 437
Glyphoglossus, ii. 416
Glyphorhynchus, ii. 103
Glyptodon, s. American Pliocene, i. 147
Glyptosternum, ii. 443

VOL. II.

Gnaphodes, ii. 471
Gnathodon, ii. 536
Gnathopsis, S. American Pliocene, i. 147
Goats, Palæarctic, i. 182

ii. 221
Goat-suckers, ii 519
GOBIESOCIDÆ, ii. 436
GOBIIDÆ, ii. 430
Gobio, ii. 452
Gobius, ii. 430
Godman, Mr., on Natural History of the

Azores, i. 207
Golden Moles, S. African, i. 267
Goliathi, ii. 494
Gonepteryx, ii. 478
Goniodactylus, ii. 400
Gongylophis, ii. 382
Gonorhynchida, ii 453
Gon yocephalus, ii 402
Gonyosoma, ii, 379
Gouldia, ii. 107
Goura, ii. 333
Gracularus, N. American Cretaceous, i. 104
Grallæ, arrangement of, i. 97

peculiar or characteristic Palæarctic ge-

nera, i. 249
peculiar Ethiopian genera of, i. 31
peculiar Oriental genera of, 386

peculiar Australian genera of, i. 486
GRALLÆ, ii. 351

general remarks on the distribution of, ii.

362
Grallaria, ii. 104
Grallaricula, ii. 104
Grallina, ii, 273
Grammatophorus, ii. 402
Grammotoptila, ii. 261
Grampus, ii. 209
Granatellus, ii. 279
Grandola, ii. 259
Graphidurus, ii. 232
Graphipterus, ii. 491
Graucalus, ii. 268
Gray, Dr. J. E., on classification of Cetacea, 1.

88
Grayia, ii. 376
Grayson, Col, on birds of Tres Marias, ii. 59
Grebes, ii. 367
Greece, Upper Miocene deposits of, i. 115

sunimary of Miocene fauna of, i. 116
Green Bulbuls, ii. 267
Greenland, zoology of, ii. 138
Greenlets, ii. 280
Groups peculiar to a region, how defined, ii.

184
Grouse, ii. 328
GRUIDÆ, ii. 356
Grus, ii. 357
Grypsicus, ii. 421
Grypus, ii. 107
Guacharo, ii. 107
Guans, ii. 342
Guaraunas, ii. 357
Gubernatrix, ii, 285
Guillemots, ii. 267
Guira, ii. 309
Guiraca, ii. 285
Curlick, Rev. J. T., on Achatinellidæ of the

Sandwich Islands, i. 446
Gulls, ii. 364
Gulo, ii, 299
Gunther, Dr., his classification of reptiles,

i. 98
his classification of fishes, i. 101
on gigantic tortoises of Galapagos and the
Mascarene Islands, i, 289

PP

Günther, Dr., on range of Indian reptiles in | Haplocerus, ii. 374
the Himalayas, i. 329

Haplochilus, ii. 450
on identical Atlantiic and Pacfic fishes, ii. Huplochiton, ii. 446
21

HAPLOCHITONIDÆ, ii. 446
on fresh-water fishes of Central America, Haplodactylus, ii. 427
ii 54

Haploodon, ii. 236
Gygis, ii. 365

HAPLOODONTIDE, ii. 236
GYMNARCHIDE, ii. 419

Haplospiza, ii. 284
Gymnarchus, ii. 449

Hapsidrophis, 379
GYMNETINÆ, ii. 494

Harelda, ii 364
Gymnobucco, ii. 306

Hares, ii. 242
Gymnocephalus, ii. 103

Harma, ii. 474
Gymnocichla, ií 104

Harpa, ii. 349
Gymnocorvus, ii. 274

ii. 507
Gymnocypris, ii. 452

Harpactes, ii. 314
Gyinnodactylus, ii. 400

Harpagus, ii. 349
GYMNODERINÆ, ii. 293

Harpalus, ii. 489
Gymnoderus, ii. 103

Harporhynchus, ii. 256
GYMNODONTES, ii. 457

Harpyhaliæetus, ii. 348
Gymnoglauz, ii. 350

Hartlaubius, ii, 288
Gymnokitta, ii. 273

Hathliodes, ii. 502
Gymnomystax, ii. 282

líatteria of New Zealand, i. 456
Gymnopelia, ii. 333

Hatteria, ii. 405
Gymnops, ii
. 287

Hawls, ii. 347
GYMNOPHTHALMIDÆ, ií. 995

Hedgehogs, ii. 187
Gymnophthalmus, ii. 395

Hedymeles, ii. 285
Gymnopus, ii. 199

Helarctos, ii. 202
Gynnorhina, ii. 273

Helcyra, ii. 474
Gymnostomus, ii. 451

Hcleothreptus, ii. 320
GYMNOTIDÆ, ii. 455

Heliactin, ii. 108
Gymnotus, ii. 455

Heliangclus, ii. 108
Gymnura, ii. 185

Helianthea, ii. 108
Gypaetus, ii. 348

Heliastes, ii. 437
Gypohierar, ii. 343

HELICIDÆ, ii. 512
Gypoictinia, ii. 349

Helicina, ii. 522
Gyps, ii. 346

HELICONIDÆ, ii. 473

ii. 522
H.

Heliconius, ii. 473

Helicophagus, ii. 442
Haast, Dr., on extinct birds of New Zealand, Helicops, ii. 377
i 460

Helictis, Himalayan, figure of, i. 331
Habitat, definition of, i. 4

Helictis, ii. 199
Habrocomus, ii. 238

Hcliobletus, ii, 103
Habroptila, ii, 352

Heliochæra, ii. 102
Hubrura, ii 101

Heliodoxa, ii. 107
Hadrostomus, ii. 102, 293

Heliomastes, ii. 108
Hæmatoderus, ii. 103

Heliopardica, ii, 107
Hæmatopus, 350

Heliophobus, ii. 231
Hæmatospiza, ii 235

Helioporus, ii 417
Hæmophila, ii, 284

Heliornis, ii. 352
Hemulon, ii. 426

Heliothrix, ii 108
Hætera, ii. 471

Heliotrypha, ii 108
Hagria, ii. 397

Helix, Eocene, i. 169
Hainan, zoology of, i. 334

ii. 513
Halcyon, ii. 316

Helladotherium, Miocene of Greece, I. 116
Halcyornis, European Eocene, i. 103

European Miocene, i. 120
Holicyon, ii. 204

ii. 221
Yaliæetus, ii. 348

Helluomorpha, ii. 490
Haliastur, ii. 348

Helmintherus, ii. 279
Hulichærus, ii, 204

Helminthophaga, ii. 279
Halicore, ii. 210

Heloderma, ii. 390
HALIOTIDÆ, ii. 511

HELODERMIDÆ, ii. 390
Halitherium, European Pliocene, i. 112

Helodromas, ii. 353
European Miocene, i. 119

Helogale, ii. 195
ii. 211

Helogenes, ii. 412
Halinaturus, ii. 251

HELORNITHINÆ, ii. 352
HALOSAURIDÆ, ii. 456

Helotarsus, ii. 348
Halys, ii, 385

Hemihos, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Hamadryas, ii. 470

ii. 225
Hang-nests, ii. 281

Hemicentetes, ii. 188
Hapale, ii, 176

Hemicercus, ii. 303
ii, 178

Hemichelidon, ii. 290
Hapalemur, ii. 176

Hemichromis, 438
HAPALIDÆ, ii. 175

Hemicyon, European Miocene, i. 118
Hapalotis, ii. 230

ii, 198
Hapalus, ii. 524

| Hemidacnis, ii. 278

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