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he accepted the office of secretary. His labours parliament, desiring to destroy the Irish woolin connection with this society soon made len manufactures, then in a most thriving Molyneux's learning and abilities well known. state, introduced prohibitory laws to prevent Being introduced to the Duke of Ormond, and their exportation. These enactments seemed after performing some literary labour for that to Molyneux not only cruel and unwise, but nobleman, he was appointed one of the two unjust and tyrannical, and he immediately set chief engineers and surveyors of crown build himself to produce his Case of Ireland Stated ings and works. In 1685 he was elected a in Relation to its being bound by Acts of member of the Royal Society, and in the same Parliament made in England. This appeared year was sent to survey the fortresses on the in 1698 with a manly yet respectful dedication Flemish coast. While on the Continent he to William III., and is a work almost perfect travelled through Flanders and Holland, part of its kind. A biographer whom we have of Germany and France, and paid a visit to already quoted says that it contains “all, or the celebrated Cassini with letters of introduc- most, that can be said on the subject with tion from his friend Flamstead.
great clearness and strength of reasoning." On his return from abroad Molyneux The work, which in size is little more than published his first work of any importance, a pamphlet, created a great sensation in EngSciothericum Telescopium, 1686, a description land. The English House of Commons, losing of a telescopic dial and its uses which he had its head in a fit of irritation, declared, “ that invented. In 1687 Halley, with whom he had the book published by Mr. Molyneux was of established a correspondence, sent him the dangerous tendency to the crown and people proof-sheets of Newton's Principia as they of England, by denying the authority of the were produced, and Molyneux, though struck king and parliament of England to bind the with admiration and astonishment at the work, kingdom and people of Ireland, and the subconfessed himself, like many other astronomers ordination and dependence that Ireland had, of the time, unable to wholly understand it. and ought to have, upon England, as being In 1689, owing to the wars of William and united and annexed to the imperial crown of James, he left Ireland and removed to Chester, England.” An address was presented to where he busied himself in the preparation of William, who readily promised to enforce the a work which, under the revision of Halley, laws binding the parliament of Ireland to deappeared in 1692 with the title of Dioptrica pendence, and the book itself was committed Nova: a Treatise of Dioptrics in Two Parts. to the hands of the common hangman, by During his residence in Chester, his son Samuel / whom it was glorified by being“ burnt with was born to him, and his wife died. As soon fire.” The reception his work met with as tranquillity was restored in Ireland he re- caused little astonishment to Molyneux, who, turned thither, and in the year in which his in his preface, seemed to anticipate something Dioptrics was published, 1692, he was elected like what occurred. “I have heard it said," one of the members of parliament for the city he writes, “ that perhaps I might run some of Dublin. This event, which seemed unim- hazard in attempting the argument; but I am portant at the time, was the originating cause not at all apprehensive of any such danger. of the production of the great work by which we are in a miserable condition, indeed, if the name of Molyneux will be for ever re- we may not be allowed to complain when we membered in Ireland. In the parliament of think we are hurt.” 1695 he was chosen to represent the university, Before the great stir had subsided Molywhich he continued to do till his death, and a neux journeyed into England to visit Locke, little later he was created Doctor of Laws. with whom he had kept up a most intimate About this time also he was nominated one of correspondence for some time. This visit the commissioners of forfeited estates, with a began in July, 1698, and lasted to September, salary of £500 a year, but, as a biographer and it was arranged that it should be repeated states, “looking upon it as an invidious office, the next spring. But by the next spring the and not being a lover of money, he declined daisies were blooming unseen by the patriot it.” In his place in the Irish parliament philosopher. The fatigues of his journey Molyneux now began to take notice of and brought on an attack of a disease from which study the fight for independence which that he suffered (calculus),and after reaching Dublin body had begun in 1690 by the rejection of a his retchings broke a blood-vessel, and he died, money bill which had not originated with after two days' illness, on the 11th of October, themselves. In 1696 and 1697 the English | 1698. He was deeply lamented by all who knew him, and all the more so because he sanctions are of any force. For this let us died so young, when, in truth, a brilliant appeal, amongst many, only to the judicious career seemed only just entered upon.
Mr. Hooker. Locke was deeply grieved at Molyneux’s No one or more men can by nature challenge death, and in a letter to our author's brother, any right, liberty, or freedom, or any ease in Sir Thomas Molyneux, he says, “I have lost his property, estate, or conscience, which all in your brother not only an ingenious and other men have not an equally just claim to. learned acquaintance, that all the world es- Is England a free people? so ought France to teemed, but an intimate and sincere friend, be. Is Poland so? Turkey likewise, and all whom I truly loved, and by whom I was truly the eastern dominions, ought to be so. And loved; and what a loss that is those only can the same runs throughout the whole race of be sensible who know how valuable and how mankind. Secondly, 'tis against the common scarce a true friend is, and how far to be pre- laws of England, which are of force both in ferred to all other sorts of treasure.” To another England and Ireland, by the original compact correspondent he says, “His worth and friend before hinted. It is declared by both houses ship to me made him an inestimable treasure. of the parliament of England, 1 Jac. cap. i.,
. . I should be glad if what I owed the That in the high court of parliament all the father could enable me to do any service to whole body of the realm, and every particular the son. ... They cannot do me a greater member thereof, either in person or by reprepleasure than to give me the opportunity to sentation (upon their own free elections), are show that my friendship died not with him.” by the laws of this realm deemed to be perWriting in his Conduct of the Understanding, sonally present. Is this, then, the common and before his friendship could have biased law of England, and the birthright of every his judgment, Locke also speaks of Molyneux free-born English subject? And shall we of as “that very ingenious and studious promoter this kingdom be denied it, by having laws of real knowledge.”
imposed on us, where we are neither personIn addition to the works we have named, ally nor representatively present? My Lord Molyneux wrote a reply to one of Hobbes's Coke in his fourth inst. cap. i. saith, that all works under the title of Metaphysical Medita- the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and all the tions on God and Mind, and a considerable Commons of the whole realm ought ex debito number of articles and papers which appeared justiciæ to be summoned to parliament, and in Philosophical Transactions and elsewhere.] none of them ought to be omitted. Hence it
is called General Concilium in the Stat. of Westminst. i., and the Commune Concilium, because it is to comprehend all persons and
estates in the whole kingdom. And this is the A NATION'S RIGHTS.
very reason given in the case of the merchants (FROM THE CASE OF IRELAND STATED.”)
of Waterford foregoing, why statutes made in
England should not bind them in Ireland, All men are by nature in a state of equality because they have no representatives in the in respect of jurisdiction and dominion: this I parliament of England. My Lord Hobbart, take to be a principle in itself so evident that in the case of Savage and Day, pronounced it it stands in need of little proof. 'Tis not to for law, that whatever is against natural equity be conceived that creatures of the same species and reason, that act was void. Whether it be and rank, promiscuously born to all the same not against equity and reason, that a kingdom advantages of nature, and the use of the same regulated within itself, and having its own faculties, should be subordinate and subject parliament, should be bound without their one to another: these to this or that of the consent by the parliament of another kingdom, same kind.
On this equality in nature is I leave the reader to consider. founded that right which all men claim, of being free from all subjection to positive laws, It is against the statute laws both of Engtill by their own consent they give up their land and Ireland; this has been pretty fully freedom, by entering into civil societies for discussed before; however, I shall here again the common benefit of all the members thereof. take notice, that in the 10th of Henry the And on this consent depends the obligation of Fourth, it was enacted in Ireland that statutes all humane laws, insomuch that without it, made in England should not be of force in by the unanimous opinion of all jurists, no Ireland unless they were allowed and published by the parliament of Ireland. And the like another kingdom, which is against Magna statute was made the 29th of Henry the Sixth, Charta. Nay, even though Sir Richard had and in the tenth year of Henry the Seventh, great tenures from the king, for that was said cap.xxii., Irish statutes. The parliament which must be understood within the realms of Engwas held at Drogheda, before Sir Christopher land. And in Pilknegton's case aforementioned Preston, deputy to Jasper, Duke of Bedford, Fortescue declared that the land of Ireland is lieutenant of Ireland, was declared void, for and at all times hath been a dominion separate this reason amongst others, that there was no and divided from England. How then can general summons of the said parliament to all the realms of England and Ireland, being disthe shires, but only to four. And if acts of tinct kingdoms and separate dominions, be parliament made in Ireland shall not bind that imagined to have any superiority or jurisdicpeople, because some counties were omitted, tion the one over the other? 'Tis absurd to how much less shall either their persons or fancy that kingdoms are separate and distinct estates be bound by those acts made in Eng- merely from the geographical distinction of land, whereat no one county or person of that territories. Kingdoms become distinct by diskingdom is present. In the 25th of Edward tinct jurisdictions and authorities legislative the First, cap. vi., it was enacted by the parlia- and executive, and as a kingdom can have no ment of England in these words, Moreover, supreme, it is in itself supreme within itself, from henceforth we shall take no manner of and must have all jurisdictions, authorities, aid, taxes, or prizes, but by the common assent and præeminences to the royal state of a of the realm. And again in the statute of kingdom belonging, or else 'tis none. But that liberty by the same king it is enacted, No Ireland has all these is declared in the Irish tollage or aid shall be taken or levied by nis statute 33 Henry the Eighth, cap. i. The or our heirs in our realm, without the good chief of these most certainly is the power of will and assent of archbishops, bishops, earls, making and abrogating its own laws, and being barons, knights, burgesses, and other freeman bound only by such to which the community of the land.
have given their consent.
Fifthly, it inconsistent with the royalties To conclude all, I think it highly inconpræeminence of a separate and distinct king- venient for England to assume this authority dom. That we are thus a distinct kingdom over the kingdom of Ireland. I believe there has been clearly made out before. 'Tis plain will need no great arguments to convince the the nobility of Ireland are an order of peers wise assembly of English senators how inconclearly distinct from the peerage of England; venient it may be to England to do that which privileges of the one extend not into the other may make the lords and people of Ireland kingdom; a lord of Ireland may be arrested think that they are not well used, and may by his body in England, and so may a lord drive them into discontent. The laws and of England in Ireland, whilst these persons liberties of England were granted above five remain sacred in their respective kingdoms. hundred years ago to the people of Ireland, A voyage royal may be made into Ireland, as upon their submission to the crown of Engthe year book and Lord Coke tell us, and land, with a design to make them easy to King John, in the twelfth year of his reign of England, and to keep them in the allegiance England, made a voyage royal into Ireland; of the King of England. and all his tenants in chief which did not attend him in that voyage did pay him escuage The rights of parliament should be preat the rate of two marks for every knight's fee served sacred and inviolable wherever they which was imposed, as appears by the pipe are found. This kind of government, once so roll, which shows that we are a complete universal all over Europe, is now almost bankingdom within ourselves, and not little better ished from amongst the nations thereof. Our than a province, as some are so extravagant as king's dominions are the only supporters of to assert, none of the properties of a Roman this noble Gothic constitution, save only what province agreeing in the least with our con- little remains may be found thereof in Poland. stitution. 'Tis resolved in Sir Richard Pem- We should not, therefore, make so light of brough's case, that Sir Richard might lawfully that sort of legislature, and as it were abolish refuse the king to serve him as his deputy in it in one kingdom of the three, wherein it Ireland, and that the king could not compel appears; but rather cherish and encourage it him thereto, for that were to banish him into wherever we meet it.
EARL OF ROSCOMMON.
BORN 1633 — DIED 1684.
[Wentworth Dillon, Earl of Roscommon, Soon after his arrival in England Roscommon was born in 1633, and was the eldest son of was made master of the horse to the Duchess Sir James Dillon, third Earl of Roscommon. of York, and about the same time married the His mother was Elizabeth Wentworth, sister eldest daughter of the Earl of Burlington. to the Earl of Strafford, then Lord-lieutenant of Verses began to flow from his pen, and were Ireland, for which reason the poet was chris highly praised; and he and Dryden, who were tened by the name of Wentworth. When close friends, projected a design for “fixing Strafford returned to England he brought and refining the standard of our language.” young Dillon with him, and placed the youth Johnson, in his life of Roscommon, expresses at his seat in Yorkshire, under the tuition of little hope of this project ever being of any Dr. Hall, afterwards Bishop of Norwich. The real use; but anyhow all chance of carrying it poet soon learned to write Latin with elegance out was destroyed by the turbulence of the and correctness, though he could never re- times. member a single rule of grammar. On the In January, 1684, Roscommon decided to impeachment of Strafford his nephew was sent remove to Rome, as he foresaw great troubles to Caen in Normandy, to finish his education in the state, giving as his reason for so doing under the learned Bochart. From Caen he, that "it was best to sit near the chimney after some time, journeyed to Rome, where when the chamber smoked.” When about to he busied himself assiduously in the study of make his move he was delayed by the gout, antiquities, and in acquiring the Italian lan- and being very impatient, both of the pain guage, “which,” says one of his biographers, and its stoppage of his journey, he called in a " he spoke with so much grace and fluency French quack. This person dealt with the that he was frequently mistaken for a native.” | disease so that he drove it inwards, where it
After the Restoration he returned to Eng- soon became fatal. On the 17th of January land, where he was made captain of the band the poet died, after the fervent utterance of of pensioners by Charles II. There he in- two lines from his own version of “Dies Iræ.” dulged in gaming, and fought many duels, but
“My God, my Father, and my Friend, before long he was obliged to go into Ireland,
Do not forsake me in my end." owing to some dispute with the lord privyseal about part of his estate. In Dublin he He was buried in Westminster Abbey. was looked upon as “certainly the most hope
Roscommon wrote little, but that little well, ful young nobleman in Ireland," and soon after
a thing in which he might well be imitated by his arrival he was appointed captain of the more than one of our modern poets. His best guards. His vice of gaming clung to him, and works are his Essay on Translated Verse and involved him in many duels and dangerous
his translation of Horace's Art of Poetry. His adventures. One night he was attacked by translation of the “Dies Irae” is vigorous, and three ruffians, but defended himself so weil many of his smaller pieces, such as his “ Ode that he killed one, a gentleman coming to his upon Solitude,”are full of grace. Johnson says, help disarmed another, and the third ran
“We must allow of Roscommon, what Fenton away. Roscommon's ally turned out to be a
has not mentioned so distinctly as he ought, disbanded officer of good family, but in such and what is yet very much to his honour, poor circumstances that he had not clothes fit that he is perhaps the only correct writer in to appear in at the castle.
verse before Addison.” Pope says of him in grateful poet presented him to the Duke of one place :Ormond, and obtained that nobleman's leave “To him the wit of Greece and Rome was known, to resign his commission in favour of the And every author's merit but his own." officer, who at once became captain of the In another place he gives him credit for guards, and enjoyed the post till his death. morality in an age when every other poet was Roscommon returned to London, drawn thither immoral:by the pleasures of the court and the many
“Unhappy Dryden! in all Charles's days friendships he had made in that city.
Roscommon only boasts unspotted lays."
Nature and death shall with surprise
Then shall, with universal dread, The sacred mystic book be read, To try the living and the dead.
The Judge ascends his awful throne, He makes each secret sin be known, And all with shame confess their own.
Hail, sacred Solitude! from this calm bay
And with wise pride despise
All those senseless vanities:
Unhappy men, or adverse fate,
Fly from her kind embracing arms, Deaf to her fondest call, blind to her greatest
charms, And, sunk in pleasure and in brutish ease, They in their shipwreck'd state themselves obdu
Oh then! what interest shall I make,
Thou mighty, formidable King, Thou mercy's unexhausted spring, Some comfortable pity bring !
Forget not wiat my ransom cost, Nor let my dear-bought soul be lost, In storms of guilty terror tost.
Thou, who for me didst feel such pain, Whose precious blood the cross did stain, Let not these agonies be vain.
Hail, sacred Solitude! soul of my soul,
It is by thee I truly live, Thou dost a better life and nobler vigour give; Dost each unruly appetite control: Thy constant quiet fills my peaceful breast With unmix'd joy, uninterrupted rest.
Presuming love does ne'er invade
This private solitary shade; And, with fantastic wounds by beauty made, The joy has no alloy of jealousy, hope, and fear, The solid comforts of this happy sphere:
Yet I exalted Love admire,
Friendship, abhorring sordid gain, And purify'd from Lust's dishonest stain:
Thou whom avenging powers obey,