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other thing, it must be derived from some of others. Whilst a great event is in cause; and that cause must be either ex- suspense, the action warms, and the very ternal, internal, or mixed, in as much as suspense, made up of hope and fear, except these three, there is no other pos- maintain no unpleasing agitation in the sible. Now a steady, durable good, can- mind. If the event is decided successfully, not be derived from an external cause, by such a man enjoys pleasure proportionable reason all derived from externals must to the good he has done-a pleasure like fluctuate as they fluctuate. By the same to that which is attributed to the Supreme rule, not from a mixture the two; be- Being on a survey of His works. If the cause the part which is external will pro- event is decided otherwise, and usurping portionally destroy its essence. What courts or overbearing parties prevail, such then remains but the cause internal; the a man has still the testimony of his convery cause which we have supposed, science, and a sense of the honour he has when we place the Sovereign Good in acquired, to soothe his mind and support Mind-in Rectitude of Conduct ?

his courage. For although the course of state affairs be to those who meddle in

them like a lottery, yet it is a lottery (LORD BOLINGBROKE. 1678–1751.] wherein no good man can be a loser ; he THE TRUE PATRIOT.

may be reviled, it is true, instead of being

applauded, and may suffer violence of NEITHER Montaigne in writing his many kinds. I will not say, like Seneca, essays, nor Descartes in building new that the noblest spectacle which God can worlds, nor Burnet in framing an an- behold is a virtuous man suffering, and tediluvian earth, no, nor Newton in struggling with afflictions; but this I will discovering and establishing the true say, that the second Cato, driven out of laws of nature on experiment and a the forum, and dragged to prison, enjoyed sublimer geometry,

felt more intel- more inward pleasure, and maintained lectual joys than he feels who is a real more outward dignity, than they who inpatriot, who bends all the force of his sulted him, and who triumphed in the understanding, and directs all his thoughts ruin of their country. and actions to the good of his country. When sucha man forms a political scheme, and adjusts various and seemingly independent parts in it to one great and good

[JAMES BEATTIE, LL.D. 1735-1803.) design, he is transported by imagination, THE LOVE OF NATURE AND or absorbed in meditation, as much and

OF SCENERY. as agreeably as they ; and the satisfaction that arises from the different importance It is strange to observe the callousness of these objects, in every step of the work of some men, before whom all the glories of is vastly in his favour. It is here that heaven and earth pass in daily succession, the speculative philosopher's labour and without touching their hearts, elevating pleasure end. But he who speculates in their fancy, or leaving any durable reorder to act, goes on and carries his membrance. Even of those who pretend scheme into execution. His labour con- to sensibility, how many are there to tinues, it varies, it increases ; but so does whom the lustre of the rising or setting his pleasure too. The execution, indeed, sun, the sparkling concave of the midis often traversed by unforeseen and un- night sky, the mountain forest tossing toward circumstances, by the perverseness and roaring to the storm, or warbling or treachery of friends, and by the power with all the melodies of a summer evenor malice of enemies; but the first and ing; the sweet interchange of hill and the last of these animate, and the doci- dale, shade and sunshine, grove, lawn, lity and fidelity of some men make and water, which an extensive landscape amends for the perverseness and treachery offers to the view ; the scenery of the

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ocean, so lovely, so majestic, and so tre- exercise being equally necessary to the mendous, and the many pleasing varieties body and the soul, and to both equally of the animal and vegetable kingdom, productive of health and pleasure. — could never afford so much real satisfac- Essays. tion as the steams and noise of a ballroom, the insipid fiddling and squeaking opera,

[William PALEY, D.D. 1743–1805.] the vexations and wranglings of a card-table !

THE HAPPINESS OF CREATED But some minds there are of a different

THINGS. make, who, even in the early part of life, receive from the contemplation of nature It is a happy world after all. The air, a species of delight which they would the earth, the water, teem with delighted hardly exchange for any other; and who, existence. In a spring noon or a summer as avarice and ambition are not the infir- evening, on whichever side I turn my mities of that period, would, with equal eyes, myriads of happy beings crowd sincerity and rapture, exclaim :

upon my view. “The insect youth are

on the wing." Swarms of new-born flies “ I care not, Fortune, what you me deny ; You cannot rob me of free nature's grace ;

are trying their pinions in the air. You cannot shut the windows of the sky,

Their sportive motions, their wanton Through which Aurora shows her brightening mazes, their gratuitous activity, their

continual change of place without use or You cannot bar my constant feet to trace The woods and lawns by living streams at eve.'

purpose, testify their joy and the exulta

tion which they feel in their lately disSuch minds have always in them the covered faculties. A bee amongst the seeds of true taste, and frequently of flowers in spring is one of the most cheerimitative genius. At least, though theiren- ful objects that can be looked upon. Its thusiastic or visionary turn of mind, as the life appears to be all enjoyment; so busy man of the world would call it, should not and so pleased : yet it is only a specimen always incline them to practise poetry or of insect life, with which, by reason of painting, we need not scruple to affirm the animal being half domesticated, we that, without some portion of this enthu- happen to be better acquainted than we siasm, no person ever became a true poet are with that of others. The whole or painter. For he who would imitate winged insect tribe, it is probable, are the works of nature, must first accurately equally intent upon their proper employobserve them, and accurate observation is ments, and, under every variety of conto be expected from those only who take stitution, gratified, and perhaps equally great pleasure in it.

gratified, by the offices which the Author To a mind thus disposed, no part of of their nature has assigned to them. creation is indifferent. In the crowded But the atmosphere is not the only scene city and howling wilderness, in the culti- of enjoyment for the insect race. Plants vated province and solitary'isle, in the are covered with aphides, greedily suckflowery lawn and craggy mountain, in the ing their juices, and constantly, as it murmur of the rivulet and in the uproar should seem, in the act of sucking. It of the ocean, in the radiance of summer cannot be doubted but that this is a state and gloom of winter, in the thunder of of gratification: what else should fix heaven and in the whisper of the breeze, them so close to the operation and so he still finds something to rouse or to long? Other species are running about soothe his imagination, to draw forth his with an alacrity in their motions which affections, or to employ his understanding. carries with it every mark of pleasure. And from every mental energy that is not Large patches of ground are sometimes attended with pain, and even from some half covered with these brisk and sprightly of those that are, as moderate terror and natures. If we look to what the waters pity, a sound mind derives satisfaction ; produce, shoals of the fry of fish frequent

the margins of rivers, of lakes, and of the ing anything to say; and with walking, sea itself. These are so happy that they without knowing where to go. And, know not what to do with themselves. prior to both these, I am disposed to Their attitudes, their vivacity, their leaps believe that the waking-hours of infancy out of the water, their frolics in it are agreeably taken up with the exercise which I have noticed a thousand times of vision, or perhaps, more properly with equal attention and amusement—all speaking, with learning to see. conduce to show their excess of spirits, But it is not for youth alone that the and are simply the effects of that excess. great Parent of creation hath provided. Walking by the sea-side in a calm even- Happiness is found with the purring cat ing upon a sandy shore and with an no less than with the playful kitten ; in ebbing tide, I have frequently remarked the arm-chair of dozing age, as well as in the appearance of a dark cloud, or rather either the sprightliness of the dance or a very thick mist, hanging over the edge the animation of the chase. To novelty, of the water, to the height, perhaps, of to acuteness of sensation, to hope, to half a yard, and of the breadth of two or ardour of pursuit, succeeds what is, in no three yards, stretching along the coast inconsiderable degree, an equivalent for as far as the eye could reach, and always them all, “perception of ease." Herein retiring with the water. When this is the exact difference between the young cloud came to be examined, it proved to and the old. The young are not happy be nothing else than-so much space filled but when enjoying pleasure ; the old are with young shrimps in the act of bound. happy when free from pain. And this ing into the air from the shallow margin constitution suits with the degrees of of the water, or from the wet sand. If animal power which they respectively any motion of a mute animal could ex: possess. The vigour of youth was to be press delight, it was this ; if they had stimulated to action by impatience of meant to make signs of their happiness, rest; whilst to the imbecility of age, they could not have done it more intelli- quietness and repose become positive gibly. Suppose then, what I have no gratifications. In one important step the doubt of, each individual of this number advantage is with the old. A state of to be in a state of positive enjoyment; ease is, generally speaking, more attainwhat a sum, collectively, of gratification able than a state of pleasure. A constiand pleasure have we here before our tution, therefore, which can enjoy ease, view!

is preferable to_that which can enjoy The young of all animals appear to me only pleasure. This same perception of to receive pleasure simply from the ease oftentimes renders old age a conexercise of their limbs and bodily facul- dition of great comfort, especially when ties, without reference to any end to be riding at its anchor after a busy or temattained, or any use to be answered by pestuous life. It is well described by the exertion. A child, without knowing Rousseau to be the interval of repose and anything of the use of language, is in a enjoyment between the hurry and the high degree delighted with being able to end of life. How far the same cause speak. Its incessant repetition of a few extends to other animal natures, cannot articulate sounds, or perhaps of the single be judged of with certainty. The apword which it has learned to pronounce, pearance of satisfaction with which most proves this point clearly. Nor is it less animals, as their activity subsides, seek pleased with its first successful endea- and enjoy rest, affords reason to believe vours to walk, or rather to run- which that this source of gratification is apprecedes walking-although entirely igno- pointed to advanced life under all or rant of the importance of the attainment most of its various forms.

In the species to its future life, and even without apply- with which we are best acquainted, ing it to any present purpose. A child namely, our own, I am far, even as an is delighted with speaking, without hav- observer of human life, from thinking that youth is its happiest season, much the falsehood. It is upon this principle less the only happy one. — - Natural that, by the laws of war, it is allowed to Theology.

deceive an enemy by feints, false colours,

spies, false intelligence, or the like; but WHAT CONSTITUTES A LIE.

by no means in treaties, truces, signals of

capitulation or surrender : and the difA LIE is a breach of promise ; for ference is, that the former supposes hoswhoever seriously addresses his discourse tilities to continue, but the latter are to another, tacitly promises to speak the calculated to terminate or suspend them. truth, because he knows the truth is In the conduct of war there is no place expected. Or the obligation of veracity for confidence between the contending may be made out from the direct ill parties ; but in whatever relates to the consequences of lying to social happiness. termination of war, the most religious Which consequences consist either in fidelity is expected, because without it some specific injury to particular indi- wars could not cease, nor the victors be viduals, or in the destruction of that secure but by the destruction of the vanconfidence which is essential to the in- quished. tercourse of human life ; for which latter Many people indulge in serious disreason a lie may be pernicious in its course a habit of fiction and exaggerageneral tendency, and therefore criminal, tion, in the accounts they give of themthough it produce no particular or visible selves, of their acquaintance, or of the mischief to any one.

extraordinary things which they have There are falsehoods which are not seen or heard ; and so long as the facts lies ; that is, which are not criminal ; as, they relate are indifferent, and their 1. Where no one is deceived, which is narratives though false are inoffensive, it the case in parables, fables, novels, jests, may seem a superstitious regard for truth tales to create mirth, ludicrous embellish- to censure them merely for truth's sake. ments of a story, where the declared But this liberty in conversation defeats design of the speaker is not to inform but its own end. Much of the pleasure, and to divert; compliments in the subscrip- all the benefit of conversation depends tion of a letter ; a servant's denying his upon our own opinion of the speaker's master ; a prisoner's pleading not guilty; veracity, for which this rule leaves no an advocate asserting the justice, or his foundation. The faith, indeed, of a belief of the justice, of his client's cause. hearer must be extremely perplexed, who In such instances no confidence is de considers the speaker, or believes that stroyed, because none was reposed; no the speaker considers himself, as under promise to speak the truth is violated, no obligation to adhere to truth, but because none was given. 2. When the according to the particular importance of person to whom you speak has no right what he relates. to know the truth, or, more properly, But beside and above both these where little or no inconveniency results reasons, white lies always introduce from the want of confidence in such cases; others of a darker complexion. I have as where you tell a falsehood to a mad- seldom known any one who deserted man for his own advantage ; to a robber, truth in trifles, that could be trusted in to conceal his property ; to an assassin, matters of importance. Nice distinctions to defeat or divert him from his purpose. are out of the question upon occasions The particular consequence is by the like those of speech, which return every supposition beneficial ; and as to the hour. general consequence, the worst that can The habit, therefore, of lying, when happen is, that the madman, the robber, once formed, is easily extended to serve the assassin will not trust you again, which the designs of malice or interest; like all is sufficiently compensated by the im- habits, it spreads indeed of itself

. As mediate benefit which you propose by there may be falsehoods which are not


lies, so there may be lies without literal been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or or direct falsehood; as when the literal virtue. The man is little to be envied and grammatical signification of a sen- whose patriotism would not gain force on tence is different from the popular and the plains of Marathon, or whose piety customary meaning. It is the wilful would not grow warmer among the ruins deceit that makes the lie ; and we wil- of Iona.- Fourney to the Hebrides. fully deceive when our expressions are not true in the sense in which we believe the hearer to apprehend them : besides (OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 1728–1774. I that, it is absurd to contend for any sense

THE LOVE OF LIFE. of words in opposition to usage ; for all senses are founded upon usage, and upon AGE, that lessens the enjoyment of life, nothing else. Or a man may act a lie, increases our desire of living. Those as by pointing his finger in a wrong dangers which, in the vigour of youth, we direction when a traveller inquires of him had learned to despise, assume his road; or when a tradesman shuts up terrors as we grow old. Our caution inhis windows to induce his creditors to creasing as our years increase, fear believe that he is abroad: for to all moral becomes at last the prevailing passion of purposes, and therefore as to veracity, the mind, and the small remainder of speech and action are the same ; speech life is taken up in useless efforts to keep being only a mode of action.

off our end, or provide for a continued Or, lastly, there may be lies of omis- existence. sion. A writer of English history, who, Strange contradiction in our nature, in his account of the reign of Charles and to which even the wise are liable ! the First, should wilfully suppress any If I should judge of that part of life evidence of that prince's despotic mea- which lies before me by that which I have sures and designs, might be said to be a already seen, the prospect is hideous. liar ; for by entitling his book a History Experience tells me that my past enjoy, of England, he engages to tell the whole ments have brought no real felicity, and truth of the history, or at least all that sensation assures me that those I have he knows of it.- 1bid.

felt are stronger than those which are yet to come. Yet experience and sensation in vain persuade ; hope, more powerful

than either, dresses out the distant pros[SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. 1709-1784.]

pect in fancied beauty; some happiness, CLASSIC GROUND.

in long perspective, still beckons me to

pursue ; and, like a losing gamester, every We were now treading that illustrious new disappointment increases my ardour island which was once the luminary of to continue the game. the Caledonian regions, whence savage Our attachment to every object around clans and roving barbarians derived the us increases in general from the length of benefits of knowledge and the blessings our acquaintance with it. “I would not of religion. To abstract the mind from all choose,” says a French philosopher, " to local emotion would be impossible if it see an old post pulled up,

with which I were endeavoured, and would be foolish had been long acquainted. A mind long if it were possible. Whatever withdraws habituated to a certain set of objects inus from the power of our senses, whatever sensibly becomes fond of seeing them ; makes the past the distant, or the future, visits them from habit, and parts from predominate over the present, advances them with reluctance. From hence prous in the dignity of thinking beings. Far ceeds the avarice of the old in every kind from me and my friends be such frigid of possession ; they love the world and philosophy as may conduct us indifferent all that it produces; they love life and and unmoved over any ground which has | all its advantages, not because it gives

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