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n thick mucous or sanguineous fluid. Besides these there , into 14 books, and is chiefly a practical treatise on the are larger swellings lying deeper in the subcutaneous tissue, forms of procedure in the curia regis or king's court, the which at first are extremely hard and painful, and to which principles of law involved in these forms being only incidentthe term farcy "buds” or “buttons” is applied. These ally referred to. As the source of our knowledge regard. ultimately open and become extensive sloughing ulcers. ing the earliest form of the curia regis, and for the informa.,

The mucous membranes participate in the same lesions tion it affords regarding ancient customs and laws, it is of as are present in the skin, and this is particularly the great value to the student of English history. It is now

. case with the interior of the nose, where indeed, in many generally agreed that the work of Glanvil is of earlier date instances, the disease first of all shows itself. This organ than the Regiam Majestatem, a work which bears a close becomes greatly swollen and inflamed, while from one or resemblance to his. To him is also ascribed the recension both nostrils there exudes a copious discharge of highly of English laws made in the reign of Henry II. offensive purulent or sanguineous matter. The lining mem- The treatise of Glanvil was first printed in 1554. 'An English brane of the nostrils is covered with papules similar in translation, with notes and introduction by Jolin Beames, was juba character to those on the skin, which form ulcers, and may lished at London in 1812. A MS. copy of a Norman-French translalead to the destruction of the cartilaginous and bony tion, made apparently in the reign of King Jolin, is contained in the

library of the duke of Northumberland at Alnwick Castle. textures of the nose. The diseased action extends into the throat, mouth, and eyes, while the whole face becomes GLANVILL, or GLANVIL, JOSEPH (1636–1680), was born swollen and erysipelatous, and the lymphatic glands under at Plymouth in 1636, and was educated at Oxford unithe jaws inflame and suppurate. Not unfrequently the versity, where he graduated as M.A. in 1658. In 1966 le bronchial tubes become affected, and cough attended with obtained the cure of Abbey Church at Bath ; in 1678 lie expectoration of matter similar to that discharged from became prebendary of the church of Worcester, and acted as the nose is the consequence. The general constitutional chaplain in ordinary to Charles II. He died at Batlı, symptoms are exceedingly severe, and advance with great November 16, 1680, in the forty-fourth year of his age. rapidity, the patient passing into a state of extreme pros-Glanvill's first work, The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Cortration. In the acute form of the disease recovery rarely .fidence in Opinions, manifested in a Discourse of the shortif ever occurs, and the case generally terminates fatally in a ness and uncertainty of our knowledge, and its Causes, uith period varying from two or three days to as many weeks. Reflexions on Peripateticism, and an Apology for l'hilosophy,

A chronic form of glanders and farcy is occasionally met 1661, is interesting as showing one special direction in with, in which the symptoms, although essentially the same which the new method of the Cartesian philosophy might as those above described, advance much more slowly, and be developed. Pascal bad already shown how philosophical are attended with relatively less urgent constitutional dis- scepticism might be employed as a bulwark for faith, and turbance. Cases of recovery from this form are on record; Glanvill follows in the same track. The philosophic but in general the disease ultimately proves fatal by exhaus- endeavour to cognize the whole system of things by refertion of the patient, or by a sudden supervention, which is ring all events to their causes appears to him to be from the apt to occur, of the acute form. On the other hand, acute outset doomed to failure. For if we inquire into this causal glavdery is vever observed to become chronic.

relation we find that though we know isolated facts, we canIn the treatment of this malady the main reliance is to not perceive any such connexion between them as that the be placed on the maintenance of the patient's strength by one should give rise to the other. In the words of Hume, atroug nourishment and tonic remedies. If the point of they seem conjoined but never connected.” All causes inoculation of the virus can be early made out, its active then are but secondary, are merely the occasions on which cauterization, as in the case of any poisoned wound, should the one first cause operates. It is singular enough that be resorted to. The opening of abscesses antiseptically, as Glanvill who had not only shown, but even exaggerated, well as the use of antiseptic lotions for the affected mucous the infirmity of human reason, himself paid a strange membranes, is recommended. In all cases of the outbreak tribute to its weakness; for, after having combated scienof glanders it is of the utmost consequence to prevent the tific dogmatism, he not only yielded to vulgar superspread of the disease by the destruction of affected animals, stitions, but actually endeavoured to accredit them both and the cleansing and disinfection of infected localities. in his Scepsis Scientifica, 1665, and in his Philosophical

GLANVIL, GLANVILL, or GLANVILLE, RANULPH DE Considerations concerning the existence of Sorcerers and (died 1190), the oldest writer on English jurisprudence and Sorcery, published in 1666, in 4to. , The story of the chief justiciary of England in the reign of Henry II., was pretended drum, which was said to have been heard born at Stratford in Suffolk, but in what year is unknown. every night in the house of an inhabitant of Wiltshire There is also almost no information regarding his early life. (Mr Mompesson), a story which made much noise in the Butterley Abbey was founded by him in 1171. In 1174, year 1663, and which is supposed to have furnished along with other barons of Yorkshire, he raised a body of Addison with the idea of his comedy of the Drummer, knights to oppose William the Lion, king of Scotland, who appears to have given occasion to the latter work. At his had invaded the north of England, and it was he who took death Glanvill left a piece entitled Sadducismus Triumthe king prisoner at Alnwick. In 1175 he was appointed phatus, which was printed in 1681, reprinted with some sheriff of Yorkshire, in 1176 justice of the king's court and additions in 1682, and translated into German in 1701.' a justice itinerant in the northern circuit, and in 1180 He had there collected twenty-six relations or stories of the chief justiciary of all England. It was under his direction same description as that of the drum, in order to establishi, that Henry II. completed his judicial reforms, but the by a series of facts, the opinion which he had expressed in principal of them had been carried out before he came into his Philosophical Considerations. Glanvill supported a office. After the death of Henry in 1189 Glanvil was much more honourable cause when he undertook the removed from his office by Richard I., and imprisoned till defence of the Royal Society of London, under the title of he had paid a ransom, according to one authority, of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of Science .£15,000. Shortly after obtaining his freedom he joined since the time of Aristotle, 1658, a work which shows how the order of the cross, and he died at the siege of Acre thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical in 1190. At the instance, it is supposed, of Henry II., method as in Bacon. The style of Glanvill is clear, easy, Glanvil wrote or superintended the writing of the Tractatus and animated ; and to the student of philosophy his works de legibus et consuctudinibus regni Anglire. wbich is divided are of considerable interest,

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Besides the works already noticed, Glanvill wrote-Lux Orientalis, to the law, of 1842, revised and sanctioned by the federal 1662 ; Philosophia Pia, or Discourse on the Religious Character, and the Tendency of Experimental Philosophy; Essays on Scrcral Im

council in 1851, the government rests in the hands of a portant Subjects in Philosophy and Religion, 1878 ; An Essay Landesgemeinde or assembly of the whole male population Concerning Preaching; and Sermons. After his death in 1681, above the age of eighteen, which usually meets on the first there were published other sermons, &c., in one volume 4to. See Sunday in May, and elects the cantonal officials, votes the Rémusat, Hist. de la Phil. en Angletcrre, bk. iii. ch. xi.

income and poll-taxes, and passes or rejects any laws that GLARUS, or GlaRIS, a canton of Switzerland, is bounded may be presented by the cantonal council or Landesrath. on the N. and N.E. by St Gall, on the E. and S. by the The cantonal council consists of 117 members. A council Grisons, and on the W. by Uri and Schwyz. Its area is of 45 members, and a committee of 9 members have control 266 or 267 square miles, its greatest length about 33 miles, of the executive. The landamman is president of the comand its greatest breadth about 16. A thoroughly Alpine mittee, the executive council, the cantonal council, and the district, sloping northwards from the lofty range which assembly. Justice is administered by five courts completely comprises the Tödi (11,887 feet), the Biferten Stock independent of the Government. Freedom of the press,

, (11,237), and the Scheibe (9587), and including within its freedom of religious worship, and freedom of trade and limits the Glärnisoh (9584) and the Mürtschen Stock(8012), industry are all guaranteed. Aliens are readily naturalized Glarus is almost completely cut off from the neighbouring and admitted to the rights of citizens. The canton is cantons, except towards the south.

Of the three passes, the divided into 25 communes, only one of which, that of Segnes, the Kisten, and the Panix, which communicate with Glarus, bas more than 5000 inhabitants, while 16 have less the Grisons, the first and second are over the snow, and the than 1000, and the smallest has only 231. third has only a bridle path; and the Klausen pass and the GLARUS, the capital of the canton, is a flourishing little Pragel pass, which conduct respectively to Schwyz and Uri, town on the left bank of the Linth, about 1495 feet above have also mere bridle paths. As far as it is a habitable the sea-level. Its environment is a remarkable one : to country it may be said to consist of the valley of the Linth, the S. the Glärnisch rises 6153 feet; to the N.W. the which extends from the Tödi southward to the Wallenstadt Wiggis, 6033, and to the E. the Schild, 6010. The fire of Lake along with the lesser valleys of the Sernf (or Sernft) 1861 devastated the greater part of the town, destroying and the Klön, which branch off to the east and the west. its Gothic church of the 10th century, the casino, the Govern. The climate, it need hardly be said, is a severe one, the

ment houses, and all its principal buildings ; 2000 of tho generally remaining, even in the lowlands, till near the inhabitants were rendered houseless, and property to tho beginning of May. The föhn at times blows with value of 8,000,000 francs was destroyed. Contributions terrific violence; and, by a law enforced in the town of however were sent in from far and near to the amount of Glarus, every fire in the place must be extinguished as 2,754,606 francs, the federal authorities of Switzerland soon as it sets in. The chief sources of wealth in the voted a loan of 1,000,000 at two per cent., and the canton canton are the pastures and the manufacturing indus- furnished a subsidy at 3 per cent; the town was rapidly tries. Though copper, silver, and iron mines were formerly rebuilt in a substantial and regular style, and the public wrought, the only mineral production now of commercial edifices restored. The church is used in common by the importance is slate, which is extensively quarried in the Protestants and the Roman Catholics

. The high school Plattenberg. Not more than a fifth of the soil is capable accommodates 700 pupils. Most of the population, which of cultivation by the plough, and the agricultural produce in 1870 numbered 5516, are supported by the cotton manu. has consequently to be supplemented by foreign supplies. facture carried on in the town and the vicinity. A certain About 9000 or 10,000 head of cattle are pastured in the trace of rustic life is still maintained, as the operatives have canton, and according to the census of 1876 there are 2000 each a bit of ground in the "almend.” On the opposito sbeep, 6900 goats, and 3000 swine. Neither butter nor side of the river lies the industrial village of Enneda. ordinary cheese is made in sufficient quantities for the local consumption, but the Schabzeiger, Schotter Käse, founder of the convent of Seckingen on the Rhine, built a church

In the end of the 5th century an Irisn monk, Fridolin, the Kräuterkäse, or green cheese," made of skim milk, whether

on the site of the present town, and the name of St Hilarius, which of goats or cows, mixed with butter-milk and coloured with he gave it in honour of his patron the bishop of Poitiers, in course powdered steinklee (Melilotus cærulea), is still largely manu

of time became corrupted to Glarus or Glaris. The whole valley factured. The curd is brought down from the mountain,

was reckoned to the estates of the abbey of Seckingen, and it was

governed by a mayor or bailiff whose nomination was vested chalets in sacks, which contain about 200 ih each. After ultimately in the Hapsburg family. The tyranny of these officers being ground for about 2} hours in a mill along with the constrained the people of Glarus to join the Helvetic confederation klee powder, which is added in the proportion of 3 Id to the in 1352, and in 1388 they secured their independence by a victory 100, the curd is put into shapes, and pressed in the usual

over the Austrians at Näfels, the anniversary of which is still celc.

brated on the second Thursday of April. Zwingli the Reformer was way. It grows ripe in about a year and keeps a long time. curate of Glarus from 1506 to 1516, and by 1530 the new doctrines Large quantities are exported to America. The cotton had been accepted by five-sixths of the population of the canton. The manufacture is the staple of the canton, and gives support two religious parties, though they were happily prevented from to about a fourth of the population. Formerly distributed appealing to arms, continued long in a state of mutual alienation

and suspicion; the Protestants, for example, would have pothing through the country as a domestic industry, it is now con. to do with the Gregorian calendar because it was introduced by the centrated in a few factory towns and villages, which in the papal party. At length a settlement of a peculiar kind was effected aggregate keep about 250,000 spindles going. The cotton in 1683. Each confession was allowed to have a cantonal assembly,

a cantonal council, and officials of its own; while for all matters in goods are sent to the East, America, and Africa. It is not

which both parties were interested there was a cantonal assembly only in their own little country that the people of Glarus and a cantonal council for discussion and administration in common. find a field for their energies; they have contributed to the It was in the beginning of the 18th century, that the present industries of many parts of Europe, and their poorer emi- prosperity of the canton received its original impulse. Cotton grants have founded three flourishing settlements in Wis- spinning was introduced in 1712 by Heidegger of Zurich, and consin-New Glarus, Vilten, and New Elm. The popula- tion of the canton increased from 15,000 to 20,000 during the

weaving and calico-printing followed before 1750. The popula. tion, which in 1851 was 30,213, had increased by 1870 to century. The effects of the great Revolution were beneficially 35,150, and was estimated in 1876 at 36,179. The vast experienced, and the early part of the 19th century was marked by

numerous improvements, political and social. Till 1811 the lower majority are Protestarts, only 6,888 being Catholics accord

course of the Linth was extremely irregular, and its inundatious ing to the census of 1870. The constitution of Glarus is had gradually turned a large stretch of country into a swamp; but of the simplest kind and extremely democratic. According i under the patronage and direction mainly of Escher (von der Linth,





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as he came afterwards to be called), there was constructed a magnio 1 was spent. In 1739 the General Assembly, without any ficent system of canals which completely remedied the evils, and the application either from him or from his friends, removed the desolate region soon became one of the finest parts of the canton. The

sentence of deposition which had been passed against him, whole cost of the works up till 1823 was 974,553 francs. When the new constitution of 1836 was introduced, the Roman Catholic

min. and restored him to the character and exercise of a minister ority, whose influence it greatly diminished, were urged on by Bossi, of the gospel of Christ, though declaring that he was not the bishop of Chur (Coire), to break off from their Protestant country: to be esteemed a minister of the Established Church of men; but the Government expelled the few priests who refused to take the oath, and separated the canton from its condexion with Scotland, or eligible for a charge, until he should

have rethe diocese of Chur. After Bossi's death the decree of separation nounced the principles embraced and avowed by him that was revoked. In the Sonderbund war of 1847 Glarus was true to were inconsistent with the constitution of the church. the federation; and the same spirit was shown in the voting about Besides the Testimony Glas wrote a number of papers, exthe constitution in 1872-75. und Fridenszeiten verlorenen Sachen und Handlen zu Glarus, a 16th-century collected edition at Edinburgh in 1761 (4 vols. 8vo), and

See Valentin Tschudt, Kurze historische Beschreib- oder Erzellung, der in Kriegs pository, polemical, or practical, which were published in a chronicle, printed by J.J. Blumer, in Archiv für Schweizerische Geschichte, Zurich, VOL. 13., 1863; Johann Helurich Techudi, Beschreibung des Lobl. Orths und Lands again at Perth in 1782 (5 vols. 8vo). He died in 1773 Glarus, Zurich, 1714; Christoph Trumpi, Neuere Glarner-Chronik, Wintherthur, The Glassite denomination,' which has never been a numerous 1774; J. M. Schuler, Die Linththäler, Zürich, 1814 : Résultat moral du desseche des

one, is distinguished by a number of peculiarities alike in doctrine, marais de la Linth, Genera, 1825; Melchior Schuler, Geschichte des Landes Glarus, Zurich, 1834; J. J. Bäbler, Geschichte u. Inhalt der alten Verträge zwischen den discipline, and worship, some of which have already been indicated. Reformirten u Katholiken im Kanton Glarus, Glarus, 1836; J. J. Blumer, “ Das One of the most characteristic of its tenets is that which owes its Thal Glarus unter Seckingen und Oesterreich und seine Befreiung," in Archiv für

elaboration to Robert Sandeman (1718-1771), the son-in-law of Schweizerische Geschichte, Baill., Zarich, 1844; Dr Oswald Heer and J.J. Blumen

Glas, from whom is derived the name of Sandemanians, by which Heer, Der Kanton Glarus, historisch-geographisch-stalistisch geschildert, St Gall, 1846, forming part of Gemalde der Schweiz Oswald Heer, Escher von der Linth Ein the sect is principally known in England and America. In a Lebensbild, Zurich, 1873; Egli, Taschenbuch Schweizer. Geographie, Zurich, 1875. series of letters (1957) to Hervey, the author of Theron and Aspasio, GLAS, JOHN (1695-1773), the founder of the sect gene- he maintained that justifying faith is a simple the divine

testimony concerning Jesus Christ, differing in no way in its rally known as Glassites or Sandemanians, was born at

character from belief in any ordinary human testimony. No disAuchtermuchty, Fife, where his father was parish minister, tinctive theological system, however, has as yet been elaborated on the 5th of October 1695. On completion of his educa- from this point of view. In their practice the Glassite churches tion for the ministry at the universities, of St Andrews and aim at a strict conformity with the primitive type of Christianity Edinburgh, he was licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of elders, pastors, or bishops, who are chosen according to what are

as that is understood by them. Each congregation has a plurality of Perth, and soon afterwards ordained by that of Dundee believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous as minister of the parish of Tealing (1719). During his education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality ministry there he gradually formed peculiar opinions, which

in office. To have been married a second time disqualifies for as early as 1725 found expression in the formation of a

ordination, or for continued tenure of the office of bishop: In all

the action of the church unanimity is considered to be necessary; society "separate from the multitude,” numbering nearly and if any member opinion from the rest, he must either a hundred, and drawn from his own and neighbouring surrender his judgment to that of the church or be suut out from parishes. The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged its communion. To join in prayer with any one who is not a themselves" to join together in the Christian profession, eat or drink with one who has been excommunicated is held to

member of the denomination is regarded as unlawful, and even to to follow Christ the Lord as the righteousness of His be a heinous sin. The Lord's Supper is observed weekly; and people, to walk together in brotherly love and in the duties between forenoon and afternoon service 'every Sunday a love feast, of it in subjection to Mr Glas as their overseer in the

at which it is incumbent on every member to be present, is held Lord, to observe the ordinance of the Lord's Supper once

after the manner of the primitive Christians. Mutual exhortation

is practised at all the meetings for divine service, it being lawful every month, to submit themselves to the Lord's law for for any member who possesses the gift to speak. The practice of removing offences” (Matth. xvüi.), and so on. From the washing one another 8 feet was at one time observed ; and it is still scriptural doctrine of the essentially spiritual and heavenly customary for each brother and sister to receive new. members, on

Things strangled" and "blood" nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching admission, with a holy, kiss. drew the conclusions, not only that the church, as being accumulation of wealth is regarded as unscriptural and improper,

are rigorously abstained from; the lot is regarded as sacred; the identical with that kingdom, ought to consist of none and each member considers his property as liable to be called for but truly spiritual Christian men, but also that the civil at any time to meet the wants of the poor and the necessities of establishment of the church was unlawful and utterly incon. the church: The number of adherents at present belonging to tho

denomination is probably a little under 2000, sistent with the spirit of Christianity. For the promulga. tion of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the

17th century, concerning the details of whose life very

GLASER, CHRISTOPHER, one of the minor chemists of the doctrines of the standards of the national Church of little is known. He was a native of Basel, came to Paris, Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, succeeded Left where, in the course of the investigations which followed, he Jardin

du Roi

; and was appointed apothecary to Louis XIV,

yre as demofistrator on chemistry in the affirmed with still more explicitness than formerly his belief and to the duke of Orleans. He is best known to us by that "every national church established by the laws of his Traité de la Chymie (Paris, 1663), which gives a very earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and favourable idea of the chemical science of his time. The persecuting in its spirit,” and further declared opinions upon little work went through some ten editions in about fivethe subject of church government which amounted to an entire repudiation of Presbyterianism and

an acceptance of and English. Dumas and other writers indeed have spoken

and-twenty years, and was translated into both German Independency. For these opinions he was in 1728 suspended from the discharge of ministerial functions, and very disparagingly both of the Traité and of the author's finally in 1730 deposed; the members of the society already to rest on altogether insufficient grounds. One thing very

merits and character, but this adverse judgment appears referred to, however, for the most part continued to adhere mach against Glaser is bis alleged connexion with the to him, thus constituting the first Classite” or “Glasite" marchioness de Brinvilliers. It does not appear, however, church. The seat of this congregation was shortly afterwards that he had any share in the notorious poisonings beyond transferred to Dundee, whence Glas subsequently removed to Edinburgh, where he officiated for some time as an "elder.. making the deadly substanees which the marchioness and He next laboured in Perth for a few years, but ultimately others employed in secret. He appears to have died some returned to Dundee, where the remainder of his life years before 1676. A salt (the normal sulphate of potas

sium) which he showed how to prepare, and the medicinal ? His argument is most fully exhibited in a treatise 'entitled The properties of which he pointed out, was named Glaseri sal Testimony of the King of Martyrs concerning. His Kingdom (John polychrestum, or salt of many uses. The native sulphate xviii, 36, 37) Explained and Illustrated (1729).

is still known as alaserite.

GLASGOW, the most populous city in Great Britain | added to the population of the city; this indeed is the next to London, is situated on the banks of the river estimate given in official registration returns, which set down Clyde, in the Scottish comty of Lanarkshire, about 20 the population estimated to the middle of 1879:as 578,156. miles above Greenock, where the river spreads out into a The smaller burghs which have sprung up round Glasgow poble estuary, with branching lochs running deep into the within the last twenty or thirty years have kept pace with heart of the Western Highlands. It is within ten hours' the mother burgh in development, and now contain a railway run (4054 miles) of the metropolis, and an hour population amongst them of about 170,000. and a quarter (45 miles) of Edinburgh, the latitude being burghs are essentially parts of Glasgow, having been formed 59° 51' 32" N., and the longitude 4' 17' 54" W. The by the overflow of its population, they ought to be added to extreme breadth of the city is about 34 miles from north the city in any estimate of its size and importance. The to south, and the extreme length 5 miles from east to west. population of Glasgow, taking this basis, is therefore close The circumference is about 10 miles; and the area em- upon three quarters of a million (750,000). The increase braoed within the municipal boundaries is now (1879) of the population during the present century has been 61117 acres. The population when the last consus was greater perhaps than that of any other city or town of taken in 1871 was 477,732, but during the eight years the Old World. In 1801 it was only 77,385; in 1821 it that have elapsad, the increase of inhabitants both in the was 147,043; in 1841, 255,650; in 1861, 395,503; and city proper and in its suburbs has been very great. It is in 1871, 477,732. In 1877 the dwelling-houses numbered within the mark to say that above 100,000 have been | 105,062, and the rental exceeded £3,250,000.

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Plan of Glasgow (central portion). Unlike the "grey metropolis of the north," Glasgow church of St Mungo, and that as the site was pleasant, and shows rather poorly in the history of Scotland. Its own real the Molendinar and the Clyde supplied ample store of trout history—the history of its commerce and industries can and salmon, the village under the fostering care of the hardly be dated farther back than the beginning of the last monks grew slowly till it became a place of importance. century, when the union of England and Scotland roused of that growth, however, nothing is really known till we into extraordinary activity the trading spirit of its inhabit reach the 12th century. In the year 1115 an investigation ants. And yet Glasgow is an old city. Its foundations was ordered by David, then prince of Cumbria, of the were laid when the half-mythical Kentigera sat down by lands and churches belonging to the bishopric of Glasgow, the banks of the Molendinar, to teach the rough Celts of and from the deed which still exists it is evident that at that Strathciyde the truths of Christianity. It was about the time a cathedral had been endowed. A few years later David middle of the 6th century that this apostle of truth made succeeded to the Scottish throne on the death of his brother, his appearance in the west of Scotland, and built his little Alexander I., and among the many endowments he made wooden church on the spot upon which some centuries later for religious purposes, we find that he gave to the see of his successors reared the noble cathedral which still stands Glasgow the lands of Partick, besides restoring many in perfect beauty. One can only guess that the inhabitants possessions of which it had been despoiled. Jocelyn Fas of this portion of Strathclyde gathered round the abode and l hishop of Glasgow for a long period, and is memorable for the efforts ho made to rebuild the cathedral which had been took place between the parties at the Butts to the east of destroyed by fire. He collected funds with so much the town. The regent's troops were successful, and to success that in 1197 tbe new structure was sufficiently punish the inhabitants for their devotion to the Lennox advanced to be dedicated. The next bishops of note were family the town was pillaged. The unfortunate Queen Bodington and Wisheart. The former carried on the build- Mary visited her husband Darnley when he lay ill at his ing work of Jocelyn; the latter was a patriotic Scot who father's house Limmerfield, near Glasgow visit which resisted the conquering army of Edward L, and was among afterwards was made of fatal significance to her when her the first to join in the revolt of Wallace, and to receive case was heard before Queen Elizabeth in council. The Robert Bruce when he was proscribed by Edward and lay inhabitants of Glasgow had no liking for the fair queen, under the ban of the church for the murder of the Red for many of them fought against her at the battle of LangComyn. Wisheart was a prisoner from the year 1306 to the side, where she lost her crown and kingdom. Glasgow battle of Bannockburn, and he lived to see Bruce firmly seeing to have been fairly prosperous after the accession of established upon the Scottish throne: Bishop Rae deserves James VI. and the union of the crowns of England and mention for having built a stone bridge over the Clyde Scotland. It was recovering from the loss which it sus(1345). Bishop Turnbull was the greatest benefactor the tained by tl Reformation through the dispersion of the city had till then found; for he was the founder of Glasgow wealth of its ecclesiastical lords. A little trade was springuniversity (1450). He also received a charter from James ing up with foreign parts, chiefly with the Low Countries. 11. in 1420, erecting the town and the lands of the bishops But the city suffered somewhat severely in the reign of into a regality. In 1491 the see was made metropolitan Charles I. Its inhabitants had become fiercely anti-prethrough the influence of James IV., who had been a canon of latical, and were obnoxious to the ruling powers. When the cathedral in earlylife. The last Roman Catholic arch- Montrose in his victorious course marched into the city visliop of Glasgow was James Bethune, consecrated in 1552.. after the battle of Kilsyth he levied a heavy contribution, At the Reformation in 1560 the archbishop fled to France, although the city was suffering at the time from one of the carrying with him all the relics, documents, and valuables periodical visits of the plague. In 1648 the provost and belonging to the see. The cathedral, upon which so much his bailies were deposed for contumacy to Charles I., and care had been bestowed by the successors of Bishop Jocelyn, were imprisoned for a few days, while four regiments of very nearly suffered the devastation which was inflicted foot and horse were quartered on the magistrates, council, upon so many abbeys and churches by the more bigoted of and session. Plague and famine prevailed during the the Reformers. It was saved by the craftsmen of Glasgow following year ; in 1652 there was a great fire which turning out in their strength and chasing away the destroyed about a third of the town and £100,000

£ destroyers of the "cookeries," who had already begun to lay worth of property, - After the restoration of Charles sacrilegious hands upon the venerable building. After the II., and during the persecutions of his and bis brother's Reformation, and till the Revolution of 1688, which re-estab. reign, Glasgow suffered severely: It was a centre of dislished Presbyterianism as the religious form of worship in affection against the Government, the headquarters Scotland, the see of Glasgow was occupied by a number of of the Whigs of the west of Scotland. Glasgow prison archbishops, the tenure of whose office in many cases was was filled to overflowing with the rebels, as they were precarious. The most notable fact after the Reformation in called, and it is a proof of the sympathy with which they the history of the Glasgow Church was the Assembly of 1638 were regarded by the citizens that on the occasion of which was held in the city, when Episcopacy was energeti- another great fire in 1678 the doors of the prison wero cally abjured, the Solemn League and Covenant accepted, thrown open, and the prisoners set at liberty. The Govemand its signature made binding upon all who claimed the ordi- ment retaliated by sending an arny of wild Highlanders to nances of the Presbyterian Church. The fact that the the city, who savagely oppressed the inbabitants and craftsmen were zealous for the preservation of their fine old roused up the spirit of resistance which vented itself at cathedral indicates probably that the Reformation doctrines Loudon Hill and Bothwell Bridge. With the Revolution were not receired so enthusiastically in Glasgow as in many peace and prosperity came to Glasgow, only to be partially other places in Scotland; but they took deep root latterly, interrupted by the risings in 1715 and 1745. A regimeut and in the struggles for religious and civil liberty in the of 500 men was raised in Glasgow to support William and 17th century the inhabitants were among the foremost to Mary and Presbyterian rights and privileges; and in return assist and endure in the good cause.

the city was declared free by a charter, the citizens having Glasgow owed its erection into a burgh to its ecclesiastic the right of electing their own municipal rulers. Yords. One of these obtained a royal charter from William Glasgow was not aware of the vast benefits that were the Lion in the last quarter of the 12th century (between conferred upon her by the union of England and Scotland the years 1175 and 1178), which made the town a burgh, in 1707. The measure was stoutly resisted by the inhabiand gave it a market with freedom and customs. Another tants, and its proclamation nearly led to a riot; but the

a charter, it is supposed, was granted in 1190, and according merchants very soon saw that by the water highway which to a deed dated 1268 the town was governed by a provost floweel through the town they could have access to the proand bailies, and had courts of justice for settling disputes fitable trade that had been opened up in North America. among the inhabitants. There are no records, however, Glasgow's situation for the western foreign traffic was the till almost quite recent times. A few incidents of national best in Scotland, and inferior to none of the great towns of history with which Glasgow was connected may be noted, England. The Treaty of Union put every Scottish port, so to fill up the blank from the period when it was an ecclesi- far as trade was concerned, on an equal footing with the astical town to the date at which it started its great career English ports; and there was no reason why Glasgow should as the capital of Scottish industry and commerce. Wallace not share in the wealth which in ever-increasing amount was sought one of his successful battles for Scottish liberty in yearly coming across the Atlantic. As has been already the High Street of Glasgow in the year 1300. In 1350 stated, after the troublous times of the Reformation the the plague raged in the city, and returned thirty years after-trade prosperity of Glasgow was considerable. In the wards, though not in so severe a form. About 1542 the middle of the 16th century there were ten towns in Scotbishop's castle, which was garrisoned by the earl of Lennox, land above it in population and importance, but by the close was besieged by the earl of Angus, then regent, and after of the 17th century it had risen to the second rank, its surrcuder ou terms which were dishonoured, a skirmish with a population of about 10,000 or 11,000. This

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