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An easy Guide to English Grammar, by way of
Question and Answer : Design'd for the Use of Schools, and such adult Persons, as would become acquainted with the different Parts of Speech contained in the English Tongue.
P O S T SCRI PT. As several Authors have treated largely upon this Subject ; I shall not here pretend to treat of the Nature and Formation of Verbs, or the Declension of Nouns, Tense, Mood, or Gender at large; but only give a short Account of the different Parts of Speech; in order to give the Learner an Idea of the English Tongue, and prepare him for the better Understanding of all the following Tables, and Words in general.
Τ Α Β L Ε Ι.
Of GRAMMAR in general. Maft. WHAT do you mean by Grammar ?
Sch. Grammar signifies the Art of Speake ing, and Writing our Native Language aright, and according to Rule.
M. What do you mean by Parts of Speech? S. They are the proper Divisions or Parts, into which a Tongue or Language is divided; and some Languages have more than others.
M. How many parts of Speech are there in the English Tongue ?
S. Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunktion, Preposition and Interjection.
M. Has every Language nine Parts of Speech?
S. No: The Latin has but Eight; it having no Article.
M. But is not the Name of any of these Parts of Speech the same in every Language ?
s. Yes, A Noun or a Verb in English, wilt atways be a Noun and a Verb in the Latin Tongue, and in all others.
M. Pray explain these parts of Speech more particularly?
S. I will.
T ABLE II.
1. Of the ARTICE E.
M. What do you mean by an Article ? S. An Article is a small Word, placed before a Noun, in order to express more fully the Nature and Signification of it; as, A Man, A Horse, A Tree, A bock, &c.
M. How many Articles are there?
S. Two, the Article A, (or An) and the Article Tke; both which have a different Use and Signification.
M. What is the Use of the Article A cr An.?
S. Tre Article A or An, is used to express the fames only, A is used before a Consonant, and Ari, before a Vowel. Thus, we lay, A Man, A a
Book, &c. but we write, or fay, An Eye, An
N. B. When the Article comes before H; then either A or An may
be used ; as, A Horife, A Hand, A Habit, or An Horse, An Hand, An Habit. But we always write An Hour, which is pronounced Ar 'Our.
M. How is the Article The used ? S. This Article. Thews the Identity or Reality of a Thing itself; as, The King, The Church, &c. signifies, that very King and Church we are then speaking of.
N. B. There is this Lifference between the Articles ; A, or An, signifies One, or any one : As thus, Give me a Knife, or an Apple ; is, Give me One Knife, or Any Knife, or Apple ; but when we say, Give me the Knife or the Apple; it means, that very Knife or Apple, that I point to, or am then, or had been fpeaking of.
T A BL E III.
2. Of Noun s.
M. What is a Noun ? "S. A Noun is the Name of the Thing itself: That is, every Thing that can be seen, felt, or conceived, is a Noun.
M. How many Nouns are there?
S. Two : A Noun Substantive, and aNoun Adječtivo (pronounced Adjetive.)
M. How may I know a Noun Substantive from « Noun Adjective.
S. A Noun Substantive(as was said before, is the Name of any Substance or Thing; as, Man, Beaft,
Bird, Fish, Fowl, Church, House, Chair, Stool, Knife, Fork, Needle, Pin, &c. are Substantives.
& Things also that we cannot fee, but have a Conception of, are Substantives ; as, Joy, Sorrow, Life, Death, Time, Eternity, &C
M. Are there but one Sort of Noun Substantives?
S. Yes, there are two Sorts : Noun Substantives proper and common.
M. What is a proper Substantive ?
S. Proper Names, Places, &c. as, Peter, John, Mary, London, Bristol,' &c. are Substantives proper ; for John and Mary, is not the Name of every Man and Woman, nor is London the Name of every City.
M. Very well; and pray what is a Substantive common?
$. The Name of every Thing of the fame Sort, Kind, or Quality ; thus, Man, Woman, Spirit, City, Water, Foy, Sorrow, &c. for a Man, is callid a Man, be he small or great : A Spirit, a Spirit, be he good or bad: Â City, a City, be it small or large : And Water is Water, be it falt or fresh, &c.
Of NOUN ADJECTIVE S.
M. What is a Noun Adjective ?
S. Noun AdjeEtives serve to express the Nature, Manner, and Quality of Noun Substantives ; as, good, bad, great, small, black, blue, red, &c. are Adjectives; but they want some other Word to be joined to them, and then the Sense is complete. Thus, a good Boy, a bad Man, a great House, a black Coat, a red Gown. Here you see, good, bad, great, black, and red, are all Adjectives ; and Boy, Man, House, Coat, and Gown, are the Substantives.
- M. Please to name me a few more Adjectives?
S. I will, and you may soon perceive that the following Words, rude, wicked, barbarous, confident, dextrous, furious, eternal, quarrelsome, confounded, renowned, commanding, everlasting, San&tifying, &c. &c. &c. have no fuil Meaning till joined with a Subftantive ; but when we say, A rude, wicked, confident, barbarous Wretch: Å dextrous Fellow : A fuo rious Dog : An eternal, everlasting Being, &c. we have then a juft Idea of the Sense of the Sentence.
M. Does not the Article The, sometimes accoinpany Adjectives?
S. Yes, and then they often become Substantives in Sense and Meaning, and are wrote with a capital Letter : Thus, God rewards the Righteous, and punishes the Wicked. Or
Or thus, Constantine the Great; George the Renowned ; means Conftantine the great Emperor, and George the renowned King.
N.B.When two Substantives are joined together by a Hyphen or Dash, the first is like an Adjective, for it will not stand alone without the other ; only it is wrote with a great Letter like a Substantive: Thus, a' Malt-Loft, a Wheat-Barn, a BarleyChamber.
Of the Comparison of Adjectives. M. What do you mean by the Comparison of Adjectives
s. The comparing of Words or Things together, whereby we see one is good, another better, and another best of all. Also, bigh, higher, highest, and wife, wiser, and wifeft, &c.
M. Pray how many Degrees of Comparison are there?