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me as a slaughter-house for the slaughtering of cattle or other animals for human food, and I hereby declare that the following particulars in regard to the said house, for which I apply for such license, to be true to the best of my knowledge and belief.

1. Situation of premises
2. Name and address of owner

3. The tenure on which the premises are held by the applicant. (If leasehold state for what period the lease is unexpired). 4. Description of premises. (a) Superficial area under cover

feet. (6) Height of walls (c) Height of roof or ceiling (d) State whether there are any, and if so how

many, rooms over the premises, and how

they are used or occupied (e) If a yard is attached to the premises, superficial area of such yard

feet. 5. Number of pens or stalls for cattle to be kept on the premises previous to being slaughtered

6. Number of cattle or other animals for which accommodation is provided on the premises

(a) Oxen
(6) Calves
(c) Sheep or lambs

(d) Swine
7. State how the premise are supplied with water

8. Number of water troughs on the premises for the supply of water to cattle

9. State whether the premises and yards are paved or flagged

10. State whether the means of drainage is sufficient

11. State how the premises under cover are ventilated

12. State what provision is made for the removal of blood and offal, &c., from the premises

13. State the largest number of cattle or other animals which it is intended to slaughter weekly on the premises

(a) Oxen
(6) Calves
(c) Sheep or lambs
(d) Swine

Dated this

day of

187

Signature of Applicant.

Address. The inspection of markets should be made mostly on market days, and, when time permits, daily inspections should be made. So much work is there in this department that in moderate-sized towns special inspectors are appointed for the markets.

The visiting of over-crowded dwelling-houses must be done during the day as occasion requires, excepting when legal proceedings are to be commenced, when a visit must be made during the night, after the inmates have retired to bed. By this procedure the inspector is enabled to prove the exact number of persons sleeping in the house. On these oceasions he should have an assistant with him, so that the evidence of each may, if required, be placed before the magistrates.

F

CHAPTER VI.

NUISANCES FROM SMOKE AND OFFENSIVE

TRADES (a).

A GREAT number of nuisances arising from smoke still exist. The subject has been a most difficult one, but is now becoming more under control than hitherto. As to what constitutes a nuisance arising from smoke is, we presume, the amount of black smoke issuing from a chimney (not being the chimney of a private dwelling-house) in certain quantities, and at the rate of so many minutes per hour. In practice, proceedings are taken against proprietors where black smoke is found issuing from the chimney for more than ten minutes per hour.

In going carefully through the Public Health Act, 1875, it is quite evident that nuisances from smoke and offensive trades have received special consideration in the framing of the Act. The inspector will therefore require to exercise great care in putting the provisions of the Act into operation.

Nuisances from offensive trades will depend upon the amount of the injurious and offensive gases given off, and the position of the works complained of in relation to the nearest dwelling-houses.

(a) As to offensive trades in the metropolis, see section 2 of Slaughter-houses (Metropolis) Act, 1874.-Woolrych, p. 363.

The following are the trades mentioned in the 112th section of the Act:

Blood boiler,
Bone boiler,
Fellmonger,
Soap boiler,
Tallow melter,
Tripe boiler, or
Any other noxious or offensive trade, business,

or manufacture. This list does not, of course, include the whole of the trades with which the inspector will be called upon to interfere. It will, however, in all cases where in his opinion a nuisance exists caused by the carrying on of an offensive trade, be his duty to report the same to his committee, for them to give such instructions as they may deem requisite to meet the case.

Nuisances from smoke. While upon this subject it is advisable to glance at it briefly in a thoroughly practical manner, first considering how the smoke is formed, and then as to the best methods for preventing its formation.

The composition of common coal varies, but may be taken to be generally as follows :-Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and a small portion of nitrogen, and also a portion of earthy and saline matters. One hundred pounds of coal is said to contain

4:4 lbs. of hydrogen, 24

volatile carbon, 48

fixed carbon, 2• sulphur.

The perfect combustion of 100 lbs. of coal would evaporate, say, 1,200 lbs. of water. To do this, it is asserted that 746 lbs. of atmospheric air is required to be introduced into the furnace.

When coal is placed in the furnace, and commences to burn, it may be considered to be in a state of active decomposition, and, like other matter of vegetable origin or nature, gives off during this decomposition certain injurious gases, also gases not injarious, which are as follows:

Nitrogen gas;
Carbonic acid gas (or carbon as smoke);
Water, in the form of steam;
Sulphurous acid gas;

Sulphite of ammonia. The one to which we must direct our attention is the carbonic acid gas, on account of its quantity as compared with the others, and its injurious effects upon health. It is asserted that air containing 7 per cent. of carbonic acid gas is destructive to animal life. It is a very heavy gas, and the one known as choke damp to miners. It is not inflammable, and therefore great difficulty is experienced in consuming or destroy

ing it.

During the process of combustion the hydrogen, which is a combustible gas, is readily consumed, but, if not sufficiently supplied with oxygen, passes off in its gaseous form.

It may be here remarked that the Public Health Act

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