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at little cost, to all bronze cannon of the United any gun of a calibre equal to Armstrong's will determined occurrence of worked flints mixed States, and so render them as far superior to throw a ball, with less than half the powder, indiscriminately with the bones of the extinct the present smooth bore guns as, in small arms, “the full distance attained in his practice." cave bear and rhinoceros, attracted great and the most improved rifle surpasses the musket.

general attention amongst geologists. The depth of grooving is so shallow as in no PRE-ADAMITE MECHANICS AND In 1849 M. Boucher de Perthes, President of wise materially to impair the strength of the

THEIR TOOLS.

the “Société d'Emulation" of Abbeville, pubgun, while it is sufficient to compel the projec

lished the first volume of a work entitled " Antile to take the rifle flight. The effect of these A VERY curious controversy has lately sprung.

tiquités Celtiques et Antédiluviennes,” in contrivances was exhibited in an extraordinary up among our geologists and antiquaries re- which he announced the important discovery manner

, by the increased range obtained while specting the duration of man's past existence of worked flints in beds of undisturbed sand using the same charge of powder and elevation upon the earth, the occasion of it being the and gravel containing the remains of extinct in projecting masses of double the weight of the discovery in several places of various flint

mammalia. Although treated from an antiimplements which

appear to have been the usual spherical balls. The merits of the pro-tools of some very ancient race of mechanics / quarian point of view, still the statement of the

to consist in swering fully the expectations desired of them ; shaped apparently for arrow heads or knives ; consistent. Nevertheless

, both in France and These tools consist, first, of certain flint-flakes, sections by M. Ravin, is perfectly clear and

facts by this gentleman, with good their ease in loading ; the certainty of the ex- secondly

, of certain pointedeflint Weapons trun in England his conclusions were generally conpansion of the filling and its firm hold in the cated at one end, and intended probably for sidered erroneous ; nor has he since obtained

lance or spear-heads; and, thirdly, of certain such verification of the phenomena as to cause grooves of the guns. The greased canvas wipes the rifling clean and leaves the bore in condition oval or almond-shaped flint implements with a

so unexpected a fact to be accepted by men of readily to receive the next charge

, and which is cutting edge all round, which were used, it is science. There have, however, been some few also a sure protection to the bore from injury. found that in form and workmanship --for

all exceptions to the

general incredulity. The late commended to the favourable consideration of seem to agree that they are products of work: de Perthes, not only satisfied himself of the the Government ; and as the experimental manship -- the two last classes differ essentially truth of the fact, but corroborated it in 1855

from the implements of what is called the Celtic by his “ Mémoire sur des Instruments en Silex firing was subject to several disadvantages which may hereafter be avoided, the Board re- period, which are usually more or less ground trouvés à St. Acheul.” Some few geologists commend that guns of the service calibre be and polished, and cut at the wide and not the granted to General James for rifling according been discovered, very remarkabły, in intimate tions and specimens, warmly engaged Mr. narrow end. All these flint implements have himself convinced by N. de Perthes' explana

suggested further inquiry ; whilst Dr. Falconer, to his principle.

association with the remains of extinct races of Prestwich to examine the sections. We learn that another series of experiments animals, and in undisturbed beds of drift of a is in contemplation, in which will be compared, geological period hitherto considered long ante- took the inquiry full of doubt, went last Easter,

Mr. Prestwich, who confesses that he underside by side, the performances of this new gun cedent to the existence of man upon the earth. with those now in use. Of course the remark

first to Amiens. On his first visit he obtained

Mr. Joseph Prestwich, a Fellow of both the several specimens from the workmen, but able precision and power of the new rifled ord- Royal and the Geological Societies, has lately he was not successful in finding any himnance constitute its chief value, but the great furnished a paper to the Royal Society in which self. On his arrival, however, at Abbeville, he saving of ammunition effected is a matter of no he very temperately states the facts hitherto received a message from M. Pinsard of Amiens, small importance. The results of the experi- ascertained in reference to these strange dis- to inform him that one had been discovered ments above referred to are expressed in tabu

coveries. lar form, at much length. As an example, it is comparatively rare are the cases even of the al- the following day, and was left in situ for his shown that in one instance 18 shots were fired leged discovery of the remains of man or of his with his friend Mr. Evans, he satisfied himself a mean distance of 674 yards, at an elevation of works in the various superficial drifts, notwith- that it was truly in situ, 17 feet from the surone degree—the powder weighing 11 lb., the standing the extent to which these deposits are face, in undisturbed ground, and he had a projectile 12-the deviation being only four worked; and of these few cases so many have photographic sketch of the section taken.* Dr. inches to the right of centre, and half an inch above it. On reaching ground the missile the earth until after the latest geological gravel of round pieces of hard chalk, pierced

been disproved, that man's non-existence on Rigollot also mentions the occurrence in the was buried five feet in compact sand. In

changes, and the extinction of the Mammoth, through with a hole, which he considers were another instance a shot was fired 2,050 yards, Tichorhine Rhinoceros, and other great mam- used as beads. Mr. Prestwich found several, at an elevation of five degrees, and passed about mals

, had come to be considered almost in the and recognised in them a small fossil sponge 25 feet above the top of the hill towards which light of an established fact. Instances, how- (the Coscinopora globularis

, D'Orb), from the it was directed. The Board believe, from the ever, have from time to time occurred to throw chalk, but does not feel quite satisfied about testimony of several witnesses who were near some doubt on this view, as the well-known their artificial dressing. Some specimens do the range, that the projectile "continued its the summit of which was nearly on the same man, instanced by M. Marcel de Serres and remains Mr. Prestwich here obtained were * Aight many hundred yards beyond the hill,” ling in a cavern near Liege--the remains of certainly appear as though the hole had been level as that upon which the gun was placed

others in several caverns in France-the flintbattery. According to the statement of Mr. implements in Kent's Cave—and many more. whether recent or extinct, the specimens were

some specimens of the teeth of a horse, but Ames, the manufacturer of the gun, who Some uncertainty, however, has always attached too imperfect to determine ; and part of the carefully examined the ground, it is almost to cave-evidence, from the circumstance that tooth of an elephant (Elephas primigenius?). “certain the ball went four miles.” After what man has often inhabited such places at a com- In the gravel-pit of St. Roch, 14 mile distant, is already known it is safe to say that any ob- paratively late period, and may have disturbed and on a lower level

, mammalian remains are ject within the reach of an ordinary spy-glass is the original cave-deposit ; or, after the period far more abundant, but the workmen said that a fair mark for this terrible weapon.

of his residence, the stalagmitic floor may have no worked flints were found there, although In one other respect the exploits of General been broken up by natural causes, and the they are mentioned by Dr. Rigollot. James's gun demand attention. “According to remains above and below it may have thus be“ the laws of projectiles laid down in the Ord- come mixed together, and afterwards sealed up struck with the extent and beauty of M.

At Abbeville, Mr. Prestwich was much “nance Manual, and which have long been by a second floor of stalagmite. Such instances Boucher de Perthes' collection. There were " established, as was supposed beyond power of of an imbedded broken stalagmitic floor are in many forms of flints in which he, however, “ refutation, the range of a 6 lb. shot at five deg. fact known to occur ; at the same time the failed to see traces of design or work, and “elevation and 1} 11. powder is,” says the New author does not pretend to say that this will which he only considered as accidental ; but, York Journal of Commerce, to which we are in- explain all cases of intermixture in caves, but with regard to those flint-instruments termed debted for this information, “ 1,523 yards ; but, that it lessens the value of the evidence from “axes " "haches ") by M. de Perthes, he en“in the example now afforded, a ball 12} lb., such sources. " with the specified quantity of powder, has

tertains not the slightest doubt of their artificial

The subject has, however, been latterly re- make. They are of two forms, generally from " gone between three and four miles. As com- vived, and the evidence more carefully sifted four to ten inches long. They are very rudely * pared with the celebrated Armstrong gun, "results are not less curious. Mr. A. claims to by Dr. Falconer; and his preliminary reports made, without any ground surface, and were

on the Brixham Cave,* presented last year to " have thrown a ball 51 miles with six pounds the Royal Society, announcing the carefully company with several geological friends, Mr. Prestwich

. On revisiting the pit, since the reading of his paper, in " of powder, employing an area or calibre of 3}

was fortunate to witness the discovery and extraction by "inches—which is a result of 55-100ths less * On the 4th of May, this year, Dr. Falconer further one of them, Mr. J. W. Flower, of a very perfect and fine " favourable than that obtained by the experi- communicated to the Geological Society some similar facts, specimen of fiint-implement, in a scanı pit ochrous starel

, "ments at Chicopee. According to the latter, the Maccagnone Cave near Palermo.-See Proc. Geol. Soc. I six specimens from the workmen. –June, 1859.

the work of a people probably unacquainted of the figures, and the introduction of many or honoured. The history of the modern with the use of metals. These implements are forms about which there might reasonably be workman or handicraftsman-his ascent from much rarer at Abbeville than at Amiens. Mr. a difference of opinion ; in the case of the arrow- serf hood to manhood -- is the grandest fact Prestwich was not fortunate enough to find any heads in Kent's Cave a hidden error was merely in European history. The few great events specimens himself; but from the experience of suspected ; and in the case of the Liège Cavern that evolved this fact of facts were as the tollM. de Perthes, and the evidence of the work- he considers that the question was discussed on ings of the hours on the world-dial, whose hours men, as well as from the condition of the speci- a false issue. He therefore is of opinion that are centuries. We chronicle them here to set mens themselves, he is fully satisfied of the these and many similar cases require recon- the reader's mind thinking of them afresh. But correctness of that gentleman's opinion, that sideration ; and that not only may some of first, one word about the material to be wrought they there also occur in beds of undisturbed these prove true, but that many others, kept upon-the Teutonic race. sand and gravel. Besides the concurrent testi- back by doubt or supposed error, will be forth- The strongest element in shaping a people's mony of all the workmen at the different pits, coming

destiny is peculiarity of race. We have a sigwhich Mr. Prestwich after careful examination One very remarkable instance has been nal example of this in the Gallic blood of our saw no reason to doubt, the flint-implements already brought out. In the 13th volume of neighbours across the Channel. How excitable (“haches ") bear upon themselves internal evi- the "Archæologia,” published in 1800, is a they are --mobile, quickly susceptible of change dence of this opinion. It is a peculiarity of paper by Mr. John Frere, F.R.S. and F.S.A, for better or worse. How sociable, communifractured chalk Aints to become deeply and entitled, “ An Account of Flint-Weapons dis- cative, wearing their secret on their tongue. permanently stained and coloured, or to be left" covered at Hoxne, in Suffolk," wherein that How demonstrative to vainness, personal and unchanged, according to the nature of the gentleman gives a section of a brick-pit in which national ! What a generous, high-mettled peomatrix in which they are imbedded. In most numerous flint-implements had been found, at a ple! Thus, 'tis said that Louis Philippe's clay beds they become outside of a bright depth of eleven feet, in a bed of gravel containing Government fell in 1848, because it appealed opaque white or porcelainic ; in white calcare- bones of some unknown animal ; and concludes, to nothing generous and high in the people ; ous or siliceous sand their fractured black sur- from the ground being undisturbed and above based itself only on material interests ; set up faces remain almost unchanged ; whilst in beds the valley, that the specimens must be of very the cash-box and ledger for worship ; warning of ochreous and ferruginous sands, the flints are great antiquity, and anterior to the last changes against revolutions as bad for trade. stained of the light yellow and deep brown of the surface of the country—a very remark- In tracing the history of Anglo-Saxon freedom colours so well exhibited in the common ochre-able announcement, hitherto overlooked. we find the germ of it in the race. Tacitus, the ous gravel of the neighbourhood of London. Mr. Prestwich purposely abstains for the first keen, cultivated observer of the German This change is the work of very long time, and present from all theoretical considerations, con- tribes, said of them that they were remarkable of moisture before the opening out of the beds. fining himself to the corroboration of the for personal attachment, trust in one another, Now in looking over the large series of flint- facts :"1. That the flint-implements are the devotion and loyalty to one another. This implements in M. de Perthes' collection, it can- “work of man.

2. That they were found in gravitation of man to man is the fountain of not fail to strike the most casual observer that “undisturbed ground. 3. That they are asso- liberty. Infinite space makes not liberty ; those from Menchecourt are almost always "ciated with the remains of extinct mammalia. liberty is an orbit of one's own, springing from white and bright, whilst those from Moulin “4. That the period was a late geological one, mutual attractions and reciprocities. Quignon have a dull yellow and brown surface ; " and anterior to the surface assuming its pre- The earliest civiliser of our wild ancestors and it may be noticed that whenever (as is often “sent outline, so far as some of its minor fea- was the sight of the external civilisation of the the case) any of the matrix adheres to the flint, “tures are concerned.”

peoples they conquered : Roman roads, aqueit is invariably of the same nature, texture, and He does not, however, consider that these ducts, towns, municipal institutions, civil laws. colour as that of the respective beds themselves. facts, as they at present stand, of necessity Feudalism was the first social form into In the same way at St. Acheul, where there carry back man in past time more than they which modern Europe crystallised. Guizot are beds of white and others of ochreous gravel, bring forward the great extinct mammals to- thus pictures the owner of the fief or feud :the flint-implements exhibit corresponding wards our own time, the evidence having refervariations in colour and adhering matrix ; addedence only to relative and not to absolute time;

“Let us examine feudal society as it is in its own to which, as the white gravel contains chalk and he is of opinion that many of the later nature, looking at it first of all in its simple and fun. débris, there are portions of the gravel in which geological changes may have been sudden or of possessor of a fief in his own domain ; and consider the flints are more or less coated with a film of shorter duration than generally considered. In what will be the character of the little association deposited carbonate of lime ; and so it is with fact, from the evidence here exhibited, and from which groups itself around him. He establishes him. the flint-implements which occur in those por- all that he knows regarding drift phenomena self in a retired and defensible place, which he takes tions of the gravel. Further, the surface of generally, he sees no reason against the conclu- care to render safe and strong; he there erects what many specimens is covered with fine dendritic sion that this period of man and the extinct himself there? With his wife and his children : promarkings. Some few implements also show, mammals--supposing their contemporaneity to bably, also, some few freemen who have not become like the fractured flints, traces of wear, their be proved-was brought to a sudden end by a landed proprietors have attached themselves to his sharp edges being blunted. In fact, the flint-temporary inundation of the land ; on the con- person, and remain domesticated with him. These implements form just as much a constituent trary, he sees much to support such a view on

are all the inmates of the castle itself. Around it, part of the gravel itself-exhibiting the action purely geological considerations.

and under its protection, collects a small population

of labourers--of serfs, who cultivate the domain of of the same later influences and in the same

All are not, however, so temperate as Mr. the seigneur. Amidst this inferior population religion force and degree---as the rough mass of flint Prestwich. Many have already taken sides comes, builds a church and establishes a priest. In fragments with which they are associated.

upon the question ; the one side contending the early times of feudality, this priest is at once the With regard to the geological age of these that man--and man as a mechanic, too is a chaplain of the castle and the parish clergyman of beds, Mr. Prestwich refers them to those usually much more venerable being than the other side separated. This, then, is the organic molecule, the designated as post-pliocene, and notices their will admit. We shall probably recur to the unit, if we may so speak, of feudal society.” agreement with many beds of that age in Eng- subject on an early occasion.

In these feudal times, reaching from the 10th land. The Menchecourt deposit much resembles

century to the 15th—the middle ages, as we that of Fisherton near Salisbury; the gravel of THE WORKING MAN: HISTORY OF call them—the workman was a serf, the proSt. Acheul is like some on the Sussex coast;

HIS PROGRESS.

perty of his lord, a part of his goods and chatand that of Moulin Quignon resembles the The orthodox division of society amongst us tels. Much as the Teutonic personal devotion gravel at East Croydon, Wandsworth Common, English people is into three classes. The car- and loyalty modified this condition, the labourer and many places near London. The author riages of a railway-train are of three classes. was essentially a slave. even sees reason, from the general physical phe- The seats of a theatre are of three classes. In It is impossible to over-rate the power of the nomena, to question whether the beds of St. public print and talk three classes are acknow-old Catholic church in those centuries. Fancy Acheul and Moulin Quignon may not possibly ledged: middle, upper, and lower. This is yourself in one of our old churches seven cenbe of an age one stage older than those of Men- quite right; there are three and only three ; turies ago, when high birth was the sovereign checourt and St. Roch ; but before that point though which is highest and which lowest we possession in Europe. The baron — rugged, can be determined, a more extended knowledge cannot say, but should call him happiest who valiant, proud—and the dull dim serf, in the of all the organic remains of the several deposits belongs to all of them. The three classes of chime of Sunday bells, have crossed heath and is indispensable.

society, then, are these : thinkers-workers- meadow in the summer sunshine : there under Mr. Prestwich next inquires into the causes and another class, difficult to name, who are Gothic arches, in the light of the coloured winwhich led to the rejection of this and the cases distinguished by character and beauty of dow, rich as a July sunset behind English before mentioned, and shows that in the case demeanour and 'life, rather than by thought elms, in the hearing of these is read the old of M. de Perthes' discovery, it was in a great or action. Only as belonging to one or words, "Put on the new manhood, wherein is degree the small size and indifferent execution all of these classes are men to be revered "neither barbarian, Scythian, bond, nor free ; "but intelligence and worth are all in all." But what is the true elevation of the work- 1 to discharge cargo 515, by collision 251, total That reader, in his person and in his book, re- ing classes ? Stephenson, the founder of the 766 ; making the whole number of wrecks 1170. presents self-discipline and gentleness amidst railway, was a poor lad, earning twopence a-day By these disasters the lives of 1,865 persons war and brigandism-genius, intelligence, and at watching cows, because his father was too were emperilled, of which number 340 persons learning amidst pride of descent and brute poor to send him to school ; and at public or '18 of the whole were actually lost. force. No one in that building is higher than meetings of mechanics and artisans he used to This is the dark side of the doleful map. It he, and he is perhaps the son of a herdman. hold up this success of his as a stimulus to the has, however, a bright side, and on that we find The monastery he belongs to is the only haunt workmen :—- Persevere as I have done, and you that by the life-boats of the National Life-boat of learning in that whole region. There is “ will get on.” Now, any youth growing inde- Institution, those of local bodies, and various better tillage of the earth there than on the pendent of others, standing on his own feet, other craft, 1,555 of our fellow-creatures were, baron's estate ; a knowledge and skill of handi- cutting out his own path, is always a fine spec- during the past year, rescued from a watery craft and manufacture wholly unknown else- tacle. We confess to a thrill of delight at the grave. The red dottings on this unique chart where. There, too, is spoken and practised the sight of a poor lad, by unaided effort, rising to are cheering marks, as indicative of the places grand sentiment for the industrial ages : Bene any real eminence, were it merely of wealth. where life-boats and the life-preserving appalaborare est bene orare; To work well is to pray But it is a poor, vulgar aim to hold up to work- ratus are to be found in the hour of distress. well.

ing men, that of rising above their own class The latter are under the control of the Board of This is no idle sentimentality about those merely-at any price to better their livelihood. Trade, and as the firing of the apparatus requires old ages. It is a fact, growing clearer and Yet this is the tone of some of our eminent some knowledge of gunnery, they are principally clearer, that the old Catholic church was the teachers. We remember an address of Sir in the charge of the coast guard. first great civiliser and humaniser of modern Bulwer Lytton's to the boys of one of our pubEurope. In the middle ages she was the fore- lic schools, in this strain :-“I set out in life dangerous points of the coast have, of late years,

It is very gratifying to find that life-boats on most fact. She literally saved and preserved determined to be something; aspire, and you greatly increased in number and efficiency the learning of antiquity ; she fostered the “ will rise.” Lord Palmerston the other day under the management of the National Liferuder and finer arts ; she educated the serf to addressed university students in the same boat Institution, whose energies in this good be a priest, or cardinal, or even pope ; she spirit :-“Every department of labour is work are untiring. It has now eighty-two lifestood between the serf and his lord ; in one of crowded ; you must struggle and fight to boat establishments under its management, and her earliest quarrels with the nobility, herwin.” All this may be very well ; but the

we only wish that we were able to report that clergy were reproached as “the sons of serfs.” high-minded man asks, Persevere aspire-- it had twice that number, for there are still too And it has been well pleaded, that had she not fight-for what ?

many exposed points in need of these arks of been the huge European organism she was, she Now we would suggest that the end of life is mercy; and although shipwrecks will occur, notcould not have checked the violence of kings not to grow rich, or learned, or famous—but to withstanding all our precautions, yet if life-boats and nobles.

live. To live, first, bodily ; not to be cooped were more numerous on the coast, and if shipIt should be observed that in England the up in a place and employment where your owners paid more attention to the condition of power of the feudal baron was a far more senses and limbs have no free play : above all their vessels and crews before they sent them to Îimited one than on the Continent. Norman to keep intellect, imagination, taste, affection sea, much might unquestionably be done to William made his barons immediately respon- alive ; to put forth all your powers ; to taste lessen the melancholy disasters on the coast of sible to him ; allotted the land of each in places the whole round of existence ; to be able to say the British Isles. distant from each other ; while, again, the peo- at the end of every day, every year, aye, at the ple they had conquered were almost as strong end of life itself?" I have lived." "That we as themselves : hence the closer union between have remained in the same social class we were

SMALL-ARMS FACTORY AT ENFIELD. the nobles and the people. The Magna Charta, born in, have followed the same humble calling TIERE are not many manufactories in the kingwrung by the barons from John, was as much as our fathers, is a small matter ; but that our dom which are of more immediate importance to & people's as a nobles' charter.

intelligence has grown larger and larger.; our the public at this moment than those wherein Again, the first crusade was a great awaken, manners and thoughts more and more beautiful heavy guns and sy all arms are manufactured ing of the people. Kings, chiefs, vassals, and and magnanimous"; that our whole life is truth- and never, fortunately, was the rate of production serfs, were for the first time inspired with a ful, and brotherly, and lofty, rich in relationship greater in either case than now: . At Woolwich grand aim in common.

pedition was the first great event of modern is success--the true rising of the working man! upon increased facilities and more room, they are " times which had a European and a Christian

turning out the former; whilst at Enfield the “ interest-an interest not of nation, or place,

smaller-but not less necessary implements of “or rank but which the lowest serfs had in

THE WRECK CHART.

war-rifles, are completed with a speed almost in

credible. Of Woolwich we have aforetime ren"common, and more than in common, with the We have lying before us a remarkable map- dered an account to our patrons, the public, and " loftiest barons. When the soil is moved, all the Wreck Chart of the British Isles for 1858. it is now intended to give some information as to “sorts of seeds fructify. The serfs now began It is to be found in a return to Parliament, Enfield. " to think themselves human beings."*

carefully prepared by the Board of Trade. The A few years back and it might have been adHow finely M. de Tocqueville depicts this chart is of the same appearance as an ordinary visable to have given, by way of preface, the geomovement

of liberty. The erection of corpo- map of these islands, except that the whole line graphical position, and means of getting to this rate towns introduced an element of demo of coast,

from the Orkneys to the Land's End, place; but now

all know its whereabouts, and such cratic liberty into the bosom of feudal is dotted with a series of black marks. Each a course is quite unnecessary. The exterior of “monarchy ; the invention of fire-arms equal- mark indicates either a shipwreck or some

the small-arms factory at Enfield Lock is conized the villein and the noble on the field of casualty to a vessel nearly approaching that structed after an elegant

design, and cannot fail is battle ; printing, opened the same resources disaster. A most melancholy effect has this to create an agreeable effect on the mind of the "to the minds of all classes ; the post was "established, so as to bring the same inform- whole coast, particularly near the approaches to interior of the edifice is not equal in beauty to the chart when this key to its object is given. The visitor, be that mind scientifically trained or not.

It is of considerable size, but unfortunately the “ation to the door of the poor man's cottage our great commercial cities, bristles with the exterior-unfortunately, we say; but since the " and to the gate of the palace; the discovery dottings which indicate clearly the site where useful predominates inside, it may be admitted " of America offered a thousand new paths to some noble ship has gone to destruction with her that that fact is a set-off against the merely orna"fortune, and placed riches and power within human freight. All round our coast, with the mental character of the outside. The arrangement " the reach of the adventurous and the ob- aid of this valuable map, we can trace clearly the of machinery within the walls is simple. There, "scure."

frightful work of destruction during the past in one large square room, in which perhaps 700 Of all material things trade

the

year. The total number of British merchant hands, young and old, are engaged, are placed the strongest in emancipating the people. Every ships, including steamers, is supposed to be machines for fabricating the furniture, stocking, new invention, luxury, and want made the 27,097, giving a tonnage of 4,558,730. These locks, screw-sights, bayonets, &c., &c., for rifles. workman of more value to society, while it ships are handled probably by no less than Some of these machines are of exceedingly ingekindled his ingenuities and raised him higher 300,000 men and boys.

nious construction, and they are all kept in excelas a man. Mentally, the Reformation was the

lent condition. The plant of machinery for the greatest quickener of the people of Europe to foreign ships is thus epitomized :-In 1858 the and the Messrs. Ames and Co., of Massachusetts,

The nature of the disasters to British and production of the stocks is of American origin, individuality and self-esteem. Every man found himself called on to think, to form a the seas of the United Kingdom was 1,170 ; of Greenwood and Botley, of our own town of

number of vessels wrecked on the coast and in figure largely in the inventive way. Messrs. judgment, to take sides, and often to stake these 354 were total wrecks, 50 sunk by colli- Leeds, have, however, effected considerable im, goods and life for his cause.

sion, making the number totally lost 404. provements in point of detail, whilst, as stated * J. S. Mill's Review of Michelet's History of France, Vessels stranded and damaged so as to require recently, Messrs. Hayes, Hague, and Williams,

was

neers :

foremen of the various departments at Enfield,

MAJOR RHODES' PATENT TENTS. BREAKWATER AT THE PORT OF BLYTH. have won not only “golden opinions,” but more

BY MICHAEL SCOTT, C.E. substantial rewards for valuable alterations and In our last volume we published an elaborate modifications suggested and made by themselves. description of Major Rhodes improved tents for the following article is abridged, and the accomTo mention one of these as carried out to practical army and other purposes, and expressed our high panying engravings are reduced, from the official

of their valuetents use by Mr. Hayes, we may adduce that pertaining to the "swivel,” which is a link to connect the been brought under the notice of the authorities proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engi"main-spring" with the "tumbler” of the rifle. at the Horse Guards, the Duke of Cambridge gave Swivels are made complete, thanks to this gen- directions for two of the tents to be pitched at

The Port of Blyth is situated on the coast of tleman's skill, by machines, from bars of %in. Chatham garrison, in order to put to a practical Northumberland, about ten miles north of the steel; and all are so perfectly manufactured test the superiority of the invention over the river Tyne. It need hardly be stated that the that they inevitably fit a test-receiving gauge. Of ordinary military tents now in use by the army whole surrounding district is rich in coal, there the.tumbler" and " bridle" machinery it would when encamped

at Aldershot, the Curragh, Chat being a large virgin field of steam-coal in the imbe difficult, without drawings

, to give clear expla- ham, and other military stations. Two of the mediate vicinity of Blyth. Until recently only a nations. It comprises a simplification of the tents have accordingly just been erected to the small class of vessels could trade to that port, and

a great part of the coal raised in the neighbourin working the attention of skilled workmen. ham, under the personal superintendence of Major hood was transmitted by rail to the Tyne for

Rhodes. " During the storm and hurricane shipment. But a few years ago a company of Since the appliances produced by the tumbler and bridle machines are of a very minute and deli- which swept over Chatham on Wednesday night,” enterprising gentlemen, headed by the lord of the cate description, it may be imagined that much says the Times Chatham correspondent, they manor, Sir M. W. Ridley, associated themselves, patient ingenuity was exercised in perfecting were found to be in every respect superior to the and obtained powers for im

roving the harbour. them, and this is true. At the rate that the Enfield ordinary tents erected near the same spot. Mr. James Abernethy, M. Inst. C.E., was engaged

After the tent had been fixed on Wed. rifie, of the pattern 1853, is being made, these

as engineer-in-chief, and under his direction the little improvements, moreover, are great enough nesday afternoon, ten of the portable bedsteads works were commenced. Certain reasons, with in their consequences to save fully £2,000 per from the hospital were moved into it, and as many which the author need not trouble the Institution, annum to the country.

patients directed to take possession of them. induced him to undertake the construction of a From the large room, in which multifarious Notwithstanding the tremendous storm, which portion of these works; and merely observing, operations are going on with unflagging regu. inconvenience was experienced by the inmates, who clusively to the breakwater, he will proceed to

raged early yesterday morning, not the slightest that the present communication has reference exagain machinery has been brought to bear with slept as dry as in an ordinary room, while inany of describe it in detail.

It is well known that there is a very heavy sea department is touched more or less by machine in as through a sieve. Major Rhodes' hospital on this part of the coast; and that this must be wondrous precision. Everything prepared in this the other tents admitted the water, which poured power. From this commodious and convenient tent can be pitched by eight men in 12 minutes ; the case will be obvious, when the great reach of

and, whereas in the present tents there are about water east and north is taken into consideration, apartinent doors open into all the following :the tool-department, where all tools are made and has only about 40 pegs and 12 ropes to secure it, Denmark, which are distant from 400 miles to 500

150 pegs and 70 ropes to each, the new invention the nearest land being the coasts of Norway and repaired; the hardening-room, where all the there being no necessity for the men to turn out miles. But it is not so commonly understood that bayonets

, main-springs, sear-springs, and ramrods in the rain during the night to · slack" the ropes gales spring up with a suddenness which increases are tempered; the polishing-room; grindery; and various places of comparatively minor importance. that duty has to be performed by sick patients.” in progress. It is necessary to note this peculiarity

, as with the present tents—a serious matter when the peril to men, and the risk of injury to works A pair of 40-borse power engines, fitted with

The advantages of Major Rhodes? tents over because it increased the difficulty of carrying out

, whole of the machines

, whose name is legion," those of the Government may be briefly noticed. the work as originally designed. For a length of in the above-named branch of the Rifle Factory; the Government hospital-marquee, and its cost is

a mile the river was exposed to the action of the On the opposite side of a basin or mill-head about £3 under the Government contract price. in this portion of, what is now, the harbour

.

sea, and it followed that no vessel could then lie stands another building, parallel with that mentioned above. This is of extensive dimensions, the control of the medical

officer-impervious to rocky reef

, and upon the base thus provided by The ventilation is most efficient, and subject to Along the seaward side of the river there is a and two stories high; and here the barrels are manufactured. Combined steam and water power pitched in 12 minutes by 8 men.

wet, and the strong rays of the sun--can be nature the breakwater has been erected. The is used in giving motion to the machinery in the fian Government (who have practically tested length of 1,800 feet was constructed, entirely of

The Hanove. work was originally intended to be, and for a barrel department; and this consists of a 25-horse this tent) pronounce that Rhodes' hospital tent stone; but a failure in the supply of material led power condensing engine, with one 20 and one 25-horse breakwater wheel.

affords the best shelter hitherto obtained in camp to a change, which has resulted in the work shown

hospitals, &c. The price of a Government hospi- by Figs. 1 and 2. Mr. Abernethy proposed to With regard to the prime cost of a finished tal marquee, 30 feet wide by 14, feet, and 14 employ timber and stone, after the manner Enfield rifle of the approved 1853 pattern, it may feet in height, is from £33 to £35, and weighs (in adopted at Boulogne and Calais

, and furnished a be said that it is about £2 5s. It is a most ser- three packages) from 507 lbs. to 652 lbs. (the design similar in outline to Fig. 1. As the conviceable weapon; and, from the extreme accuracy latter weight includes 4 ground sheets.) It affords tractor for the work, being aware of the imposwith which its parts have been fitted, and the accommodation for from 18 to 20 patients. Major sibility of obtaining, on the site, stone suitable power of interchanging them, it has an advan- Rhodes', 20-feet diameter, field-tent cost £24, for facing, and seeing that during very high tage over all hand-made guns. A defective viz. about £12 cheaper, and weighs (in 2 pack-tides there was great risk of damage to the open part can be replaced at once without fitting. ages) 230 lbs., viz. 217 lbs. less than the Govern- end, which had already been injured several times

, When all the component parts have been carefully tested by viewers, or inspectors, especially for from 18 to 20 patients. Two of Major Rhodes', to carry out Mr. Abernethy's views; and after a

ment hospital marquee. It offers accommodation the author gladly undertook to do all in his power kept for the purpose, and who have a thorough 20-feet diameter, field tents can be pitched by good deal of consideration, the forms shown in knowledge of their duties, it is next to impossible 4 men (in about 8 minutes for each tent), on l'igs. 1 and 2 were arranged, and were erected that there should be differences. In fact, so won- about the same space of ground as is requisite for with entire success some time ago. It will be obdrously true are all the machine-prepared parts only one Government hospital-marquee : and served that those portions of the breakwater of the rifle to each other, that a workman will further, from 10 to 14 men require from 15 which are illustrated by Figs. 1 and 2, consist of take up the requisite pieces indiscriminately from to 20 minutes to pitch the latter tent. Major a framework of timber, filled with stone, and arboxes full of them, and put a rifle together be- Rhodes tent provides detached accommodation ranged as follows:- First, there is a sole piece fore your eyes in three minutes! From fifteen to for 24 rifles, 24 sets of accoutrements, and 24 resting on the ground. Upon this sole are raised eighteen hundred rifles per day of ten

hours are at knapsacks, with a perfect system of ventilation ; two uprights, the one next the sea being supported present being finished at Enfield Factory, and in which 'very important points the Government by a strut from the sole piece. Cross-bearers, or this gives (nearly) an average of one rifle com- hospital marquee is deficient. Irrespective

of cost, half-balks, embracing the uprights, carry the roadpleted from the material every two minutes, and &c., it results that by adopting Major Rhodes way above ; and this is protected by a simple made fit for shooting down an invader!

tents into the service, healthy shelter can be pro- handrail. The frames thus formed are placed at Altogether the number of persons employed vided for about 45 men, allowing the same amount intervals of 10 feet from centre to centre, and amounts to somewhere near 1,500, and the offices of transport as is at present necessary for con- are tied together, longitudinally, by walings, two and stores are admirably arranged. Colonel veying only one Government hospital marquee, on the sea face, and one on the river face, and also Dixon, of the Royal Artillery, a most persevering which latter only affords accommodation for 20 by the open planking, the space contained within and exemplary gentleman, assisted by J. H. men; thus showing a clear saving of more than which is filled with rubble-stone. It will be seen Burton, Esq., an American, and Chief Engineer, one hundred per cent. in cost of transport, which, that, in the first section, Fig. 1, this space is trihave the control of the entire establishment, which with an army in the field, would be a very great angular, the planking on the river face being on is conducted, so far as we can judge, in a most relief to the Commissariat Department.

the strut. The object of this arrangement was, efficient manner,

We now learn that the officers appointed to partly to provide a sloping surface, and to leave Looking at the state of affairs across the examine Major Rhodes tents at Chatham are the river-uprights isolated, opposite the entrance Channel, Government and people here may well about to report most strongly in their favour to of the proposed docks, for the purpose of de: look also towards Enfield. the Commander-in-Chief.

stroying, as much as possible, the swell which

FACILITY OF CONSTRUCTION.

passes up the river. In the second section, Fig. I quently no waste. It will be seen that an excel- sliding-ties, or by piling. These piles may be 2, the exposure, and consequent strength required, lent foundation is secured as the work proceeds ; driven, or screwed, the sliding-tie forming a guide being greater, the planking was put upon the and the lower tie will accommodate itself so per- for the foot of each pile. In driving piles the river upright, and the whole space was filled with fectly to an uneven surface, that the erection may author has placed the shoe on the corners of the rubble, and was covered with an open flooring of proceed on sand and on clay, as well as on rock; piles which are exposed to the greatest pressure, horizontal timbers. The work has added more on broken, as well as on even ground, almost in and are most liable to abrasion. If screws are than 4,000 feet, in length of the river, to the differently. A proof that the foundation is suffi- adopted, the author has designed an arrangement harbour, where there is still-water; and not only cient has been afforded by the work at Blyth, which, he thinks, would cost less than Mitchell's effectually breaks the waves, but it acts as a where, although the bottom varies from hard rock screws, and which is as follows :--The angles of training wall, to direct th: current, and to con- to soft clay, there is no observable settlement in a the wood being removed, a thin T iron is h cated, fine, and to intensify within the new limits, the length of more than 2,000 feet. The difficulty of and wound spirally round the lower end, an l this action of the tidal scour. During its erection obtaining timber of the requisite length, com being cooled, shrinks and grasps the wood, like there was no risk of injury, and no part of the bined with the certainty that single balks would the tire of a wheel. The advantage of this plan timber-work has been breached, although the be fractured, on uneven ground, by the superin- is its cheapness, and the strain, instead of being weakest portion has been exposed, for more than cumbent stone, led to the designing of the chain concentrated, as in Mitchell's piles, upon the short two years, to as heavy seas as were ever seen on tie, which has just been referred to.

piece of the pile embraced by the iron socket, is that coast. The cost of the work has been, on an The round ends, at the entrances to harbours, distributed over a considerable length of the average, about £10 per lineal foot. The timber are proposed to be constructed of planking, balk. has all been creosoted, and bids fair to resist arranged like basket-work, by which great It would be tedious to go further into detail decay for many years.

strength is obtained. Moreover, there is con- upon such points. It may suffice to say, that no In the case of the portions of the pier just siderable elasticity, so that in the event of a ship system of piling can be compared with the plan of referred to, the site was either dry, or nearly so, touching, neither the pier nor the vessel is first sinking frames, for cheapness and speed of at low-water spring tides; but the line upon damaged. When these ends are of comparatively execution, and in hard ground piles are inadmiswhich it was to be continued led into a depth of small diameter, as the one now constructing at sible. The progress at Dover is said to be 100 5 feet, or 6 feet at the lowest ebbs, and about 22 Blyth, they are tied into the centre; but when feet per annum; and, as the breakwaters at feet at high-water spring tides. From this arose large, the frames vary in breadth according to the Alderney, Portland, and Holyhead have each been the necessity for a change of plan; but in exposure; that is to say, the face wall, as it may about ten years in hand, the systems pursued at arranging the breakwater, so far as hitherto de- be termed, increases in thickness from the inner those places do not appear to secure rapid execuscribed, the author's attention had naturally been or harbour face seaward.

tion. In this particular it is thought a saving turned to the question generally; and Mr. Aber

would be effected by the new arrangements; and nethy having suggested that he should attempt the application of timber to deep-water sections, author claims for his improved arrangements one

Before entering upon details under this head, the as an illustration of what can be done, although

of course on a comparatively small scale, it may the author considered the subject, and, as early important advantage, viz., that the work is not be mentioned that of the Blyth work 130 lineal as January, 1857, succeeded in attaining that ob- liable to be breached during erection. Those only feet have been erected in five days. ject, having then designed deep-water sections who have had to contend with the sea can appre.

POWER OF THE WORK TO RESIST WAVES. very similar to those to be described. ciate this risk; for although every precaution may

It has been said that the timber-faced work be taken, still, in the case of vertical walls, of the cannot be breached and broken up in detail, that This section of the paper will be occupied with ordinary kind at least, there is great danger it must go as a whole—in fact, be overturned a description of the author's improvements in the during erection. The stone wall at Blyth, for bodily; and it is now necessary to ascertain what construction of breakwaters, examples of which example

, was repeatedly damaged, but no part of amount of force would effect its destruction, which, are represented in Figs. 3 to 9.

the new construction has ever been breached, al- unlike the case of most stone piers, is readily calThe author divides these works into two classes ; though exposed to a heavier sea; but, even in in- culated. In the section designed for deep water, those intended for deep water being wave reflec: stances in which the permanent work has not been the power of the sea to overturn the work would tors, and those for shallow water wave breakers. much injured, the staging has suffered ; whilst at be represented by the statical pressure of the

water rising against the parapet, and the power of Excepting the wave screen, the reflectors and Blyth, the work itself serving for a staging, no breakwaters are of a similar character, and consist loss has arisen from this cause. It is not only loss resistance in the work by the weight of the stone, of a timber casing filled with stone. The stone there is much less risk of the work being inter- buoyancy: Proceeding upon this principle, and

of money which is avoided, but loss of time; for less its displacement—the timber having no as a whole, and the timber facing secures the rupted by bad weather. stone from being disintegrated, or carried away

In the arrangement proposed, no stone of a example, it is found that the stability is double in detail; so that if the work is moved it must be high, class is required, and no dressing. With the greatest force which could be brought to bear bodily. Further, the work is so connected together, respect to the timber, it is easily procurable at upon it.

It has been stated that waves travelling into that each part supports its neighbouring portions: any port, and it is all converted on shore, the the importance of this will be obvious when it is frames being put together complete, and then shallow water must break, and in situations where considered that waves seldom strike any great ex- Hoated to their place. It might be thought that, it is necessary to provide a protection under these tent of surface at the same moment. A marked in very deep water, the frames would be difficult circumstances, a wave-screen, such as is reprepeculiarity of the arrangement is, that there is no

to manage; but the experience of the author leads sented in Figs. 8 and 9, is to be preferred. It will tie between the work and the ground. It simply him to a contrary opinion, and he would not hesi- be observed that the screen consists mainly of a rests on the surface, and the stability depends tate to undertake the erection, even in compara- grating of timber, supported on piles, and inclined wholly, upon its weight. The author is opposed tively great depths. With reference to this point towards the sea, so that the waves will run up and to the idea of piling the face, and filling in behind lbs. or 10 lbs. of creosote per cubic foot materially ings, both on its ascent and descent, and little if

it should be remembered that the addition of 9 the water will drop through the transverse openwith stone, not only because it is estimation, it is false in principle. For the piles | 10-fathom section (Fig. 6). Supposing the whole jected up the slope runs back, and it is by this pensive to pile in a sea-way, but because, in his reduces the floating power of the timber, so that any will return to the foot. In the case of a stone

slope, the whole of the water which has been prowould necessarily bend before they took any ap: timber immersed, the total buoyancy would only recoil that the great damage is done

The deflect, the stone backing must have been moved. the timber is not wholly immersed, there is no preciable part of the strain, and before they could be 15 cwt. per foot run of the breakwater; but as dropping through of the water has another imPiles may, however, be used in some cases, as a

advantage. Suppose the oscillation of convenient method of filling the space between buoyancy. At half-tide, when standing on end, the water passing under the toe of the screen to the frames, for the purpose of keeping the stone each frame would have a weight, or downward be only partially destroyed, the remaining motion from spreading; but then, on the author's plan, pressure, equal to 8 cwt, to sink it. The timber- vertical and continued fall of water through the these piles would be driven subsequently to the work, when finished, will have a downward pressure erection of the frames, which constitute an effi- of 25 cwt. per foot run. Thus, it appears, that screen. Moreover, the effect of the blow of the cient staging from which to drive them. the weight to be lifted is but little, and that the

waves upon the slope is diminished by the openOther leading features are—the framework is frame, in position, can easily be made to gravitate ings between the planks. There is, however, a so arranged, first, that the strains are, as much as sufficiently to steady itself until secured.

limit to increasing these spaces, for if they are possible, taken in the direction of the length of water the frames are kept parallel by the sliding

In the direction of the length of the break- too wide the water falling through, instead of the timbers, thus developing its greatest strength; ties, which are simply balks of timber with chocks surface over which the force of a given wave is

neutralising the existing oscillation would produce eecondly, the joints are covered by whole timbers; between them embracing two frames

, and being

a fresh one. The longer the slope the greater the thirdly, each piece is proportioned to the work it has to do; and lastly, there is such a variety of secured together above water, they are slid down distributed, and the less the horizontal strain prosize, as to admit of average cargoes being wholly to the bottom. To obviate the employment of duced; but if the slopes were too flat, the effect worked up without waste. The faces are so tied divers, the spaces between the frames, under low. would be that the wave would run up and fall inwards as to prevent the rubble from being from above, or by vertical pieces secured by the

water mark, are either filled with panels lowered forced out; and whilst the interstices are sufficient

This wave-screen has a peculiarity which, in for the free escape of air, there is, after a short

many situations, is of the greatest importance, time, no motion amongst the stones, and conse- meeting.

* A model of this arrangement was exhibited at the namely, the allowing the tide or currents of the

sea to pass through with little interruption,

over.

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