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Example.-Craigmillar Castle.

(a) THE SCHEME. 1. The species : Ruined castles. 2. The properties : Situation, &c., on an eminence between Edinburgh

and Dalkeith; commands a fine view, &c. 3. The parts : The keep; the embattled wall; the circular towers :

a rampart wall; great hall; Queen Mary's room, &c.

(6) THE PARAGRAPH. * The fine old ruin of Craigmillar Castle is situated about three miles south of Edinburgh, on the road between that city and Dalkeith. * From the eminence which it crowns, it commands a noble view of the south side of the city, the Firth, and opposite coast, and Aberlady Bay. 8 It consists of a square keep or tower, several storeys high, encompassed by a square embattled wall, which has had circular towers at each angle, and the whole surrounded by another rampart-wall, and in some places with a deep moat. The great hall is large and well lighted. The apartment shewn as Queen Mary's is in one of the upper turrets: it measures only five feet in breadth, and seven in length; but has, nevertheless, two windows and a fireplace.

* Properties. 8 Parts.

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1 Species.

Exercise 38. Draw out a Scheme for a paragraph, describing any of the following individual objects, and write a Paragraph therefrom:

1. Buckingham Palace. 2. Edinburgh Castle. 3. The Tower of London. 4. Some particular painting, or natural scenery. 5. The Great Eastern. 6. The Scott Monument. 7. Holyrood House. 8. Some particular piece of armour. 9. Some particular piece of furniture. 10. Some particular piece of dress. 11. Some particular piece of machinery. 12. Some particular animal (man, &c.).

2. CLASS OBJECTS. 89. A Paragraph descriptive of a class object should embrace the following elements :

1. The definition of its species.

2. Its properties : form, size, material, use, where made,

&c. 3. The parts ; which may be separately described. 4. Its kinds : the species which it as a genus includes

under it. 90. The definition of a species requires that we point out1. Its genus = wherein it essentially agrees with other

objects. 2. Its difference = wherein it essentially differs from

other objects of the same genus.



Example A Rifle.

(a) THE SCHEME. 1. Definition: (1.) Genus fire-arm.

(2.) Difference groove-barrelled. 2. Properties :* Accuracy of aim; length of range; used in war and

field sports, &c.; recently invented. 3. The Parts :t (1.) Stock wooden; used to support barrel, and

connect it with the lock. (2.) Lock = to strike fire into powder-parts :

spring; trigger; dog-head; nipple. (3.) Barrel = cast iron; equal thickness; grooved ;

contains powder and bullet. 4. The kinds :$ Breech-loading, muzzle-loading, horizontal grooved, spiral grooved, Minié, Enfield, &c., &c.

(6) THE PARAGRAPH. 1 The rifle is a well known fire-arm, differing from the common musket in having a grooved or rifled barrel, whence it derives its name. ? It is of recent invention, and has been recently improved, so that now its extent of range and accuracy of aim make it the most deadly weapon either in warfare or in the chase. There are several kinds of rifles, differing slightly from each other in their construction, as the Enfield, the Minié, &c.; but all, like other hand guns, consist of the three main parts, a stock, a lock, and a barrel.

[These parts may be described in a separate paragraph.] The stock, which is made of wood, supports the one end of the barrel; and as the lock is also attached to it, it serves to unite the other parts



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† Corresponds with the division of an integral whole.

Corresponds with the division of a logical whole.

of the instrument. The barrel is a long tube, made of wrought-iron, inthe interior of which parallel grooves are drawn through the whole length of the barrel, in either a horizontal or a spiral direction. These grooves are designed to give greater speed and directness to the ball, which latter is frequently constructed so as to expand with the explosion of the gunpowder, and fit into the grooves of the barrel. The spark of ignition is carried to the gunpowder within the barrel by means of the lock, which consists of a spring; a handle for moving the spring, called the trigger; the nipple, on which the percussion-cap is placed ; and the doghead, a small hammer, by which it is struck, and the rifle is discharged. 1 Definition, -genus, species. Properties.


8 Kinds. Parts.

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Exercise 39. Draw out a Scheme for a paragraph, describing each of the following class-objects, and write a Paragraph therefrom :1. A steam-engine.

7. A pianoforte. 2. A clock.

8. A printing press. 3. A telescope.

9. A book. 4. A man-of-war.

10. A church. 5. A balloon.

11. A Roman camp. 6. A camera obscura.

12. A fleet or an army.

3. ABSTRACT QUALITIES. 92. A paragraph descriptive (in the strict sense of an abstract quality should contain: 1. The definition of its species ; which, as in the case of class objects, consists of

(1.) Genus = wherein it agrees with other qualities.
(2.) Difference = wherein it differs from other qualities

of the same genus. 2. The application: to what it belongs, in what forms found,

&c. Other particulars must be reserved for Reflection ($ 94).



(a) THE SCHEME. 1. Definition: (1.) Genus the social virtues.

(2.) Difference aims at giving each his due. 2. Application : Found in man in a civilised state : appears some

times in business dealings; sometimes in the acknowledgment


of faults; sometimes in the utterance of sincere convictions, which motives of interest would conceal.

(6) THE PARAGRAPH. Honesty is the social virtue which aims at giving every man his due, whether in substantial property, or in credit for the performance of good actions. ? It is generally found in civilised society; though luxury, to which a high degree of civilisation often leads, is injurious to its existence. While we look most naturally for honesty in the commercial dealings of man with man, the term is also frequently applied to that disposition which leads men to acknowledge their faults, as well as to the fearlessness which urges them to utter sentiments of which interest might rather suggest the suppression or concealment.

1 Definition,-genus, species. * Application.

Exercise 40. Draw out a Scheme for a paragraph, descriptive of any of the following abstract qualities, and write a Paragraph therefrom : 1. Extravagance.

7. Mercy. 2. Justice.

8. Truth; truthfulness. 3. Revenge.

9. Envy. 4. Perseverance.

10. Cowardice. 5. Hypocrisy.

11. Duplicity. 6. Friendship.

12. Benevolence.

Chapter III.-Reflection.

94. The Reflective Paragraph contains an expression of the thoughts and emotions suggested by the contemplation of objects, actions, and abstract qualities. It may therefore be naturally combined with either the narrative or any kind of the descriptive paragraph.

95. The reflections suggested by an object (individual or class, SS 87–89) may refer to the following heads :1. The feelings which the object excites in us, and which,

with various modifications, will belong to the two great classes

(1.) The pleasurable. (2.) The painful. 2. The qualities which appear to give rise to these feelings,


(1.) Its beauty or deformity, in form, colour, cognate

qualities, grandeur, sublimity, picturesqueness. (2.) Its utility or inutility; [1.] in the parts, adaptation

of means to ends [2.] in the whole, its power to per

form its required work. (3.) Its suggestiveness ; either [1.] of pleasing or painful

associations, or [2.] of other objects resembling it in its power to call up similar feelings.


Example.-Individual Object.

HOLYROOD PALACE. 1. The feelings : Pleasure; interest; sympathy. 2. The qualities : (1.) Picturesqueness, quaintness, and simplicity of

form. (2.) Its suitableness for a royal residence, from its

size, form, and character ; unsuitableness, from

its locality. (8.) a. Antiquity; historical associations : Queen

Mary, Rizzio, Prince Charles Edward. 6. It affects us like the sight of some ancient

well-worn weapon, or the recitation of a fine old ballad.

Exercise 41. Draw out a Scheme for a reflective paragraph on any of the indiviilual objects in Exercise 38, and write a Paragraph therefrom.


Example.--A Class Objecte

THE TELESCOPE. 1. The feelings : Pleasure, admiration, interest. 2. The qualities :*

(1.) Ingenious collocation of parts. (2.) Its extraordinary power of revealing to us wonders hidden from

the unaided eye. (3.) Suggests to us a seer-like power, reaching far beyond the limits

of human vision. [In this view it fills us with a kind of awe ]

* Every object will not require-many, indeed, will not admit ofthe introduction of all these particulars. The judgment of the pupil must be exercised in deciding which heads are most appropriate in each case.

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