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ST. PATRICK AND THE SHAMROCK.
While innocently wandering in the pleasant meads of literary antiquities, culling a flower here and there, and occasionally interchanging courtesies with congenial spirits delighting in similar pursuits, I find that I have unwittingly stumbled into a perfect Santa Barbara of something very like odium theologicum. Of course, the consequent explosion took place, sudden, fierce, and strong as a treble charge could make it, but, with respect to myself, quite innocuous; in all good feeling, I earnestly hope that the magazine has suffered as little injury as the intruder, and that the engineers have not been hoisted by their own petards.
First in place, as first in ability and candour, appears F. C. H. His argument, if it be worthy of the name, has no reference to what St. Patrick did or did not, but as to what he (F. C. H.) would do, if placed in similar circumstances, and just amounts to this — I would do it, argal St. Patrick did. Apart from its obvious weakness, this is a most dangerous method of dealing with things spiritual. Eliminate the beautiful language and florid French sentiment from M. Kenan's Vie de Jesus, and we shall find a very similar absence of reasoning, if I may so express myself, impotently brandished against the miracles of our Saviour— M. Rcnan cannot work miracles, he would not if he could, and therefore, &c. &c. I have not the honour of being personally acquainted with F. C. II., but from his communications in this Journal, I believe him to be a Christian gentleman and scholar, a man of common sense, and more than ordinary ability; nevertheless, he must excuse me for not placing him in the same category as St. Patrick, the venerated Apostle of my much loved native land. "What could any enemy to Christianity have hoped to gain by inventing such a story?" asks F. C. H. I answer, the story is one eminently calculated to throw contempt on the sacred mystery of the Trinity; but I would certainly despair of being able to bring F. C. H. to my opinion.
With respect to Canon DAlton's communication, I am sorry to say it is characterised by nothing less than disingenuousness. He says, alluding to me, " Your correspondent supposes that St. Patrick compared the Shamrock to the mystery of the Trinity." This is incorrect; my paper was, on the contrary, an objection to that supposition, as expressed by others. Again, he says, "Mb. Pinkebton refers to the well-known treatise of St. Augustine De Trinitate." This also is incorrect; I referred to and related a legend of St. Augustine, said to have occurred when he was writing De. Trinitate. Canon Dalto.n then adduces St. Augustine's verbal illustration of the Trinity, and ends by saying, "I maintain that
these two different illustrations, made use of by St. Patrick and St. Augustine, are far from being absurd or cgregiously irreverent," thereby implying that I had applied these epithets to St. Augustine's illustration — which again is incorrect.
It is curious to observe how the word illustration has been modified by F. C. H. and Canon Dai/ton, since they first used it, regarding this alleged act of St. Patrick. The former now terms it " some sort of illustration, however feeble and imperfect," and the latter, "a faint illustration." To illustrate a subject is literally to throw light upon it, and may be done either rhetorically, or, in our commonest use of the word at the present day, by a pictorial or material representation; the latter, of course, being the stronger and more forcible. A wretched man, named Carlile, a few years ago, exposed in his shop-window in Fleet Street, a hideous engraving, under which were the words "Jews and Christians, behold your God!" A Jewish gentleman smashed the pane, and in consequence was taken before a magistrate. The gentleman pleaded just indignation as his excuse; while Carlile urged that the engraving was carefully made from Scriptural descriptions of the Deity. The magistrate at once dismissed the case, observing that the exposure of such, an engraving was a blasphemous insult to the community at large. Supposo Carlile had put a shamrock in his window, and had written beneath it, Christians, behold your Trinity !—would the blasphemy or insult be any the less?
I could say something of the word comparison; its derivation from the Latin com par, signifying the putting together of equals; of the well-known mode of comparison by illustration; but I fear it would be of little service to persons seemingly ignorant of the meaning of the simple word tradition. (Vide 3r4 S. iv. 187, 233, 293).
D. P. points out "that the appearance of the fleur-de-lys on the mariner's compass has no bearing at all" upon my case. As in the same paragraph, I was endeavouring to show that " the triad is still a favourite figure in national and heraldic emblems," I am certain that it has a very extended and important bearing. For D. P.'g information on the antiquity of the mariner's compass, I am obliged; but as an old sailor and traveller in almost all parts of the globe, who has long studied the history of that most valuable instrument, I fancy that I know much more about it than is to be found either in Moreri or Du Fresnoy.
The legend of St. Augustine, which D. P. terms a well-known incident in the life of that saint, is not apposite, I am told. If words have any meaning, it was not intended to be so. I designated it as charming and instructive, while I stigmatised the story of St. Patrick as absurd, if not egregiously irreverent. As these last words refer to a simple matter of opinion, and seem to have given offence, I retract them, with regret that I had ever used them; though, of course, my opinion remains unchanged. And it is consoling to me, in this case, to be informed by F. C. II. that "no one is bound to believe the tradition of St. Patrick and the Shamrock." Having thus retracted my expression of opinion, I shall conclude with a matter of fact. The reply of F. C. H. though feeble, was at least fair; but the communications of Canon Dalton and D. P. are tainted by either a stolid misapprehension, or wilful perversion, of what I did write. And I confidently appeal to the grand jury, formed by the intelligent readers of "N. & Q.," if this language be too strong for the occasion.
William Pinrerton. Hounslow.
(3rd S. iv. 499.)
This author, John Shurley, or Shirley (for he wrote his name both ways), was a voluminous writer of ephemeral productions in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. He is, undoubtedly, the person so graphically described in the following passage from old John Dunton's Life and Errors: —
"Mr. Shirley (alias Dr. Shirley) is a goodnatured writer, as I know. He has been an indefatigable pressmauler for above these twenty years. He has published at least a hundred bound books, and about two hundred sermons; but the cheapest, pretty, pat things, all of them pence a-piece as long as they will run. His great talent lies at coUevlion, and he will do it for you at six shillings a sheet. He knows to disguise an author that you shall not know him, and yet keep the sense and the main scope entire. He is as true as steel to his word, and would slave off his feet to oblige a bookseller. He is usually very fortunate in what he goes upon. He wrote Lord Jeffreys''s Life for me, of which six thousand were sold. After all, he subsists, as other authors must expect, by a sort of geometry."—Edit. 1818, i. 184.
Besides numerous small tracts and ballads, mostly printed by "William Thackeray in Duck Lane," Shirley was the author of the following works, chiefly "collections" as Dunton expresses it—a list very far short of the "hundred bound books " which came from his ready pen: —
1. The Most Delightful History of Reynard the Fox, in heroic verse. 4to, 1681.
2. The Renowned History of Guy, Earl of Warwick; containing bis noble Exploits and Victories. 4to, 1081.
3. Ecclesiastical History Epitomiz'd. 8vo, 1682-3.
4. The Honour of Chivalry; or, the Famous and Delectable History of Don Bellianis of Greece. Translated out of Italian. 4to, 1683.
o. The History of the Wars of Hungary, or an Account of the Miseries of that Kingdom. 12mo, 1685. 6. The Illustrious History of Women; the whole Work
enrich'd and intcrmix'd with carious Poetry and delicate Fancic. 8vo, 1686.
7. The Accomplished Ladie's rich Closet of Rarities. 12mo, 1688.
8. The True Impartial History of tho Wars of the Kingdom of Ireland. 12mo, 1692.
9. The Unfortunate Favorite; or, Memoirs of the Life of the late Lord Chancellor [ Jefferics]. 8vo, n. d.
When T. 15. says, "there is no mention of him [J. Shurley] in Bohn's edition of Lowndes," he is in error. The works in the above list, marked 2, 6, 7, and 8, arc duly chronicled by Lowndes; but under Shirley, not Shurley. There should have been a counter reference under the latter name. In this respect much might be done towards improving this (with all its errors) valuable handbook to the literary collector.
Anthony Wood mentions a John Shirley, the son of a London bookseller of the same name, who was born in 1648, and entered Trinity College in 1664. But for the certain fact that this person died at Islington in 1679, I should have imagined him to have been the John Shirley of whom I have given a notice; especially as Wood tells us " he published little things of a sheet and half-a-shect of paper." .
Dunton, it will be seen, calls our author " Mr. Shirley, alias Dr. Shirley." If, therefore, we suppose him to have been originally educated for the medical profession, he may have been the author of the following works, unnoticed by Lowndes or his editor. They were certainly written by a John Shirley : —
1. A Short Compendium of Chirurgerv. 8vo, 1678.
2. The Art of Rowling and Bolstring, that is. the Method of Dressing and Binding up the several Parts. 8vo, 1683.
Edwahd F. RlMBAllLT.
French Coronets (3rd S. iv. 372.)—In answer to M. B., there are descriptions and engravings of the coronets worn by the French nobility in Selden's Tides of Honour, and in the Vicomte de Magny's Science du Blason. Paris, 1858.
F. D. H.
Baroness (3"1 S. v. 54.) — Foreign titles give no rank in this country. The daughter of a baron would be received as the daughter of a baron by the style to which she is entitled in her own country. G.
The Bloom Hand (3rd S. v. 54.) —Your correspondent has raised Two questions upon false data: a reference to one of the thousand patents which exist would have shown that no such grant was made to baronets and their descendants. For their greater honour and distinction all baronets of England and Ireland, as do now the baronets of the United Kingdom, enjoy the privilege granted to them and " their heirs male" of their body, of bearing in a canton a hand gules, which was in fact a grant to the baronet for the time being, and is a distinction borne by, and personal to, the individuals enjoying and possessed of the dignity. Such a grant as your correspondent alledges would have overshadowed the land by this time with the "Bloody hand of Ulster." G.
Arms Of Saxony (3rd S. v. 12, 64.) — Let me add a passage from Fliessbach's Muntzsammlung, to what De Leth says about the arms of Hanover : —
"Hannover hat kein eigenthtlmliches Wappen. Auf dem Revere <ler Munzen zeigt sich entweder das Altsachsische rennende Pferd," &c. &c.
Satirical Sonnet: Gozzo And Pasquin (3rd S. iii. 151.) — Chevreau gives a sonnet by M. des Yveteaux, founded on Martial's Vitam qua faciunt beatiorem (lib. x. ep. 47), and says: —
"Un Abbe, qui avoit lu le sonnet crut me dormer quel que chose de fort lion, en me donnant a Rome le sonnet qui suit: —
"Haver la moglie brutta ed ingelosita;
Araar cbi mai veder non si possa;
E ritrovarsi in mar quando s'ingrossa,
Viver prlgione in sotterranea fossa;
Haver il mat Francese insino al ossa;
Trattar con gente cerimoniosa;
Certo rentlon la vita ossai noiosa:
E piu d'ogn' altra insopportabil cosa."
Chcvraana, t. i. p. 295, Amst. 1700.
Gravina settled at Rome, in 1685. His reputation was high, and he was the principal founder of the Arcadians in 1695; but he was not appointed Professor of Civil Law till 1699. His temper was not good, as may be seen by the quarrels between him and Sergardi, and probably he was unquiet at waiting so long for promotion. The Letters from Roma and Bologna are dated 1C99. Chevreau does not say when he met the "Abbe"; but supposing him to be Gravina, we may guess that the sonnet as described in the Letters was written in an impatient spirit before the appointment, and the sting changed from, "to seek promotion at Rome without ready money," to "star in Roma e non aver quattrini," after it. He might have thought the sonnet too good to be lost, though the point was spoiled, as the evil of being without money is not felt more at Rome than in many other places. I think this is enough to fix the authorship of the sonnet; but would Chevreau, who never omits au opportunity of naming a clever or illustrious acquaintance, have called so distinguished a man as Gravina " Un Abb6"?
There is a satirical dialogue been Gobbo (not
Gozzo) and Pasquin, of which I cannot give an account, not having been tempted to read enough of it. Though probably stinging when fresh, it is not interesting now. The title is —
"Le Visioni politiche sopra gli intcressi piu reconditi, di tutti Prencipi c Republicbe dclla Christianita, divisi in varii Sogni e Ragionamenti tra Pasquino e il Gobbo di Rialto." Gcrmania, 1G71, 24mo, pp. MO.
H. B. C.
U. U. Club.
Bull-bull (3rd S. v. 38.) — A joke on this name of the nightingale is told as having been made by the late Lord Robertson (a Judge of the Court of Session, well known as Peter or Patrick Robertson), in order fully to see the wit of which, it is necessary to explain to your English readers that in the Scotch vernacular the word "cow" is pronounced "coo." A lady having asked him, "What sort of animal is the bull-bull ?" he replied "I suppose, Ma'am, it must be the mate of the coo-coo" (cuckoo). G.
Salden Mansion (3rd S. iv. 373.)—Kappa will find a small engraving, with a history of the old mansion at Salden, and of the branch of the Fortescues to whom it belonged, in the first volume of the Records of Buckinghamsliire, published at Aylesbury, by Piokburn, for the Bucks Archaeological Society. F. D. H.
Madman's Food Tasting Of Oatmeal PorRidge (3rd S. v. 35, C4.) — In Sir Walter Scott's novel. The Pirate, there is the following note: —
"A late medical gentleman, my particular friend, told me the case of a lunatic patient confined in the Edinburgh Infirmary. He was so far happy that his mental alienation was of a gay and pleasant character, giving a kind of joyous explanation to all that came in contact with him. He considered the large house, numerous servants, 4c, of the hospital, as all matters of state and consequence belonging to his own personal establishment, and bad no doubt of his own wealth and grandeur. One thing alone puzzled this man of wealth. Although he was provided with a first-rate cook and proper assistants, although his table was regularly supplied with every delicacy of the season, yet he confessed to my friend, that by some uncommon depravity of the palate, everything which he ate "tasted of porridge." This peculiarity, of course, arose from the poor man being fed upon nothing else, and because his stomach was not so easily deceived as his other senses."—The Pirate, vol. ii. chap. xiii. note i.
Churchwarden Query (3rd S. v. 34, 65.) — In answer to A. A. I extract the following: —
"Sidesmen (rectius synodsmen) is used for those persons or officers that are yearly chosen in great parishes in London and other cities, according to custom, to assist the churchwardens in their presentments of such offenders and offences to the ordinary as are punishable in the spiritual courts: and they are al<o called questmen. They take an oath for doing their duty, and are to present persons that do not resort to church on Sundays, and there continue during the whole time of divine service, &c. Canon 90 They shall not be cited by the ordinary to appear but at usual times, unless they have wilfully omitted for favour, to make presentment of notorious publick crimes, when they may be proceeded against for breach of oath, as for perjury." Canon 117.—Jacob's Law Dictionary, 1772, sub v.
W. I. S. HoRTON.
Devil A Proper Namb (3rd S. iv. 141, 418, 479.)—
"Formerly there were many persons surnamed 'the Devil.' In an ancient book we read of one Rogerius Diabolus, Lord of Montresor. An English Monk, Willelmu3, cognomento Diabolus. Again, Hughes le Diable, Lord of Lusignan. Robert, Duke of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror, was surnamed ' the Devil.' In Norway and Sweden there were two families of the name of 'Trolle,' in English, 'Devil;' and every branch of their families had an emblem of the devil for their coat of arms. In Utrecht there was a family called ' Teufel,' (or Devil); and in Brittany there was a family of the name of ' Diable.'"—Monthly Mirror, August, 1799.
W. L S. Horton.
Watson Of Lofthouse, Yorkshire (3"* S. iv. 515.)—The following may assist Sigma Theta in his inquiry after the Watsons of Lofthouse, Yorkshire. The pedigree in the British Museum is evidently that of the Watsons of Lofthouse near Wakefield, a branch of the Watsons of Bolton-inCraven. In the year 1493 W. Watson, of Lofthouse, had a quarrel with Gilbert Leigh, Esq., about some land, and referred the case to Sir Ed. Smith, and Sir John York, of Wakefield, for arbitration. About the year 1600 John Rooks, of Royds Hall, near Bradford, mar. Jennet, dau. and co-heir of Richard Watson, of Lofthouse, Esq.; soon after which event the family appear to have removed to Easthaye, near Pontefract, as we find that Edmund Watson, of Easthaye, answered to the summons of Dugdale at his sitting at "Pomfret, 7 Apr. 1666," and claimed,— Arms. Argent, on a chevron azure between three martlets gules, as many crescents or.* Crest. A griffin's head erased sable, holding in his beak, or, a rose-branch slipped vert. "For proofe hereof there is an old glasse window in an house at Loftus, which was antiently belonging to this family, as Mr. John Hopkinson affirms." This was Mr. Hopkinson, the Lofthouse antiquary, who attended Dugdale, in his Visitation of Yorkshire, as his secretary, and compiled the MS. pedigrees of the Yorkshire families, a copy of which is in the British Museum.
I do not trace any connection between the Watsons of Lofthouse and those of Bilton Park, who appear to have sprung from the North Riding, and to have acquired Bilton Park by purchase of the Stockdales. See Hargrove's Knaresborough (Tong), and Dugdale's Visitations of Yorkshire, Ed. Surtees' Society, Whitaker's Craven, also his Loidis and Elmete, James's Bradford, and the Richardson Correspondence. C. Forrest.
Lofthouse, near Wakefield.
* These arms slightly differ from the Watsons of Newcastle, dr. 1514.
LoNGEvrrr Of Clergymen (3** S. v. 65.) — The gentleman whom Prestoniensis terms the Rev. Joseph Rowley, was named Joshua. He was a son of Sir Joshua Rowley, Bart., and after being educated at Harrow School, was admitted a pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, March 29, 1787, and a fellow commoner, March 1, 1788, proceeding B.A., 1791, and commencing M.A., 1794. C. H. & Thompson Cooper.
Arthur Dobbs (3,d S. v. 63.)—May I express a hope that your correspondent, Mr. Crosslet, will kindly favour us with some particulars from (if not with the whole of) George Chalmers's unpublished biography of Arthur Dobbs? Francis Dobbs, whose Concise View from History and Prophecy, &c. (Dublin, 1800), is certainly a curiosity, was, I presume, a member of the same family. Abhba.
Bishop Dive Downes's "Tour Through Cork And Ross" ('2o4 S. ix. 45.)—Having sent a query respecting this valuable and interesting document, I may be permitted to record in " N. & Q.," that "the whole of Bishop Dive Downes's Tour through the Diocese of Cork and Ross, in 1699 and following years, has been incorporated injo" the Rev. Dr. Brady's Clerical and Parochial Records of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, of which two volumes have appeared (Dublin, 1863). Abhba.
Of Wit (3rd S. v. 30.)—Mr. Peter CunningHam has favoured us with several interesting examples of the various uses of the word "wit:" may I be allowed to append to his illustrations one or two Biblical passages which show the prosaic definition of the term, as implying ingenuity, sagacity, discernment, or knowledge generally: —
"For I was a witty child, and had a good spirit." — Wisdom of Solomon, viii. 19.
"I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions." — Proverbs, viii. 12.
Holofernes commends Judith for her toiV, or wisdom: —
"And they marvelled at her wisdom, and said, there is not such a woman from one end of the earth to the other, both for beauty of face and wisdom of words.—Likewise Holofernes said unte her, . . . and now thou art both beautiful iu thv countenance, and witty in thy words."— Judith, xi. 20-23.
I suppose the earliest use of this word, as a constituent, occurs in the Anglo-Saxon, witena-gemote, which may be taken to have represented the collective wisdom of the nation in those days. Whatever may have been the intellectual powers of those who composed the witan, we may presume that the knowledge of which the senators gave proof, was solid, prosaic, and practical; we can hardly fancy a sprightly Saxon cutting jokes, or capable of any lively association of ideas, that could find its embodiment in a pun worth recording in " N. & Q." F. Phiixott.
St. Mary Matfelon (3rt S. iv. 5,55,419, 483.) I did not at all undertake to interpret the word "Matfelon:" all that I attempted in ray former communication was an approximate verification of the meaning said by competent authority to have been traditionally given to it.
Pennant undoubtedly intimates that the word "Matfelon " was said to be Hebrew or Chaldaic, Chaldaic being formerly employed in a vague sense to express the almost identical dialects of Arabic and Syriac. This word, "Matfelon," after allowing for the corruptions and abbreviations naturally incident to its use for centuries, bears so strong a resemblance to the Arabic participle equivalent to the word "Paritura," that even if I quoted Pennant incorrectly, yet I think it more probable that he should be mistaken in citing a current tradition, than that so curious a coincidence should be entirely unfounded. * But my impression is that I quoted Pennant correctly ; and, at all events, if we credit Pennant's testimony to a matter of fact, i. e. the existence of such a tradition, tire word "Matfelon" was supposed to express one of the sacred functions assigned by the divine counsels to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her relation to the incarnation of her adorable Son.
Since I last wrote I find that it is not at all necessary to regard " Matfelon " as feminine, and abbreviated from "Matvaladatum," because, although in opposition with "Mary," Eastern syntax commonly admits the agreement of an epithet in gender with the more worthy masculine to which it may refer. In tracing also the word "Matfelon" to the Arabic "Matvaladon," or "Matfaladon," I should be glad if one of your correspondents would supply me with examples of d being passed over in rapid pronunciation. The d is nearly = the hard th, and this is dropped in the pronoun them. In Greek and Sanscrit there is a kind of interchange of the letters d, s, and h; some Latin supines lose the d. In English Cholmondeley makes Chomley, Sawbridgeworth, Sapsworth. In Scottish bridge makes brigg, &c. I should be pleased with some more examples.
My learned friend A. A. appears to ignore Pennant's tradition, and therefore my remarks do not apply to his suggested interpretation. But, I would ask, are any examples of a similar form in dedicating churches? Would the name of God be subjoined even to that of his greatest saints? J. R.
St. Mary's, Great Ilford.
Quotations Wanted (3" S. v. 62.) — I have been accustomed to the following form of the verses: "Hoc est nescire," etc.: —
"Qui Christum noscit, sat est si eastern nescit:
I have seen these verses attributed to St. Augustin. The thought was very likely his originally, but the verses smack rather of medisaval quaintness. *• C. H.
Mas. Fitzherbebt (3r* S. iv. 411, 522 ; v. 59.) I was personally acquainted with Mrs. Fitzherbert, and have long been intimate with her relatives and connexions; and I have always heard that she never had a child at all. Indeed I have not the least doubt that this is correct.
F. C. II.
"one Swallow Does Not Make A Summer" (3rd S. v. 53.)—The late ingenious Dr. Forster, in his Circle of the Seasons, quotes a line from Horace, connecting the Zephyrs of Spring with the arrival of the swallow :—
"Cum Zcphyris si concedes et hirundine prima." He also mentions that the swallow's return was a holiday for children in Greece, in anticipation of which they used to exclaim: —
He quotes some poet, to him unknown, who says, writing of Spring: —
"The swallow, for a moment seen,
Dr. Forster gives the 15th of April as " Swallow Day," and as named in the Ephemeris of Nature, XtXiSoytxpopia; and he mentions that the west wind is called in Italy Chelidonius, from its blowing about the time of the swallow's appearance. All these passages bear upon the subject of Mh. Heath's enquiry, as connecting the swallow with the first return of Spring. F. C. H.
I can refer Mr. Heath to one modern poet, who, in a well-known passage, connects the swallow with the earlier of the two seasons: — «. . . .' underneath the eaves, The brooding swallows cling; As if to show me their sunny backs, And twit me with the Spring."
Hood's Song of the Shirt.
Alfred Ainger. Alrewas, Lichfield.
Psalm xc. 9. (3rd S. v. 57.)—The following extract, from a very striking sermon by the Rev. A. J. Morris (I believe) an Independent minister, may be interesting to Mr. Dixon, and to other readers:—
"' We spend our years as a talethat is told/ The words scarcely give the true idea. 'That is told,' is in italics, the sign of insertion by the translators: there is nothing answering to it in the original. Instead of' tale,' the margin has 'meditation;' 'we spend our years as a meditation.' But even this hardly gives the full