« EelmineJätka »
The want of a proper stimulus to Government in detail the modes which they would recommend systems, and that all new ships should be built on officers for the efficient and economical manage for the entries of the names of candidates for em- a system of piecework, defining the price for the ment of the works under their charge being very ployment, and they have prepared forms and whole ship as in private trade. They are of apparent in the Dockyards, the Committee have certificates to guard against the entry of inefficient opinion that one of the assistant-surveyors, and an recommended that the cost of every ship built for men or of any man inferior to any other who may intelligent assistant-master shipwright would ordinary, or completed for sea, and the balance be a candidate. They believe that if these forms require to be directed to make themselves ac sheets of the chief manufacturing branches, are strictly acted up to and enforced, they will quainted with this system, as worked in private showing the net cost of the work produced in produce the effect desired. The Committee have trade; and that a foremen from a private trade, the different Dockyards, should be printed an. also recommended the entry of a greater number acoustomed to it, should be engaged to introduce nually with the Navy Estimates, and presented to of boys into the yards, and have pointed out it first into one of the yards, and subsequently Parliament, and circulated to all the Dockyards. where they may be employed with advantage. into the others. The Committee make this recomIf this were done, those officers who produced the The Committee have found that the systems of mendation because they attribute the failure up work at the cheapest rate would have credit for promotions have not been working in such a way to the present time of obtaining for the Governit, and any officer who allowed the work of his 'as to ensure the appointment of the fittest men
ment under task and job work the same advantages department to cost too much, would be brought to the vacant situations. They have, therefore, that accrue in private trade from the system of to account. Private manufacturers, also, would proposed some alterations in the arrangements, piecework to the want of a proper knowledge of have an opportunity of judging whether the and that the examination papers for the profes- how to work it. The Committee consider that all Government works were conducted satisfactorily sional officers should be issued from the office of work to which this system cannot be applied or not, and would check any excessive cost. the Surveyor of the Navy under arrangements should be done by day work under proper super
The Committee found that the offices for the which they conceive will not throw much, if any, vision, and that all work should cease as soon as foremen or leading men immediately supervising additional labour on his department, and will possible to be performed under the present system the men in the different workshops were not ensure uniformity at the yards. They found that of task and job. The experience of every day generally well arranged to enable them to see by the present system of examination too little confirms the Committee in this opinion, and they their men while at work, and many of the shops weight was given to practical experience and other would recommend that the leading men should be themselves were badly arranged in this respect, points in the character of a man to fit him to be arranged as soon as possible in the positions and were lumbered up with inaterial. They re- a good supervising officer, wþich could not be recommended in the report, and that all the men commended
that immediate steps should be taken tested by any examination, and the possession of should be put upon day work with extra hours, to remedy this evil.
which tends to the want rather than otherwise of till the arrangements are completed for building The Committee have given much attention to such knowledge as would enable him to be suc. new ships by the system of piecework as recomthe subject of superannuation to the workmen of cessful in a competitive theoretical examination mended. the Dockyards, and they are very strongly of on paper.
The yards are at present worked under the sysopinion that the present system has an injurious The Committee have also taken the liberty of tem of task and job, and the cost of the staff of effect upon the service, tending to protect an referring to the annual visits of their lordships to measurers at present employed amounts to the inefficient man and prevent him from being dis- the Dockyards and the master of the workmen, large sum of £15,252 per annum. This is in charged, because the supervising officer considers and they submit for consideration whether this addition to the ordinary supervision, and for a that after he has served a few years he has a claim should be continued, with the half-holiday to the staff of non-productive men. The cost of the upon the service, and that he would lose this by men thereafter, at a cost of about £1,370 for all ordinary staff of measurers, with their writers, his discharge. The wages paid to the Dockyard the yards.
messengers, &c., is £5,250, as provided for by last men are considered to be lower than those paid The Committee have given much consideration year's navy estimates. By the system proposed to men in private trade, and partly on account of to the three systems under which the payments by the Committee these sums will be entirely their future superannuation. A feeling, therefore, are made to the workmen for their labour on work saved, and all the advantages of piecework will exists that they are deprived of something which performed at the Dockyards. The first system is still be secured to the Government on all new they have earned, and which is their due, if they termed task and job, by which a definite sum of work and extensive repairs. Eight of the are discharged; and this leads to an unwillingness money is paid for each specific piece of work in corvettes before referred to cost, for shipwrights on the part of the officer to recommend them to detail according to an established scheme of prices labour, without fitting for sea, 1098, 8£d. per be discharged, or even to report them to their without defining the whole sum for which a ship ton, and one fitted for sea cost 173s. 11d., while it. superiors for misconduct, lest this report should or structure is to be completed. The second system was stated in evidence to the Committee that a lead to that result. The Committee have recom- is known at the present day as “ day pay under corvette, if built in a private yard, with scantmended that for all future entries of workmen in check measurement,” and is nearly the same as lings, fastenings, and workmanship similar to the yards a system of deferred annuities should that formerly known under the
term of “ task and ships in Her Majesty's navy, fitted for sea, would be adopted, so that every man on his discharge job, limited earnings.” Under this system, the
men be about 528. only per ton for shipwrights' labour. would take his annuity policy with him, and con
are employed on a fixed rate of day pay, and the Allowing for any superiority of workmanship in tinue it thereafter or give it up at his own option. work performed by them is measured and valued the Dockyard, or other difficulties, the Committee By this system the officers would be perfectly weekly, by the scheme of prices for task and job can see no reason why ships should not be built free to discharge inefficient or badly.conducted work, and the men are paid the amount of their for a price in the Dockyard at lenst approaching men at any time, and the men would have no
week's pay if the value of the work is equal to that paid in private trade, if the same system cause of complaint: the annuity policy to be thereto, but if a greater quantity of work has of working the men as now recommended be withheld if the man left the yard in the time of been done, and its value exceeds this amount, adopted, instead of their costing, as in the case war, or time of pressure, when his services were they are not paid this excess of earnings, and quoted above, more than three times as much. required in the yard, and when other men could thus they are not paid for the whole of the work With respect to the present shipwright officers not be obtained.
which they have performed, while if the value of the committee are of opinion that there are too The Committee have considered the working the work falls short of their week's wages, they many grades, and that a want of clearness exists hours of the yards, and have proposed considerable are mulcted to the extent of the deficiency, and in defining the duties of each grade. They modification in them. In addition to some other do not receive the full amount of their fixed day consider that the present leading men are in a minor alterations, they have arranged a new table pay. The third system is the employment of the false position, sharing in the earnings of the gang of working hours, so as to allow the men one and men on day pay, depending upon the supervision of men to which they belong when on task and a half hours exact stopping time for dinner during of the officers for the exertions of the men, and, job, and expected to perform the duties of a the whole year, except on Saturdays, and thirty. therefore, for the quantity of work performed supervising officer on behalf of the Government. five minutes stopping time for breakfast, except The Committee have shown in their Report that The Committee have commented fully upon this in during seven weeks of the shortest days. The the system of task and job has been subject to their Report, and they recommend that the posimen, at present, are not allowed to stop for much abuse. Sister corvettes of 1,462 tons, tion and pay of the leading men should be raised, breakfast even in the summer time, which the costing upwards of £3,000 more for shipwrights' and that the class of inspectors should be done Committee consider to be a very objectionable labour in one yard than another, though both were away with. They also consider that the foremen arrangement. They have also arranged the hours paid for by measurement of the work upon them, are more in number than are necessary. By the so that, without lessening the number of hours | under the same scheme of prices, and though the supervision as proposed by them in their Report, worked per week during the greater part of the work upon both must have been nearly identical ; and which they feel confident will be sufficient year, the whole of the men of the Dockyard should and they have also pointed out other cases of and superior to the present system, an annual leave off work on Saturdays at four o'clock. The similar discrepancy. They have also shown that saving in salaries to these classes of officers will Committee believe that these arrangements will the system of day work under check measurement be effected to the amount of £9,463 per annum. be agreeable and beneficial to the men, and that is injurious to the service, as checking the energies The Committee have laid down definite rules for they will also be beneficial to the Government, as of the men who know the prices for each piece of the appointment of leading men and foremen, the total number of hours worked in the year will work and value the work as it progresses, and do which will ensure greater practical experience in be increased. The next subject treated of by the no more than is sufficient to cover the amount of these officers than has hitherto existed in all committee is that of the entries of men. They their weekly wages; and that done, they feel, and cases. consider that the present arrangements have failed tell the officers, that they have no right to exact The Committee have also made arrangements to secure in all cases the entry of the best men more. The Committee have recommended the respecting draughtsmen for the mould loft, who that could be obtained. They have pointed out discontinuance of both of these last-mentioned require more education; and they have made
arrangements for their promotion separately from chinery for the whole service, and that the laying better standing than the present leading man of the more practical officers.
machinery at Chatham and Devonport should storehouses to be placed over the stores, to attend The Committee have given much attention to supply the whole service with rope. The expense especially to the issues, as the clerks in the storethe subject of providing for a future supply of of the separate establishment a: Portsmouth houses are occupied in their duties in the offices, men, properly educated, to be fit to fill the posi- would thus be saved, and the building would be and cannot attend to this duty personally. tion of the superior officers in the shipwright come available for other purposes for which it is The Committee found generally a want of attendepartment. All the officers of the late school of much needed, and which are pointed out in the tion to keeping up a store of properly seasoned naval architecture are now well advanced in Report.
material, especially for joiners' use and for wheelyears, and the want of properly-educated suc The Committee recommend that more complete wrights' use, and they recommend greater attencessors is becoming seriously apparent. At the housing should be built over those ships placed in tion to this point. last examination for assistant master shipwrights, ordinary, and that those ships intended for ordi They consider that the contracts and schedules not one of the candidates came up to the very rary should be so fitted and be kept in ordinary as require revising, as well as the standard patterns. moderate standard of scientific knowledge laid long as there are any other vessels of the same They have made remarks in their Report on down as necessary by their Lordships' circulars of class not so fitted which are available for service. several points connected with the receipt of stores, 1847 and 1853. The Committee have made re The Committee recommend the use of chain especially as regards the chemical analysis of commendations respecting the promotion of the cable instead of the long-linked mooring.chain copper, paint, &c., at Chatham, the repair of better educated and superior men from the class for the moorings of the ordinary, as being both articles for store, the preservation of storesof workmen, and have at the same time recom more economical in itself, as shown by the details especially made masts and mast timber-and the mended the introduction of superior class pupils given in the Report, and much more easy and appropriation of obsolete stores. to be trained in the dockyards, but without en economical to work.
With respect to the Director of Work's depart. tailing any expense in the form of schools or professors, the number required being so limited. the means of locomotion in the yards, and that a
The Committee recommend improvements in ment, the Committee recommend more concert
with the department who are to use the buildings They have recommended the entry of two such
more definite system of ordinary rails should be about to be erected; and they show reasons in the pupils
at once, two in three years, and one in every laid down in all of them capable of taking loco- Report for this recommendation. third year thereafter, which will be sufficient, with motive engines, but without use of them for the
They recommend an alteration in the system of the superior men rising from the ranks, to fill ordinary traffic. They consider that these rails taking the local contracts, so that the Governthe number of positions as assistant-surveyors would be more advantageous than tramways or
ment material may be more largely used ; and they and masters-shipwrights, and their assistants at traction engines.
recommend the engagement of a few workmen, the yards. The Committee consider that none but these last-named officers, about twenty in number, mittee have made several recommendations. They under the contractor.
With respect to the dockyard schools the Com- under the clerk of works, to te employed on smali
jobbing work, now done by day-work by men required to be possessed of superior scientific acquirements , and to be men of general know. consider that no boys should be selected above
With respect to the factory department the ledge and general experience ; and that all these their companions to receive a superior education, Committee recommend that the men should be officers should be looked upon as superior officers, and then be expected to return to their work continued as hired men; but that a system of and distinctly marked from the grade of foremen, the school-room should be opened gratuitously in the objections to the present system
of superan: thereafter as mechanics. They recommend that deferred annuities should be introduced, free from who should be experienced practical men. The Committee have, therefore, recommended that a
the evenings to a limited number of men as well as clearer line than hitherto should be drawn boys, and that the schoolmasters should then act in recommend the introduction of task and job work
the same manner as private tutors to those who into the factories. They recommend the printing between these classes of officers, in the same
may be attending, giving instruction to each indi and appending the balance sheets to the navy manner as between the commissioned and noncommisioned officers of the army and navy.
vidually, and not as a class.
estimates to give a stimulus to the officers to Respecting the joiners' department, the Com-Committee consider that the examination before mittee have made some recommendations with a entry should include mensuration of surfaces and They recommend greater control to be exercised view to improve the supervision, and have recom: solids, as their duties require them to take the by the storekeeper of the yard, and over the cash
over the stock of stores in the factory storehouses mended the increase of the use of machinery in
measurements of works and of timber and other that department in some of the yards.
materials. The Committee also consider that the payments of wages of the factories by the The wheelwrights department was found to re- discipline of the clerks in the offices is not in a
accountant of the yard. They recommend addiquire improvement in most of the yards, both as satisfactory state, and they therefore recommend They recommend more definite pay and position
tional supervision over the factory at Sheerness. regards supervision and machinery.
that the signing of the declaration enforcing to the junior superior officers of the factories, and The Committee have recommended the entry of obedience to all senior to them in their depart. that the qualification of those officers should be more painters, instead of continuing the practice ment, as required by the instructions, should be of employing labourers to such an extent as has attended to at all the yards. Clerks appear also
more thoroughly tested before they are appointed. hitherto obtained.
In conclusion, the Committee remark “ that to have been promoted by seniority alone in With regard to labourers, the Committee consider that the supervision over them hitherto has of the officer under whom they were serving, of the Dockyards ; but they are in accordance with some cases, and without reference to the opinion many of the recommendations submitted by them
are not supported by the evidence of the officers been far below what is required, and they recommend the appointment of two foremen, under the mittee have found that the quarterly certificate the practices of private trade.” They finish by boatswain of the yard. They also recommend an that the conduct of the clerk had been satis saying :-“The Committee have had occasion to increase of wages to the labourers, as they are factory during the past quarter, before he is to
point out many alterations, but they have progiven, are not sufficient to maintain a man in disuse, and they consider that it has failed in well-being of the service in the Dockyards, and satisfied that the wages of 13s. per week, as now receive his salary, has in some yards fallen into posed no changes where they did not think
necessary for the improvement and the future proper working condition if he has a wife and being useful by being too severe. No superior family depending upon him. The Committee found officer is inclined to deprive a clerk of his whole faults, these faults are to be attributed inore to the
they feel that wherever they have pointed out the complaint general that there were not enough income by taking upon himself to refuse to sign system as a whole than to the men. Errors and labourers to save the employment of skilled arti: this certificate merely because the clerk has not faults will gather and increase with the age of ficers at high wages to do labourers' work, and been so diligent as he might have been. The they have recommended that labourers be added to Committee have
therefore recommended, in lieu of such old standing as the Dockyards will bear com
every establishment, and few establishments of the different workshops, and that two labourers this certificate, that a certificate should be required parison with private establishments of the day ; should be attached to, and form part of, every gang from every chief officer under whom a clerk may but it is the comparison which the Committee of shipwrights, to fetch stores and remove chips, be serving, before he receives the annual rise of have endeavoured to bring to bear upon them; shavings, &c. They also recommend that scavel. pay due to his position, stating that his conduct and they think that credit will be given to them men be re-introduced to work for the shipwrights, and attention have been satisfactory. The Com. erect stages, assist in getting heavy weights on mittee are of opinion that this power in the hands for having had no other object in view in their board ships, and other work.
of a superior officer will be duly exercised by him, remarks than the benefit of the service.” The Committee recommend that the saw mills, and will be productive of much good; but the
The following paragraph is going the round of the as is the case at Chatham, the millwright shops, refusal of the
certificate should not be looked upon newspaper world : -" The Austrian (American) tele. and the smitheries at all the yards, and the block in too serious a light by the authorities in London, graphist, Mr. Hughes, has added another great immills and distilling apparatus shop at Portsmouth and lead them to believe that because it is refused provement to the science of telegraphy. He has should be placed under the chief engineer, for the an inquiry should therefore be made whether the invented a telegraph which at once supersedes the reasons before referred to.
clerk should be retained in the service; because, whole system of telegraphic signals as now in use. The Committee have made recommendations for in that case, again, the strenuousness of such a
The new instrument, without causing more wires to improving the efficiency of the metal mills at measure would make the superior officer hesitate be used than at present, transmits messages, indicat. Chatham, as also the lead mills there. to refuse the certificate, and the object of stimu- of the alphabet. The advantage of the instruinent is,
ing those messages to the eye by the ordinary letters The Committee recommend that the East Ropery lating any young clerks who are capable of exer.
that it can be used by any person who can spell a at Devonport should be converted into a spinning tion, but who have only been idle or indifferent, message. It is small and portable. Any railway mill, in addition to the increase of the spinning would be lost.
guard may carry one in his pocket," We need only machines at Chatham for spinning yarn by ma The Committee have recommended a man of say we do not believe this.
THE PUMPING ENGINE AT THE NEW.
chamber I in the bed-plate to which the suctionCASTLE WATER WORKS.
pipe K leads from the well; and a back. Aap valve By Mr. ROBERT MORRISON, of Newcastle-on-Tyne."
of india-rubber is fixed at the extremity of the The pumping engine forming the subject of the
pipe K at the bottom of the well, 20 feet below the present paper was constructed by the writer for
pump suction-valves. The delivery-valves are the Whittle Dean Water Works, and has been
exactly similar to the suction-valves, and immeerected near Benwell, a village about two miles
diately over them, and they are connected by a west of Newcastle-on-Tyne, where filter-beds and
horizontal pipe L parallel to the pump B, from an extensive pure water basin have likewise been
which the delivery-pipe M leads off
, proceeding recently constructed. About ten miles west of
FIG.3. direct to the main. A branch is carried off Benwell, at Welton, there are eight extensive col.
obliquely from the main to the air vessel, which lecting and settling reservoirs, called the Whittle
is situated outside the building, and is 3 feet Dean reservoirs, containing at their ordinary high
diameter and 12 feet high. Two small air-vessels water level 600 million gallons of water, but
N N are also fixed on the top of the pump B, imcapable of holding a much greater quantity. The
mediately over the two delivery-valves. average low-water level of these reservoirs is 360
The steam cylinder is fitted with a separate feet above the high water line in the Tyne, and
expansion slide working on the back of the ordithe water is conducted into the towns of New
nary slide valve. This arrangement is shown castle and Gateshead through a 24-inch cast-iron
enlarged in Figs. 4 and 5. Both slides are worked main by gravitation. Owing to the extension of
by fixed eccentrics, but the expansion is made these towns up the banks of the Tyne, consider
variable by means of a slotted link R, vibrating able portions of them are above the level to which water in the well has generally been about equal on a centre fixed to the bed plate, and permanently the water will flow direct from Welton. To supto the depth of water in the high reservoir.
connected to the rod of the expansion slide 0, ply these districts an engine and reservoir were
The pumping engine, which was erected twelve which is attached to the centre of the link, the constructed some years ago at Gateshead ; which months ago, is a horizontal high-pressure expan- eccentric rod being connected to a sliding block afterwards proving insufficient through the in- double-acting pump, and coupled to a crank and screw, which can be readily adjusted whilst the
worked up and down the slot by means of a creased demand for water, the engine here de- Ay-wheel. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section and engine is at work. There is an index on the side scribed was erected, and can now at all times sup: sectional plan of the engine and pump. Figs. 2 of the link to show the degree of cut-off. The ply the highest districts
by gravitation alone with and 3 are transverse sections through the pump exhaust steam is discharged into a cistern, $, cast an unlimited quantity of water.
and through the steam cylinder. Down the bank opposite Benwell, at about the
in the foundation plate, into which the cold feed level of high water in the Tyne, runs the 24-inch 4 feet stroke, and the
pump B, which is worked by this means the feed water is heated, and is
The steam cylinder A is 26 inches diarueter and water is injected through a perforated pipe, T'; Welton main, from which a 10-inch branch has been led up the hill side a distance of 2,240 feet from the same piston rod, is 111 inches diameter. then pumped from the cistern into the boiler. A to the filter beds already mentioned, which are
A crosshead is keyed upon the piston-rod and glass gauge on the side of the cisteru indicates placed at a level of 246 feet above the high water guided by a cylindrical slide C on each side, work. the level of the water, as it is desirable that there line in the Tyne. The water passing from the the bed-plate ; and the connecting-rod E is cistern.
on round guide-rods carried by brackets from should not be more than 3 inches deep in the beds to the pure water basin is conducted to the coupled to the crosshead close to the piston-rod engine suction pipe, and is driven through another F, which is lengthened sufficiently to allow the shaft
, and the rods permanently connected to the
As the eccentrics are fixtures on the fly-wheel recently formed reservoir at the top of the bank crank to clear the end of the pump B. The side valves for the sake of simplicity and duraat High Benwell, 412 feet above high water in the crosshead is made solid in one piece with the bility of construction, a special arrangement is Tyne, from which the town is supplied through a
cylindrical guide on the side, to which the connect provided for starting the engine by means of a lo-inch main. When it is not required to pass with a socket and keyed. Each guide C is pro- of the steam chest, and connected by small branch
ing-rod is attached, and the other side is made two-way cock U, Fig. 4, attached at the bottom the water through the filtering beds or pure water vided with two set screws to allow of tightening pipes to both steam ports, by which the steam can basin, the 10-inch branch from the Welton main delivers the water into a well 20 feet deep, 16 feet diameter and 5! tons weight. The pump the engine readily started. the brasses as they wear. The fly-wheel G is be turned into either port beyond the valve, and
There are three whence it is pumped by the engine as before B is double-acting, and has a solid piston fitted Cornish boilers with single flues, having the fire to the second reservoir up the hill. The height with cupped leathers facing
both ways, with a in the flue; the boilers are 28 feet long and 4 feet from the bottom of the well to the end of the brass piece between them to preserve
the leathers 9 inches diameter, and the flues 3 feet diameter ; delivery pipe in High Benwell reservoir is 182 from being cut. The pump-valves H are rectan. but only two boilers at a time are used for work. feet, which is the beight the engine has been lift- gular butterfly valves of india-rubber 17 inch ing the engine. The fire-doors are arranged to ing during the experiments ; for the depth of thick, beating on 4-inch bars, with 1 inch spaces ; admit any quantity of air, and regulated in such * Read at a late meeting of the Institution of Mechani- the total area of opening in each valve seat is 112
a manner as to be under the control of the engi. cal Engineers,
square inches. The suction-valves open from a neer; the result is perfect combustion and the entire absence of smoke with the Benwell pit to be levelled, and upon this large blocks are to be same tube placed between the first and the cylinder coal.
laid. With regard to the composition of these which allows the water to flow out of the latter The steam is maintained at 60 lbs. per square blocks, on the author's system, even when the and the mass descends. If the block is to be inch above the atmosphere, and the engine is mass of the block was composed of ordinary moved laterally, the piston of a small cylinder usually worked with the steam cut off at one-fifth material, the face exposed to the sea would be fixed to the framing above is attached to the crab of the stroke. The main slide, P, having always hard and impenetrable, and yet the evil of a by means of a chain passing over a pulley, fixed exactly the same mction, whatever be the degree distinct line of demarcation between the face and on the opposite end of the frame. This cylinder of expansion, the opening of the exhaust and the the body of the block would be carefully avoided. is connected directly with the accuinulator by amount of compression are constant. The usual As these blocks are deposited, the planking is to means of a tube, and the communication being speed of the engine is 24 revolutions per minute, be removed, and the space between the face-work always open, the tendency is always to draw the or 192 feet per minute speed of piston; but it has and the original rubble heart is to be carefully crab to the left. Another cylinder is fixed in the been worked up to 40 revolutions, or 320 feet per filled. There are some peculiarities in the method opposite direction, and connected to the crab in minute of the piston. The pressure of water upon proposed by the author for setting these face the same manner. This cylinder also communithe pumps as indicated by a pressure gauge is 80 blocks. It may be stated generally, that the main cates with the accumulator, and being larger in lbs. per square inch when standing, and rises to a objects in view are, first, to afford increased diameter than the former one, when the commean of about 95 Ibs. per square inch whilst facilities for handling heavy masses, and secondly, munication is opened, it draws the crab from working, equivalent to 18:6 lbs. per square inch as a considerable part of the faces must be built left to right, and the water in the first cylinder effective pressure on the steam piston, or 57 horse under water by divers, to place within easy reach being forced back into the accumulator, there is power effective. Taking the coals consumed for of these men the power of moving the stone in no loss of power arising from the use of the first 3 months, the consumption is 30 cwts. per day overy direction, without the necessity of communi- cylinder. The tube connecting the second cylinder of 12 hours, including lighting fires, &c., or 5 cating with any one above water.
with the accumulator passes down to the divers lbs. of coals per effective horse power per hour,
It has frequently been proposed to employ large and up again. When the crah is to return to the and 4 lbs. per indicated horse power per hour. concrete masses in the building of piers: one prin left, the communication between the second It will thus be seen that the consumption of cipal reason which suggests itself to the author cylinder and the accumulator is shut, and another coals is not much more than if this engine had for this idea not having been extensively put in being opened, the water is allowed to flow out, been a condensing one, whilst the first cost of the practice, is the difficulty of handling such great the small cylinder pulling the crab back. The engine and building is much less, and the smooth weights. As has been stated, not only must the motion forward and backwards is communicated in and steady motion of the machine is much in its staging be of great strength, but the crane gear. the same way. favour when compared with the beam engines. ing to deal with say 25 tons must be cumbrous It will be seen that by means of three tubes
and expensive. As regards hydraulic machinery within reach of the divers, motion in every direc. BREAKWATER AT THE PORT OF BLYTI. the difficulty is to arrange it, so that it shall not tion is obtained, without the necessity of com
be still more so. Now as the author proposes to municating with any one above water. It is BY MICHAEL Scott, C.E.
deal with masses weighing more than 25 tons, it thought that by the means now described the (Concluded from p. 72.)
is essential to devise some method of moving them, great difficulty of signalling is overcome; for that The author does not recommend the plan of de and the following is the result :-With the aid difficulty does not consist so much in indicating positing rubble up to low-water mark, and then of bars, divers can do something with blocks the direction in which the motion is required, as erecting upon this a wall either of stone, or timber weighing from 5 to 8 tons, as so much of the the amount of that motion. This becomes of incorrect in principle; but he does recommend weight is neutralized when they are immersed; more than ordinary importance in the case of that the wall be built
from the bottom, or from but even with these, when laying a face course, large blocks, which men cannot easily swing from about 15 feet below low-water, No doubt the with the diver, or time is lost. It will be observed it requires the signal-man to act in perfect unison the perpendicular.
For moving the great frame, a long cylinder, first-mentioned plan has been adopted, chiefly on
that, in the case under consideration, the work of small diameter, is fixed at each side of it; the acconnt of the difficulty and expense of building consists only of face courses, and is composed of piston-rods are hooked on to chains made fast to under water, but the author hopes to show, that blocks of such weight, that so far as any direct the forward end of the work, and the water being these need no longer be regarded as such formid, action on the mass is concerned, the divers would admitted as before, the frame is moved forward. able objections. In the system hitherto adopted be nearly helpless. Hence arises the necessity of om- When the piston reaches the end of the stroke, it have been confined to one end of the work, and ploying some new means by which the diver would is drawn out and is again hooked on to the chain;
be able to move the blocks in every required direc- this can be easily effected by continuing down. the progress has, consequently been very slow, tion. This involves six distinct 'motions-down, wards for a few feet the tube which empties the the pier at Dover, for instance, advancing only at
up, forward, backwards, to the right, and to cylinder, as it tends to produce a partial vacuum. the rate of 100 feet per annum. gress is mainly to be accounted for by, two great proposes to employ may be briefly described
The apparatus* which the author
THE COMMISSIONERS' OF PATENTS obstacles to the operations of either helmet-divers, or of bells, which are current and ground swell; and with one end projecting over the side of the The Commissioners of Patents appointed under as follows:- There is traversing frame,
REPORT OF 1858. with respect to the former, the farther the pier projects the more rapid is the current past the end likely upon four lines of rails. Upon the inner end of Vict. c. 83.) in complianoe with the terms of the
This frame moves by means of wheels the Patent Law Amendment Act, 1852, (15 & 16 to become ; indeed, in some cases, the scour might the frame is placed an accumulator (which was third section of that Act, make the following be observed, that in facing an existing pier
, the patented by the author in 1851), which serves at Report of their proceedings under and in pura work might proceed with great rapidity, for it Upon the front end of the frame, there is a cross
suance of the same for the year 1858, in continumight be carried on at a number of places at once, frame carrying a crab. The operation of deposit
ance of their Report of proceedings for 1857. and there would be little, if any, current to ining a block is performed thus : the block is con- tection recorded within the year 1858 was 3,007;
The number of applications for provisional proterfere with the operations. To illustrate the advantages in these respects, is over head, and instead of the chain being the number of specifications filed in pursuance
veyed on a waggon under the traveller; the crab the number of patents passed thereon was 1,954 ; the author will describe the method proposed by attached directly to the mass, a cylinder contain thereof was 1,880; the number of applications work. Suppose the form of breakwater shown in ing a piston is interposed, the cylinder hanging lapsed or forfeited, the applicants having
neglected Fig: 4 to be selected. Frames are sunk at intervals to the block. A flexible tube from the lower end to proceed for their patents within the six months of 30 feet, and stand on the natural bottom. of the cylinder communicates with the accumulator,
of provisional protection, was 1,047. Rails being laid on balks of timber between these and a stop-cock being opened, the water flowing Patent for inventions to be granted under the
The Act 16 Vict. c. 5. enacts that all Letters principals, rubble is tipped from waggons to form from the reservoir under pressure forces up the provisions of the Patent Law Amendment Act, the
bank, of the dimensions shown, up to a level piston, and lifts the block. When thus suspended 1852, shall be made subject to the condition that of 17 feet below low-water; and the intermediate the crab is moved, by means of a rack and pinion, the same shall be void at the expiration of three frames are then erected upon it, leaving spaces of 5 feet. On the outside of these frames, above low to near the end of the frame, and then,
with the aid of the break,' the workyears and seven years respectively from the date water, planks are attached, and are secured by
thereof, unless there be paid, before the expiration men lower the block until it rests on the pieces of timber bolted through to the frames.
of the said three years and seven years respecThe object of placing them on the outside is to the mass is consigned to the care of the divers. If annexed, viz., 650 at the expiration of the third
previous course. He then fixes the break, and tively the stamp duties in the schedule thereunto allow of their being easily removed afterwards. Below low-water, the spaces are filled in with the diver wishes to raise the block, he opens the panels, or vertical pieces, secured by the sliding communication between the accumulator and the year, and £100 at the expiration of the seventh year.
Two thousand and forty-four patents bear date
between the 1st July 1855 and the 30th June filled with rubble, up to 6 feet above high-water, block is raised far enough, he shuts the cock, and 1856; the additional stamp duty of £50 has been and covered with an open flooring of timber. On the sea side, a parapet is carried up, and there is lower the block, a second cock is opened in the paid on 568 of that number; and 1,476 have
become void by reason of non-payment. then a breakwater sufficient to last for many years. • For drawings of this apparatus see "Report of the cations filed in the office upon the patents granted
All the provisional, complete, and final specifiFor the purpose of forming the permanent stone Commissioners, &c., on Harbours of Refuge," vol. i., | under the Act have been printed and published in face, the projecting portion of the rubble bank is Plate 3. Folio. London. 1859.—M. S.
This slow pro- the left.
continuation, with lithographie outline copies of pattern now in use in the Navy, near the Obser- HALL'S PATENT RAILWAY BRAKE the drawings accompanying the same, and within vatory at Greenwich, I have no hesitation in
APPARATUS. three weeks of the respective dates of filing, ac- saying that in both instances the brilliancy of
TO THE EDITORS OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." cording to the provisions of the Act 16 and 17 your light greatly excelled that of the other, more Vict. c. 115.
particularly so on the latter occasion, when the GENTLEMEN :-In a report lately addressed by The provisional specifications filed in the office haze rendered it difficult to distinguish the Navy Captain Galton, R. E., to the Lordš' Committee of and lapsed and forfeited, have also been printed lamp with the aid of a glass, whilst yours was
Privy Council for Trade, on the Accidents which and published in continuation. very distinct to the eye.
occurred on Railways in the year 1858, that exPrinted certified copies of the specifications I remain, Sir, your obedient servant,
perienced officer says :-“ Safety from collisions filed in the office, as also certified copies of patents,
would be very largely increased if the guard or the and of the record book of assignments of patents Mr.J. W. Brown, 25 Wickham-terrace, Deptford.
E. J. P. PBARN, R.N., Master Attendant. engine driver of a train were enabled to apply and licences, with copies of such assignments and
brakes to a sufficient number of carriages to enable it licences, have been sent, in continuation, to the R.M.S.N. Company's ship Tamar, Southampton,
to be stopped in 300 or 400 yards. The application office of the Director of Chancery in Edinburgh,
8th June, 1859.
of brakes to several of the vehicles of a train, instead and the enrolment office of the Court of Chan Captain Vincent, R.N., Superintendent.
of only one to a heavy brake van at one end, cery in Dublin, pursuant to the Act of 1852 and SIR,—I have much pleasure in being able to and the road.” And again, in the same report,
causes far less wear and tear to the rolling stock the Act of 16 and 17 Vict. c. 115.
report most favourably of the mast-head lamp Captain Galton says, that a certain gentleman's The work of printing the specifications of put on board Tamar previous to her last voyage. patents under the old law, 12,977 in number, and dating from 1711 to 1852, having been completed, although Dr. Brown's is smaller, yet the light is brake blocks wear away,” adding, “the efficient I have tested it against our own lamp, and brakes “are efficient, but not perfect," and that
they require to be adjusted periodically as the the Commissioners of Patents have directed short much more brilliant, and can be seen a consider action of a system of continuous brakes, no doubt, abstracts or abridgments of specifications, grouped able distance further in hazy or foggy weather. to some extent, depends upon the adoption of the under the different heads of invention, to be pre- The lamp also wanted no trimming, and was as pared and published; for example, abridgments of bright after eight or ten hours burning as when system by all companies who interchange carriages the specifications of patents relating to the pro- first lighted; so much pleased was. I with it, that would adopt a system of continuous brakes for pulsion of vessels, commencing in the year 1618 after leaving Lisbon I used it entirely, as I conand ending 1857, comprising nearly 1,000 inven- sidered that by being seen so much further it might careful arrangements in making up the trains
their own stock, the cases would be few where tions, have been published in three parts, making lessen the chance of collision.
would not enable the system to be effectually one small volume.
I hope I may be allowed to retain Dr. Brown's applied.” Abridgments relating to the following subjects lamp.
I am, Sir,
From these observations I am undoubtedly at of invention have also been published :-Drain
Your most obedient servant,
liberty to conclude (1.) That if the railway comtiles and pipes; manufacture of iron and steel,
(Signed) John H. JELLICOE, Commander. panies would adopt an efficient system of brakes, 3 parts; manures; sewing and embroidering; preservation of food; aids to locomotion; steam My new patent consists in constructing lamps, the public would, Captain Galton believes, derive culture. lighthouses, &c., out of tiers of lenses placed one
a large increase of safety. (2.) That Captain Other series are in the press, and it is intended above the other, the perpendicular edges of which Galton considers the following conditions essential to publish at the rate of six or eight series in each are so mitred that they join their fellows like the to a perfect (and therefore an efficient) system of year, completing the work in eight or ten years. key-stones of an arch, and according to the angle brakes, viz., (a) that the system shall be appli
These abridgments are sold at prices a little at which they are mitred so a circle or half circle cable to numerous carriages of a train ; (b) that it above the cost of printing and paper. of any extent can be formed.
shall not require adjustment because of the wear For the sake of illustration I take a lamp afford no obstacle to the interchange of carriages
of the brake blocks; (c) that it shall be such as will To the above Report is appended the Report of showing half a circle, constructed of three tiers the Commissioners of Patents on the subject of of lenses, each tier consisting of 10 plano-convex conditions, the able and gallant officer whom I
among railway companies. In addition to these the building of a patent office and a public library lenses shaped on my plan, so that where they join have quoted would, of course
, further require
that which has been transmitted to Her Majesty's their fellows lenses are formed. The interior will the system should be moderate in cost, simple in treasury, together with the annual financial papers present a series of 45 distinct flat surfaces, 15 to of the office.
each tier, without metal work separating them. construction, ready and certain in its action, and
The external appearance will be half spherical, the unattended by any large amount of labour or IMPROVED SIGNAL LAMPS FOR THE
Now, I am fully prepared to show to any rail. TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." several lenses which can cause a break in the official person, that the system of railway brakes
director, manager, engineer, or 17 Guildford-road, South-st., Greenwich, light. 2nd August, 1859. Having as briefly as possible described the con
invented and patented by me in 1857, fairly and GENTLEMEN,—In 1856 I took out a patent for struction of the lamp, it will be seen that I get first place it was designed expressly for application
entirely fulfils all these conditions. improvements in ship signal-lamps, pier-head in contiguity forty-five distinct and direct
to any ordinary description of railway carriage, lights, &c., and having on the 28th ult. taken out powers of light, which all become, if I may use through you another patent for further improve the expression, so amalgamated that the re
van, or truck, and its action is so immediate and ments of the same, and lighthouses generally, 1 sult is a more considerable increase of size, power; may be stopped in a much shorter distance than
powerful, that by its means a train of carriages beg through your valuable journal to give a brief and brilliancy of the light than is possible 300 or 400 yards mentioned by Captain Galton. description of the merits of my new patent. to be obtained from a lamp or lighthouse con.
In the next place, the construction and arrangeI am, Gentlemen, yours obediently,
structed of one large lens or piece of glass, be- ment of my apparatus is such, that it needs no J. WEIR D. BROWN,
cause the power of the light, although the lens adjustment whatever, however much the brakeLate Demonstrator of Anatomy at the London may be well filled, becomes weakened from the blocks
or frictional surfaces may wear. In the Hospital.
centre or focal point having to supply so great an In the first place I beg to say a few words on proved at the different trials of ships' lamps, in any or every conceivable manner without in any extent of glass. This point has been clearly fitted with it may be interchanged, or turned round,
third place, my system is so devised, that carriages the subject of my former patent, all the lamps small lamps on my principle having shown a much manufactured under which are constructed of :Square lenses shaped in such a manner that at the more brilliant light than the larger lamps tried way offering an obstacle to the making up of a
train. Lastly, my apparatus may unquestionably be edges where they join their fellows lenses are
cheaply fitted-is of a very simple character-acts formed, so that the whole extent of glass consists of combined diffusing lenses, and when the lamps same size, and the one constructed under my new
no considerable labour or trouble upon railway are lit many points of power are obtained, which patent will give 20 or 30 times more light than is
servants. causes the light to become larger, more powerful and which causes my light to be seen to advantage as true without proof. But I make them with all
possible to be obtained from those in ordinary use, These statements will not, of course, be accepted and brilliant, and thereby penetrates through a haze when the ordinary lights are invisible, which in hazy or foggy weather.
confidence, and am willing to furnish the proof is the critical time when a light is of value for the
Another great advantage which a lighthouse or when it is asked for. Meantime, I desire to urge prevention of collisions, loss of life and property lamp constructed on my principle would possess the consideration of this question upon those to at sea. The power of my lamps has been fully would be the regulating
the power of the light. whom the limbs and lives of the travelling public proved at trials ordered by the Board of Admi. For example, so much power is not required on a
are committed. If Captain Galton be correct in ralty, Trinity, &c., &c.
, and I crave your indul- clear as on a hazy or foggy night-on the former this matter-and who can doubt that he is ?—then gence by allowing the enclosed reports on their occasion, only the upper
tiers of lenses the neglect of an invention which can accomplish merits to be inserted :
need be lighted; on the latter occasion, all the all that I have said mine can effect, amounts to H.M. Victualling Yard, Deptford, tiers of which the lamp is constructed.
nothing less than the neglect of the public safety, 6th November, 1857.
One of the new lighthouse lamps is, by order of and the wantou exposure of the public to peril. SIR,– Having on the 27th and 31st ultimo wit. the authorities of the Royal Yacht Squadron, I have here endeavoured to state the matter nessed from this Yard the signal light in the lamp about to be erected at Cowes.
fairly; and although in the absence of all adverse vf your invention, when displayed with one of the
J. W. D. B. criticism I speak confidently of the merits of my