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surplus stock which, during a course of years, has been saved out of the annual production and consumption of the general society.'
• Now let me ponder a while,' said I, passing, with conscious importance, my fingers over what phrenologists consider the most intellectual protuberances of a well-furnished cranium. My uncle seemed to enjoy the task of teaching me to ride what, I began to think, must be a favourite hobby of his ; and I, anxious to gratify him, proceeded, after a little consideration-'Suppose, uncle, that a hundred men were to land on an uninhabited island, with a stock just to supply them for twelve months, and forthwith proceed to cultivate the land. Suppose, too, that the soil, during the first year, should yield no more than will supply the consumption of the ensuing twelve months. Then, there would be no surplus, and one hundred men would have accumulated nothing: in other words, “ they would possess no wealth.'
. Most oracularly concluded, niece!' said my good-natured instructor. "Until your settlers can, by their labour, produce in one year more than is requisite for the next twelvemonth's consumption, accumulation is impossible. But the land would improve by cultivation, your hundred men become more expert at their task, and the consequence would be to leave three or four disengaged, to build huts, make instruments, and so forth. Then accumulation would begin, gradually increasing, and yielding greater liberty to the hands originally employed, until the growing accumulations take all the variety of shapes that we behold in civilized life. And, mark me, this is the principle of increase, which, if
not counteracted, gives to an old country incalculable advantages over a new one.'
Why, then, uncle, are not the people of England more favourably circumstanced than those of America ?'
Softly, my child, you are for getting to the end of the journey, when we are but starting on the second short stage. It will suffice if we have made out clearly the distinction between what may be called the savings of each year in accumulation, remaining in the land for the use of its inhabitants, under the title of property, or wealth—and that portion of the annual production which is consumed by the workmen, and paid for by their labour.'
• And at what do you estimate the proportion borne by each of these, to the year's produce, uncle?'
The first at one tenth, the other at nine tenths, on a rough calculation.'
• Well ; we have not made much way; but so far it is clear enough, and as simple as A, B, C.'
Ay, now that you have learned it. But should you have made the discovery by merely rubbing your forehead ?'
CHRISTIAN LADY’S MAGAZINE.
THE FIRST OF AUGUST.
We should ill perform a very delightful duty, if we did not seize the very first page of this number, to pour forth our fervent gratulations to our readers, on the glorious event of this day. It has pleased God to hear the prayers of many among us, while he gave us grace against hope to believe in hope, until the decree went forth, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free. Yes; one of the foulest blots that ever polluted a nation professing Christianity, is now, by his mercy, removed from our beloved country; and the cry of enslaved brethren will no longer ascend to the ears of the Lord God of Sabbaoth for a testimony against us. We trust that there are none among the readers of the Christian Lady's Magazine,' whose hearts have been unimpressed with the wrongs of enslaved Africans, or their hands altogether idle in the work, wherein, to
our knowledge, many, very many of them, have borne the burden and heat of the day. It was an arduous conflict; and, except to the eye of faith, a hopeless one; but our Wilberforce, like Moses of old, endured as seeing Him who is invisible; and in recompense for bis faithful leadership of our little host through a path of peril and perplexity, he was permitted to behold the goodly inheritance of freedom fairly laid out for his poor Africans, before the Lord gathered him, to rejoice with the patriarchs in his glorious kingdom,
And shall not we also rejoice? Indeed we will. Many an obstacle was placed in our path, many a taunt was flung in our faces, many a stern refusal seemed to crush our hope into the dust; but the Lord was on our side, and what could man do, to resist bis almighty power? He hath now given us our heart's desire; he hath not denied us the request of our lips; he hath proved himself the faithful and true God, keeping his promise for ever. O then, “ let us come before his presence with thanksgiving," and ascribe unto him all the glory: for “ with his own right hand, and with bis holy arm hath he gotten himself the victory.” Not unto us, therefore, 0 not unto us be any praise ; but shame and confusion of face, that our sin was so long unrepented of, our efforts at the last so feeble, our faith so wavering and unstable, our repentance so miserably imperfect, our thankfulness so polluted by discontent and recriminations. We have an awful account yet to settle ; for, be it remembered with trembling, our ceasing to do evil cannot remove or obliterate the record of past guilt. “ Woe to thee that spoilest, and thou wast not spoiled ; and dealest treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil, thou shalt be spoiled ; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall deal treacherously with thee." So threatens the law: may grace be given us, individually and nationally, to “flee for refuge to the hope set before us in the gospel,” that our iniquity may be washed away in the blood of the cross, and remembered against us no more for ever!
But slavery !-virtue dreads it as her grave,