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LONDON :

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

PREFACE.

Pendulum of Life! years and ten-not that, according to the statistics of the Registrar-General, if we take the average life of the humanity introduced upon our planet. One feels inclined to modify the wellknown lines of the Latin Poet, popularly set forth by Longfellow, about Art being long, and Life being fleeting. Instead of Art, read Science. Art was evolved to please people-Science to instruct them. Art has played to the most foolish, most extravagant, most lascivious peoples of the world. Art is glorious : it is the Revelation of genius. But Science is Democratic—it is the possession of all. Men like Robert Dick of Thurso, and Thomas Edwards, are the apostles of this new democratic possession of a scientific intellectual power which is neither aristocratic nor oligarchic, but which belongs to the “Commonweal."

This is the present Editor's “coming of age.”

For twenty-one years he has enjoyed the delightful responsibility of addressing and interesting thousands (perhaps scores of thousands) of readers of SCIENCE-GOSSIP every month. The responsibility is great-greater than few are aware of. The correspondence entailed is enormous; so the Editor has to appeal to the Christian patience of his readers. He is always open to receive any suggestions from readers that will influence the commercial success of his journal-a success the Editor would derive no advantage from, but which he would be delighted to see the Publishers thereof should, if only as an expression of their generous and trusting confidence in himself.

458604

PREFACE.

The Editor would point out that this annual volume is distinguished even above its predecessors by original papers. Those on the British Diptera and Rhizopods alone will hereafter make the Volume for 1891 sought after. In addition, he desires to draw attention to the articles on the new aspects of Darwinism, &c., to show how much SCIENCE-GOSSIP endeavours to keep pace with the Philosophy as well as with the facts of Modern Natural Science.

The Editor is fortunate in being surrounded by a zealous clientèle of earnest contributors, to each of whom he owes much. The low price of the Old Monthly does not bring a fortune, but it helps SCIENCE-GOSSIP to brighten the home of many a working-man naturalist; and there is no better tribute to the eagerness to receive its monthly issue, than the grumbling letters sent when the magazine appears a day or two later than usual.

For twenty-seven years SCIENCE-GOSSIP has held the privilege of being the chief and most largely-circulated popular scientific magazine in Great Britain—which means in all the world! There is no better testimony to the growing love of and interest in Nature, than that such a magazine should continue to be so much required.

No effort in the Future will be spared to keep up the well-earned reputation of the Past. Notwithstanding the fact that so many paths have been well trodden, there still remain fresh fields and pastures new. Natural Science, like Astronomy, may be explored, but cannot be exhausted.

With warmest Christmas greetings, and best Seasonal wishes, the Editor is thankful once more to greet old friends with an invisible hand-shake, and wish them, one and all,

A HAPPY NEW YEAR.

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Allurus, 80
Encrinite, 61

Pipunculus, 157
Anthrax, 105
Entrochi, 61

Platypexa, 157
Arcella vulgaris, 196
Eriodalis, 158

Platyorinus lavis, 61
Archaocidaris urii, 61
Euglypha alveolata, 268

Plocamium coccineum, 249
Arrenurus ellipticus, 148
Euglypha ciliata, 268

Plumularia Catherina, 248
Arrenurus integrator, 149
Eromphalus pentangulatus, 76

Poteriocrinus crassus, 61

Productus giganteus, 63
Arrenurus perforatus, 148
Arrenurus truncacellus, 149
Fenestella membranacea, 62

Productus punctatus, 62
Asilus, 104
Foot-Working Blow-Pipes, 5

Pseudodifflugia gracilis, 245

Ptychoptera, 172 Barnacle Goose, 253

GUIANA Root-Press, 224
Beania murabilis, 249

Radiosa, 85
Bernicle Tree, 252
Helix artustorum, 124

Rhamphomyia, 155
Biomyxa vagans, 200, 201, 202
Helix aspersa, 124

Rhizodus Hibberti, 64
Blow-Pipe, Foot-Working, 5
Helir hispida, 124

Rhynchonella pleurodon, 76
Bombylius, 105
Helir lapicidia, 124

Rhyphus, 172
Helir virgata, 124

Rossendale Rhizopods, 58, 84, 131, 175, CARNAC, STANDING STONES OF, 197 Hilara, 157

196, 227, 244, 267 Centropyxis aculeata, 176

Hydrophorus, 157
Chrysogaster, 157

Scenopinus, 104
Chrysotoxum, 158
JAY THE, 100

Section of Glaciated Clays at EasthampClausilia rugosa, 257

stead, 136, 137
Clinocera, 157
Leptis, 105

Spirifera striata, 63
Clisiophyllum, 62
Limnobia, 172

Spirifera trigonatis, 62
Coccus cacti, 32
Lobosa, 84

Square-Tailed Worm, 80
Conops, 158
Lonchoptera, 157

Stone-Mite, 148
Conularia quadrisulcata, 63

Stratiomyia, 104
Culex, 172
MAP OF DUMFRIES DISTRICT, 76

Syrphus, 158
Cyphoderia ampulla, 245

Map showing Carboniferous Limestone, 60
Medal, Two Sides of the, 27, 28

Tabanus, 105
Dasydytes bisetosum, 161
Medeterus, 157

Tachydromia, 157
Development of Tadpole, 150
Monostyla arcuata, 205

Tanypus, 172
Diagrammatic Sections through Windsor, | Monostyla cornuta, 205

Telegraphic Communications between 109 Moss, New British, 52

Great Britain, Europe, and the East, Difflugia acuminata, 132

12, 13
Diffugia globulosa, 132
Nebela collaris, 227

Thereva, 104
Difflugia pyriformis, 131, 132
Nebela flabellum, 228

Trinema acinus, 369
Dioctria, 104
New British Moss, 52

Two Sides of the Medal, 28, 29
Diptera, 35, 53, 102, 126, 156, 171, 275 Nuthatch, 101
Distyla depressa, 204

Verrucosa, 85
Distyla musicola, 205
Estrus, 158

Vertical Camera, 31
Dixa, 172
Opuntia cochinillifera, 32

Villosa, 84, 85
Dog's Mercury, Notes on, 180, 181 Orchis maculata, 154

Volucella, 158
Dolichopus, 157
Orchis resupinata, 62

Willow-Mite, 147
EGYPTIAN GRAPB-PRESS, 295

Pacrocera, 105
Elm-Mite, 147
Pamphagus, 245

Xylata, 158
Empis, 157
Pelomyxa villosa, 85

Xylophagus, 105

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