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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE

Miuth Edition-Complete Repriut.

VOLUME IX

NEW YORK

THE HENRY G. ALLEN COMPANY, PUBLISHERS

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Encyclopædia Britannica.-VOL. IX.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS,
FALCON. ALFRED NEWTON, Professor of Zoology, FLINT (COUNTY). Rev. Prebendary DAVIES.
University of Cambridge.

FLORENCE. Dlisses HORNER, authors of “ Walks
FALCOKRY.Col. E. DelMÉ RADCLIFFE, author of through Florence."
“ Falconidæ in India."

FLORIDA. S. A. DRAKE.
FALKLAND ISLANDS. Sir WYVILLE THOMSON, FLOUR. JAMES Patox.
author of “The Challenger Expedition.”

FLYING FISH. ALBERT GOSTHER, M.D., Ph.D.,
FAMILY. ANDREW LANG.

F.R.S., British Museum.
FAMINES. CORNELIUS WALFORD, author of "Famines FOOTBALL. H. F. WILKINSOX, one of the editors of
of the World, Past and Present."

the “ Field."
FARADAY. J. CLERK MAXWELL, Prof. of Experi. FOOTE. A. W. WARD, Professor of English Litera-
mental Phrsics, Cambridge.

ture, Owens College, Manchester.
FARNESE. T. M'K. Woon.

FORAMINIFERA. Dr W. B. CARPENTER, C.B.
FARQUHAR. R. CARRUTHERS, LL. D.

FORBES, J. D. A. ADAMS REILLY.
FARRAGUT. J. K. LAUGHTON, Royal Naval College, FORD, JOHN. Prof. A. W. WARD.
Greenwich.

FORESTS. Dr H. CLEGHORX, author of "Forests and
FASTING. Rev. J. SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A.

Gardens of South India.".
FAUSTUS. RICHARD GARNETT, British Bluseum.

FORGE. D. A. AIRD, editor of the “Forge and Lathe.”
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, Prof. DANIEL Wilson, FORTIFICATION. Col. NTGEXT, Royal Engineers,
Toronto.

Horse Guards, London.
FEHMIC COURTS. H. J. E. FRASER, M.A.

FOSCOLO. J. MONTGOMERY STTART.
FÉNELON. Very Rev. Principal TULLOCH, St Andrews. FOSTER. T. F. HENDERSON.
FENIANS. W. K. SULLIVAN, President of Queen's FOUNDLING HOSPITALS. W. C. SNITI, LL.B:
College, Cork.

FOUQUÉ. Miss Flora Dasson.
FERGHANA. COUTT3 TROTTER.

FOX. J. Gibbox, Industrial Museum, Edinburgh.
FERMENTATION. Prof. DITTMAR, Glasgow.

FOX, CHARLES JAMES. W. FRASER RAE.
FERNS. W. T. THISELTON DYER and J. G. BAKER.

FRANCE
FEUDALISM. Sir J. H. Ramsay, Bart., of Banff.

GEOGRAPHY. HENRI GAUSSEROX.
FEUERBACH, L. A. R. GARNETT.

History. Rev. G. W. KitchIX, autuor of “History
FEUERBACH, P. J. A. W. L. R. CATEs, joint

of France."
editor of “ Dictionary of Chronology."

LANGUAGE. HENRY NICOL.
FEVER. J. O. AFFLECK, M.D.

LITERATURE. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, M.A., late Post.
FEZ. C. B. NORMAN,

master, Merton College, Oxford.
FEZZAN. KEITH JOHNSTON, F.R.G.S.

FRANCIS (SAINTS). Very Rev. Principal TULLOCH,
FICHTE. Prof. ADAMSON, Owens College, Manchester.

University of St Andrews.
FICINO. J. A. SYMONDS, author of "Renaissance in FRANCISCANS. Prof. T. S. LINDSAY, D.D., Free
Italy.”

Church College, Glasgow.
FIELDING. W. MINTO, author of "Characteristics of FRANCKEN. J. A. CROWE, author of " Painting in.
the English Poets."

Italy.”
FIESOLE W. M. ROSSETTI, author of “Fine Art, FRANKFORT. H. A. WEBSTER.
chiefly Contemporary.'

FRANKINCENSE. F. H. BUTLER.
FIFE (COUNTY). T. F. HENDERSON.

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN. Hon. JOHN BIGELOW, New
FIG. C. PIERPOINT JOHNSON, editor of Sowerby's

York.
" Wild Flowers."

FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN. J. S. KELTIE.
FIJI ISLANDS. COUTTS TROTTER.

FRANKS. Rev, G. W. KITCAIN.
FILELFO. J. A. SYMONDS.

FRA UD. EDMUND ROBERTSON, Professor of Roman
FILIGREE. J. H. POLLEN, author of “ Furniture and Law, University College, London.
Woodwork."

FREDERICK THE GREAT. JAMES SIME, M.A.
FILLMORE, MILLARD. G. E. ELLIS, D.D., Boston.

author of “ History of Germany."
FILTER. A. B. MACDOWALL.

FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. Rev. J. SUTHER-
FINANCE J. E. THOROLD ROGERS, Professor of

LAND BLACK, M.A.
Economic Science, King's College, London.

FREEMASONRY. W. C. SMITH, LL. B.
FINE ARTS. SIDNEY COLVIN, Slade Professor of Fine

FREE TRADE. Prof. Thorold ROGERS.
Art, Cambridge.

FREILIGRATH. Miss F. Massox.
FINLAND. J. S. KELTIE.

FRESCO. C. Heath Wilson, author of “Life and
FIR C. PIERPOINT JOHNSON.

Works of Michelangelo.".
FIRDOUSI. Prof. E. H. PALMER, St John's College, FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. E. W. BRABROOK.
Cambridge.

FROEBEL. Rev. R. H. QUICK; author of " Essays on
FIRE. ELIE REOLUS.

Educational Reformers."
FIRE, FIRE-EXTINCTION. General A. P. ROCKWELL, FROG. John GIBSON.
Boston,

FROISSART. WALTER BESANT, author of " French
FIRECLAY. GEORGE MAW.

Humorists from 12th to 19th Century.”
FISHERIES. E. W. H. HOLDSWORTH, Anchor of FUEL. H. BAUERMAN, Royal School of Mines.
“ Deep Sea Fishing and Fishing Boats."

FULLER, THOMAS. J. E. BAILEY.
FITZROY. J. K. LAUGHTON.

FUNCTION. A. CAYLEY, Sadlerian Professor of Purg
FLAG. WALTER HEPWORTH.

Mathematics, Cambridge.
FLAME. F. H. BUTLER.

FUNERAL RITES, Rev. JOHN RAE.
FLAMINGO. Prof. ALFRED NEWTON.

FUNGUS. GEORGE MURRAY, Botanical Department,
FLAMININUS. FRANCIS STORN.

British Museum.
FLAX. JAMES Paton, Industrial Museum, Glasgow.

FUR. M. M. Backus, New York.
FLAXMAN. Prof, SIDNEY COLVIN.

FURNACE. H. BATERMAN.
FLIGHT. Prof. J. B. PETTIGREW, author of "Modes FURNITURE. J. H. POLLEN.
of Flight in relation to Aeronautica."

FUST. Rev. PONSONBY A. Lech

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