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have endeavoured to treat it not as an isolated system but as one among many systems, and have illustrated its principles and practice where possible by comparison with Marine Insurance. I have also endeavoured to use the lessons of history and to show how an insurance system is a living organism with its roots in the past. By this use of the comparative and historical methods I have tried to throw light on some of the difficult problems of Fire Insurance, and have also tried to produce a book which will be of interest to many readers who have no connection with insurance business. This is not a difficult or technical work. It is written in plain English, and the writer believes that his twelve years' experience as a journalist has at least preserved him from being needlessly dull.

Both in the preparation of this work, and for many years past in the course of my daily occupations, I have received the fullest information and assistance from many leading insurance officials. Their assistance has been of the greatest possible service-in fact what there is of merit in this book is due almost wholly to them-and I trust that they will endure patiently my private opinions and criticisms. Such criticisms as I have offered

have been put forward in a sincere and friendly spirit. I have approached my subject as an observer and interpreter, and as one who has had many opportunities of inside information, and have in the treatment of it followed the lead of my individual judgment. No one is in any way responsible for the views expressed in this work except the writer of it.

The literature of Fire Insurance is somewhat scanty, and there does not exist in this country a treatise which can compare with the excellent American book on Fire Insurance and How to Build, by Mr. F. C. Moore. This volume has been of much service to me, and I have also consulted with profit the historical work on Fire Insurance Companies, by Mr. F. B. Relton. A large amount of valuable and practical information is contained in the papers read before the Insurance Institutes of Great Britain and Ireland, and published by the Federated Institutes. Some other books, such as Mr. Lynch's Redress by Arbitration, are also of much interest to the insurance student. As this book is written primarily as an elementary treatise for the use of students of insurance and of officials in fire offices, it may be useful if I append a list of those books and papers which have been of most assistance to the

writer, and which will give much information on the various points dealt with.

Fire Insurance and How to Build, by Mr. F. C.
Moore (New York).

Fire Insurance Companies, by Mr. F. B. Relton.
Redress by Arbitration, by Mr. Lynch.

Marine Insurance, by Mr. Frederick Templeman.
Cost Price of Fire Insurance, by Mr. James Ostler.
Fire Hazard of more Important Chemical Products,
by Dr. E. H. Cook.

Fire Insurance, by Mr. John M. M'Candlish.
Observations on the Progress and Prospects of Fire

Insurance as a Science, by Mr. David L. Laidlaw.
The Aspect of Electricity from an Insurance Point of
View, by Mr. B. Chatterton.

History and Practice of Marine Insurance, by Mr.
Douglas Owen.

Notes on the Usual Provision for Unexpired Risks,
by Mr. David Deuchar.

The Necessity for a Tariff Organisation in connection with Fire Insurance Business, by Mr. David Deuchar.

The Average Conditions of a Fire Insurance Policy, by Mr. Samuel Pipkin.

The Practice of Fire Insurance in the United States of America, by Mr. J. N. Lane.

Fire Insurance: Practical Notes on Leading Cases,
by Mr. Alexander Watt.

The Contract of Fire Insurance, by Mr. Charles

LONDON, March, 1904.


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