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operations in common arithmetic. Unless he avail himself of the admirable invention of logarithms, the practical geometrician, the surveyor of land, the geographer, the astronomer, and above all the navigator, will in his necessary computations be involved in operations so complicated and tedious, that few individuals indeed can be found sufficiently accurate, or even courageous to engage in them.

In chapter 6 the reader will find explanations and specimens of mercantile affairs and accounts, sufficiently diversified to enable him to form a system adapted to bis own particular transactions. The samples of regular books are drawn from tlie modern practice of mercantile houses in London; and may, by a little consideration, be employed in transactions of much less extent and variety. The explanations of terms occurring in commercial language will be found peculiarly useful.

On geometry, to which the 7th division of the work is devoted, so much is stated in its proper place, as to render unnecessary any farther illustratiou or recommendation at present. To practical geometry, and to measurement of superficial aud solid bodies, and of the work performed by tradesmen of different classes, a similar remark may be applied. Gauging it is true, and land-surveying, described and illustrated in chapters 10 and 11, are only modi. fications of the practice of mensuration. In their application however, matters are taken into consideration, sufficiently various and important, to entitle those branches to distinct sections in the work. The scheme of a piece of land, shown in Fig. 36, page 289, contains every variety of figure and boundary usually occurring in practical surveying: and the rules for computing its content may easily be applied in all other cases.

of the important and interesting subject touched on in chapter 12, viz. navigation, notice has already been taken. It has been treated, as far as the limits of the work would allow, in a plain and popular way; and very imperfect as that brief sketch must be, it may excite curiosity to go deeper into the study of a branch of knowledge in which geometrical theory and mechanical practice are more powerfully and more usefully combined, than in any other application of knowledge to the benefit of human affairs.

On geography so amply explained in chap. 13, it is unnecessary to say more, than that it is formed on the best authorities, corrected by considerable personal observations of the editor himself, over the principal regions of Europe. In the present unsettled state of the continent, the reader will candidly pass over any dis. agreement he may discover, between the political situation of countries as described, and as existing when the book arrives at his bands. On the accuracy of the tables of latitude aud longitude, of the tides, &c. full reliance may be placed. Later and more accurate observation on these subjects may nevertheless reyder -subsequent alterations requisite.

To have entered fully and systematically on the subjects of astronomy and chronology, noticed in the 14th chapter, would have presupposed in the generality of readers an aequamtance with .

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various departments of geometry and natural philosophy, far more extended than ought reasonably to be expected. From what is introduced however, on those two important topics, a general but not unsatisfactory idea of them may be obtained. The chronological table of 'remarkable events is selected from writings of established character.

The last division of the volume is occupied in observations and illustrations of drawing or designing, including the principles of perspective, by which every part of a human figure, a building, or a landscape, is represented in its due relative position, magnitude, and colour. By attentive consideration of what is there stated, particularly with a reference to the excellent examples with which the work is embellished from the pencil of Mr. Craig, the student will soon be qualified to address himself to works in which drawing, in its several branches, is taught at proper length; and thus be prepared to resort to the study of the works of nature, the original and infallible instructress in the graphic art.

Such are in general the subjects treated in the present work, forming a system of instruction adapted to the circumstances and wants, and addressed to the understandings of the younger and less informed classes of the British empire. Another work of a similar construction is now however preparing for the press, for the assistance of persons of more advanced acquirements, already engaged or preparing to engage in the occupations and business of active life. Concerning the subjects to be discussed in that publication it will be sufficient at present to inform the reader that, beginning with the earliest, the most important of all the arts, that of the husbandman, treated at some length both in theory and practice, he will be conducted through mechanics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, optics, electricity, chemistry, &c. with their application in various ways to the uses of life. Bleuching, dying, tanning, working in metals, fc. the occupations of the architect, the carpenter, fc. painting, engraving, sculpture, &c. are among the articles preparing for the publication now announced. Plates will be added, exhibiting correct representations of some of the most valuable machines and instruments, employed in agriculture and natural philosophy. The appearance of this second work will be duly notified to the public, on a future occasion.

London,
May, 1815.

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CONTENTS.

Page

1

CHAP. L ENGLISH language and grammar

Reading and speaking CHAP. U. Writing

Inks, short-hand and telegraph

Writing letters, forms, memorials, &c.
Cuap. 01. Arithmetic

Proportion or Rule of Three
Practice
Fractions vulgar

-decimal

Extraction of roots
CHAP. IV. Algebra.
CHAP. V. Logarithms
CHAP. VI. Book-keeping

Bills of exchange, banks, &c.

Mercantile terms, subsidiary books, &c. CHAP. VII. Geometry

Problems
Chap. VIII. Practical geometry
· CUAP. IX. Mensuration of surfaces

-solids
-artificer's work

-timber
Chap. X. Gauging
CHAP. XI. Land-surveying
Cup. XII. Navigation, charts, maps, &c.

&c. CSAP, XIII. Geography

Latitudes and longitutes of places
Tides and tide-tables
Winds, light, &c.
Heights of mountains
Europe
England
Scotland
Ireland

36 43 51 57 07 101 115 125 132 137 1422 153 159 196 200 216 227 237 245 258 263

271

275 285 294 314 323 333 335 338 341 347 352 358

Denmark and Norway
Sweden
Russia
The Netherlands
Germany
Prussia
Poland
Switzerland
France
Portugal
Spain
Italy
Turkey
Asia
Turkey in Asia
China
India
Persia
Arabia
Asiatic Islands
Africa
Egypt
Abyssinia
African Islands
America
Uuited States
West India Islands
South America
Astronomy
Chronology and tables
Drawing, perspective, &c.

363 364 365 366 368 369 372 373 375 378 379 382 388 389 396 390 390 391 391 392 394 395 396 397 398 399 402 403 406 425 434

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