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of which is generally zoned with red or yellow in a highly ornamental manner. By means of this parachute the animal can easily pass from one tree to another for a distance of about thirty feet, descending at first, but as it ipproaches its destination rising a little so as to reach the tree with its head creet. They are very small, being usually not more than two or three inches long exclusive of the slender tail; and when the wings are ospindled in the sunshine they more resemlile some strange insect than one of the reptile tribe.

Snukes.-Snakes are, fortunately, not so abundant or so obtrusive iis lizarels, or the tropies would be scarcely habitable. At first, indeel, the traveller is disposed to wonder that he does not see more of them, but he will soon find out that there are plenty; and, if he is possessed by the usual horror or dislike of them, he may think there are too many. In the equatorial zone snakes are less troublesome than in the drier parts of the tropics, although they are probably more numerous and more varied. This is because the country is naturally a vast forest, and the snakes being all adapted to a forest life do not as a rule frequent gardens and come into houses as in India and Australia, where they are accustomed to open and rocky places. One cannot traverse the forest, lowever, without soon coming upon them. The slender green whip-snakes glide among the bushes, and may often be touched before they are seen. The case and rapidity with which these snakes pass through bushes, almost without disturbing a leaf, is very curious. More dangerous are the green vipers, which liecoiled motionless upon foliage, where their colour renders it difficult to see them. The writer has often come upon

them while creeping through the jungle after birds or insects, and has sometimes only had time to draw back when they were within a few inches of his face. It is startling in walking along a forest path to see a long snake glide away from just where you were going to set

own your foot; but it is perhaps even more alarming to hear a long-elrawn heavy slur-r-r, and just to catch a glimpse of a serpent is thick as your leg and an un kuun number of feet in length, showing that you must have passed unheeding within a short distance of where it was lying. The smaller thons are not how(per dangerous, and they often enter houses to catch ind fecol mon the rats, and are rather lilied by the Bratives. You will sometimes be toll, when sleeping in

Native house, that there is a large snake in the roof, :und that you need not be disturbed in case you should hear it hunting after its prey. These serpents no doubt sometimes grow to an enormous size, but such monsters are rare. In Borneo, Mr. St. John states that he measured one twenty-six feet long, probably the largest

Por measured by a European in the East. The great Water-boa of South America is believed to reach the largest size. Mr. Bates measured skins twenty-one fert long, but the largest ever met with by a European appears to be that described by the botanist, Dr. Gardiner, in his Towels in Brazil. It had devoured a horse, and was found deal, entangled in the branches of a tree overhanging a river, into which it had been carricil by a flool. It was nearly forty feet long. These creatures are said to seize and devour full-sized cattle on the Rio Branco; and from what is known of their habits this is by no means improlable.


Frogs and Toads.—The only Amphibia that often meet the traveller's eye in equatorial countries are the various kinds of frogs and toails, and esperially the clegant tree-frogs. When the rainy season begins, and dricil-up pools and ditches become filled with water, there is a strange nightly concert produced by the frogs, some of which croak, others bellow, while many have clanging, or chirruping, and not unmusical notes. In roads and gardens one occasionally meets huge toads six or seven inches long ; but the most abundant and most interesting of the tribe are those a lapted for an arboreal life, and hence called tree-frogs. Their toes terminate in dise's, by means of which they can cling firmly to leaves and stems. The majority of them are green or brown, and these usually feed at night, sitting quietly during the dily' so as to be almost invisible, owing to their colour and their moist shining skins so closely resembling vegetable surfaces. Many are beautifully marbled and spotted, and when sitting on leaves resemble large bertles more than frogs, while others are adorned with bright and staring colours ; and these, as Mr. Belt has discovered, have nauscous secretions which render them meatalle, so that they have no need to conceal themselves. Some of these are bright blue, others are avlorned with yellow stripes, or have a red body with blue legs. Of the smaller tree-frogs of the tropics there must be hundreds of species still unknown to naturalists.

Mammals-Jonkeys.---The highest class of animals, the Mammalia, although sufliciently abundant in all cquatorial lands, are those which are least seen by the traveller. There is, in fact, only one group-the monkeys--which are at the same time pre-eminently tropical and which make themselves perceived as one of the aspects of tropical nature. They are to be met with in all the great continents and larger islands, except Lustralia, New Guinea, and Madagascar, though the latter island possesses the lower allied form of Lemurs; and they never fail to impress the observer with a sense of the exuberant vitality of the tropics. They are pre(minently arborcal in their moile of life, and are consequently most abundant and varieel where vegetation reaches its maximum development. In the East we find that maximum in Borneo, and in the West African forests; while in the West the great forest plain of the Amazon stands pre-eminent. It is near the equator only that the great Inthropoil apes, the gorilla, chimpanzer, and orang-utan are found, and they may be met with by any persevering explorer of the jungle. The gibbons, or long-armed apes, have a wider range in the Asiatic continent and in Malaya, and they are more abundant both in species and individuals. Their plaintive howling notes may often be leard in the forests, anıl they are constiently to be seen sporting at the summits of the loftiest trees, swinging suspended loy their long arms, or bounding from true to tree with incredible agility. They pass through the forest at a height of a hundred feet or more, as rapidly as a deer will travel along the ground beneath them. Other monkeys of various kinds are more abundant and usually less shy; and in places where fire-arms are not much used they will approach the houses and gambol in the trees undisturbed by the approach of man. The most remarkable of the tailed monkeys of the East is the proboscis monkey of Bornco, whose long fleshy nose gives it an aspect very different from that of most of its allies.

In tropical America monkey's are cren more abundant than in the East, iind they present many interesting peculiarities. They diller somewhat in dentition and in other structural features from all lil Worll apes, and a considerable number of them have prehousilo tails, a peculiarity never found elsewhere. In the Howlers and the spider monkeys the tail is very long and powerful, and by twisting the extremity round a branch the animal can hang suspended as easily its other monkeys van by their hands. It is, in fact, a fifth liaud, anil is constantly used to pick up small ulijeet: from the ground. The most remarkable of the American monkey's are the lowicis, whose tremendous l'ouring exiu dels that of the lion or the bull, and is to be learned frequently at morning and evening in the primeval forests. The sound is produced by means of a largo, thin, bony vessel in the throat, into which air is formed ; and it is very remarkable that this one group of monkeys should possess an organ not found in any other monkey or even in any other mammal, apparently for no other purpose than to be able to make a louder noise than the rest. The only other moukey's worthy of special attention are the marmosets, beautiful little creatures with crests, Whiskers, or mames ; in outward form resembling squirrels, but with a very small monkey-like fire. They are cither Back, brown, reddish, or nearly white in colour, and are the smallest of the monkey trile, some of them being only about six inches long exclusive of the tail.

Brale. Amost the only other onlar of mammals that


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