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running over my boily, and entry now and then one would give me a ting so sharp as to make me jump and search instantly for the offender, who was usually found holling on tight wiili his jaws, and thrusting in bis.tina with all luis might. Inother guills, Philole, consists of folii s living inder potten bark or in the ground, and ! riolis. Thy are lorown or blackish, and are remarkske for hir greiti Vitice v of size and from in the same species, to forget having normous heals many times larger than their bodies, and being at leroi il foundred times its bulky is te smules! individuals. The great heardil ant. very sluggish pable of keeping up with the more active smil workers, which it in wino i cd drag them alolly it is were wounded solelius. J is lili vilt !) *Biblat is them loer the count, whos, ils Vi. Bit Surgest, they are dois fils !!!itlot kedly in.1-0.... birls, aud thus sille their more inseful compilli.tc. Torse ants devvur grubs, White ants, and other soli imel bless insects, and seem to tuke the place of the forging units of American amal driver-awts of Africa, though they are fur less numerous and less destructive. An allied genus, Solenopsis, consi-ts of red ants, which, in the Moluccas, frequent houses, and are a most terrible pest. They form colonies underground, and work their way up through the floors, devouring everything catable. Their sting is excessively painful, and some of the species are hence called fire-anis. When a house is infested by them, all the tables anil boxes must be supported on blocks of wood or stone placed in dishes of water, as even clothes not newly washed are attractive to them; and woc to the poor fellow who puts on garments in the folds of which
a dozen of these ants are lodged. It is very difficult to preserve lind skins or other specimens of natural history Hliure these ints abound, as they gnaw way the skin Torun the cyes and the base of the bill; and if a Specimen is laiililown for even half an hour in an injusfected place it will be ruined. I remember once Findering i native house to rest and cat my lunch; and haring a lirge tin collerting box full of rare butterflies
und other insects, I laid it down on the benci by my niedes C leaving the house I noticed some ants on it, 5. Osloning the box found only a mass of detached miesteld blies, the latter in process of being levoured loj hals virvels of fire-:min.
The melebrated Sailor innt of America (Ecodoma applerelotes) is illicol to the proceeding, but is even more
lestrutive, thoug! it seems to confine it-elf to vegetable pelucts. It forms extensiv e lyrome Fulleries, and the earth brought up is deposited on the urface, forming huge mounds sometimes thirty or forty yails in circumference, and from one to three feet high. On first seeing these vast deposits of red or yellow carth in the woods near Para, it was hardly possible to believe they were not the work of man, or at least of some burrowing animal. In these underground caves the ants store up large quantities of leaves, which they obtain from living trees. They gnaw out circular pieces and carry them away along regular pathiz a few inches wide, forming it stream of apparently animated leaves. The great extent of the subterranean workings of these ants is no doubt due in part to their permanence in one spot, so that wien portions of the galleries fill in or are otherwise rendered useless, they are "xtended in another
direction. When in the island Varajo, ncar P 2, I noticed il prith along which a stream of Sül, were carrying leaves from a neighbouring thickt; ned a relation of the proprietor assured me that he has total that identical path to be in constant ise by the alles for twints pars. Thus we rutllaccount for the fact mentioned by Jr. Bates, that the underground galleries Wips placed I smoke für iltimice of evenix patrils in the inimic Gumilos at lurrit; and for the still more extraorbinde'y fact related by the Rev. Ilumnlet Clark, that ill allier perics in Rio de Janeiro has escavated at tummel under the bral of the river Prahyba, where it is aboll?quarter rif a mile wide! These ants seem to prefer introluceal to native trees; and young plantations of orange, coffee, or mango trees are sometimes destroyed by them, so that where they aboud cultivation of any kind becomes almost impossible. Jr. Bolt ingeniously accounts for this preference, by supposing that for ages there has been a kind of struggle going on between the trees and the ants; those varieties of trees which were in any way distasteful or unsuitable escaping destruction, while the ants were becoming slowly adapted to attack new trees. Thus in time the great majority of native trees have acquired some protection against the ants, while foreign trees, not having been so modifieil, are more likely to be suitable for their purposes. Jr. Belt carried on war against them for four years to protect his garden in Nicaragua, and found that carbolic acid and corrosive sublimate were most effectual in destroying or driving them away.
The use to which the ants put the immense quantities of leaves they carry away has been a great puzzle, and
is, perhaps, not yet quite understood. Mr. Bates found that the Amazon species used them to thatch the domes of earth covering the entrances to their subterranean galleries, the pieres of leaf being carefully covered and kept in position by a thin layer of grains of carth. In Nicaragua Mr. Belt found the underground cells full of a brown flocculent matter, which he considers to be the glared leaves connected by a delicate fungus which 12 uifies through the mass and which serves as food for the larvæ; and he believes that the leaves are really girihered as mauure-heaps to favour the growth of this fungus!
When they enter houses, which they often do at night, the Sibas are very destructive. Once, when travelling on the Rio Negro, I had bought about a peck of rice, which was tied up in a large cotton handkerchief and placed on a bench in a native house where we were spemiling the night. The next morning we found about half the rive on the floor, the remainiler having bern carried away ly the ants; and the empty bundkerchief was still on the bench, but with hunlreils of neat cuts in it relucing it to a kind of sieve.
The foraging ants of the genus Eciton are another remarkable group, especially abundant in the equatorial forests of America. They are true hunters, and seem to be continually roaming about the forests in great bands in search of insect prey. They especially devour maggots, caterpillars, white ants, cockroaches, and other soft inscets; and their banıls are always accompanied by
| For a full and most interesting description of the habits and instincts of this ant, see Bates' Vaturalist on the Amazone, 2nd edit. pp. 11-18 ; aud Belt's Naturalist in Nicaragua, pp. 71-84.
florks of insectivorolis liris rho prey upon the winged inserts that are continually trying to csiape from the ints. Thay Ven attack wasps' nests, which they cut to pores and then drag out the larvæ. They lit. and wing Stverely, in the traveller who accidentally steps into a bonile of them will soon be overrun, and must make liis escape is only is possible. They lo not fine themselves tu the ground, but sharm 11 houlissie W trees, lumting every branc, mit ving sess of all insect lite. Sometimes a lina vill
hon, like the driver ants in dvira, u clear it ki cockroaches, pelers, centipedes, and other inserts. They seem to have no permanent aloile and to be over wandering about in -carrh of proy; but they make temporary babitations in hollow trees or other suitable places.
Perhaps the most extraordinary of all mts are the lilint species of Eviton discovered by Mr. Lates, which coustrnet il covered way or tunnel as this marchi ilong. On coming near a rotten log, or any other favourable bunting ground, they pour into all its crevices in search of booty, their covered way serving as a protertion to retire to in case of danger. These creatures, of which two species are known, are absolutely without eyes; and it seems almosi impossible to imagine that the loss of so important a seusc-organ can be otherwise than injurious to them. Yet on the theory of natural selection the successive variations by which the eyes were reduced and ultimately lost must all have been useful. It is truc they do manage to exist without eyes; but that is probably because, as sight became more and more imperfect, new instincts or new protective modifications were developed to supply its place, and this does not in any