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together, she is firm and strong enough to sustain a more than ordinary shock. It is well known to seamen, that when a large ship strikes the ground, the first indication of her falling in pieces is when the edges of the decks begin to part from the sides; but this separation can never happen when the sides and the deck are firmly bound together by cross bulk-heads. In fact, this old Chinese invention is now on trial in the British navy, as a new experiment. Other schemes have likewise been proposed in this country for propelling ships in a calm, by large scullers, by water wheels placed at the sides or through the bottom, and by various other modes; all of which, though taking the name of inventions, have been in common use among the Chinese for more than two thousand years.

Although the present king of this country has, to a certain degree, broken the fetters of custom, as far as regards the construction of ships of war, yet, in doing this, he has not been unmindful of popular prejudice which, in Asiatic countries in particular, where they are wholly guided by opinion, is stamped with a character too sacred to be torn up at once by the roots. Out of defer. ence to this prejudice, he caused that part only of the hull or body of the vessel to be altered which is immersed in the water; all the upper works, the masts, sails and rigging, remaining Cochinchinese. Indeed it may be questioned if the pliant bamboo, which forms so material a part of the upper works of their vessels, could be displaced with any advantage by solid timber, than which it is more light and equally strong. It is impossible not to admire the good sense of this wise and

active prince, who, in steering this middle path, obtained a real advan tage without introducing any visible change.

Of tenacity to ancient custom a curious instance appeared on the part of the emperor of Japan, when the Dutch carried to this sovereign from Batavia, a few years ago, among other presents, the model of a ship of war. The ambassador happening to observe the emperor casting his eye upon this model, and conceiving the occasion might be turned to the advantage of his employers, ventured to make a proposal for sending to Japan a number of proper artificers from Holland, for the purpose of instructing his subjects in the art of ship-building, according to the practice of Europe. The emperor desired he might be asked how long his countrymen had been acquainted with the art of constructing ships on the model he had brought. The ambassador replied, about three hundred years. him" says the emperor, people have built such ships as he sees floating in my harbours for as many thousand years, and that I have not yet heard of any complaints against their utility. shall not, therefore, pay so ill a compliment to myself or to my people, as to lay aside the test of ages for an invention of yesterday.


that my

The Dutch ships may suit the Dutch, but not the Japanese. Tell him, therefore, I would advise him to take back this part of his present."

Character of the late Right Honour

able William Pitt.

William Pitt, the illustrious earl of Chatham, had three sons, of


The usual mode of training the vines is by basket-work fixed to espaliers, about five feet high; but in some vineyards they are led up trees, or high poles; and in others, cut down to the height of two or three feet, as at the cape of Good Hope. In some places, the hills are terraced, in order to retain the soil, by stone walls. The process of making the wine is very simple. The grapes are picked from the stalk, thrown into a vat, pressed first with the feet and afterwards by a weighted wooden lever. The proprietor of the land and the collector of the taxes for the crown, both attend at the press; the latter takes out of the tub his tenth of the whole must, after which the remainder is equally divided between the landowner and the tenant. Each takes with him a sufficient number of porters to carry away their respective shares, sometimes in barrels, and sometimes in goat-skin bourachas, to the cellars in Funchal. The English merchants usually supply the farmers beforehand with money, to enable them to make a more extensive tillage.

appeared to be of a grave and serious disposition, seldom speaking to each other, and indicating an aversion to communicate with strangers. They had long black hair, and the beard was visible only on the upper lip and under the chin. Those who engage in this service are said to be so much detested by their countrymen, as to prevent them from ever returning to the horde, apprehensive that if once in their possession they would certainly be put to death.

When the Portuguese were sufficiently convinced of the inefficacy of the attempt to reduce the Brazi lians to slavery, or to compel them to submit to the labours of agriculture, their next recourse was to the settlements they had already acquired on the coast of Africa for a supply of negroes. Whole cargoes of these ill-fated people were annually transported from their native country and their connections, cut off from every hope of returning and doomed to toil for the remainder of their days in the foreign fields of South America. The number which at present is said to be annually imported amounts, on an average, to twenty thousand; and as this demand is constant, whilst the

General Observations on the Brazils. quantity of produce is supposed to

From the same.

The antipathy of the Brazilians to the Portuguese is so great that the viceroy is not able, without some difficulty, to keep up an establishment of twelve rowers of the state-barge. These were the only real natives we had an opportunity of seeing during our stay of three weeks. Their features were not much different from those of the Malays, Tartars, and Chinese. Their stature was short. They

be little, if at all increased, for seve ral years past, there are strong grounds to suspect that at least an equal number to those imported must be destroyed every year. Yet these people make a boast of treating their slaves better than any other nation. The French and the Dutch do the same; and they all unite in asserting that the English are the most cruel to their slaves. People, however, are apt to differ in their notions of humanity, as well as on less important points; and, where

the whole system is bad, the degrees of atrocity may perhaps be the less discernible. Bad as our countrymen are, I am still inclined to hope that few are to be found among them who would act, on a similar occasion, in the same manner as I am about to relate. An officer in the French army, having discovered that dealing in slaves was a more lucrative lucrative profession than fighting, was transporting a cargo, consisting of about three hundred, from Mosambique to the isle of France. They had scarcely put to sea when the small-pox broke out among them. On three or four the pustules appeared in such a manner as to leave no doubt as to the nature of the disease; and about a dozen of the rest were considered to be infected. As it was pretty evident that none of the cargo had gone through the disease, and equally so that they could not escape infection; and as the chances were, in this event, that the mortality would greatly exceed seven per cent., the slave-merchaut resolved to throw the fifteen or sixteen in fected persons immediately overboard. This man afterwards wrote an account of his voyage to the East Indies, in which he talks a great deal about humanity, but carefully avoids the mention of this transaction.

Whatever the pretensions of other nations may be, in regard to the good treatment of their slaves, I am inclined to think that the method pursued by the Portuguese planters of the Brazils is far from being the worst. The master expects from the slave a certain quantity of labour in the week, which is calculated to be sufficient to employ four days of moderate application: the other

two are for himself; but out of the proceeds of the labour of these two days he must clothe and feed himself for the whole week. By such a system the lash of the whip is unnecessary; the master is at no expence beyond the first cost, which is about twenty pounds; and the slave, by the surplus produce of the labour bestowed on his own account, is frequently enabled to lay by a sufficient sum to purchase his freedom. Those who are doomed to work at the mines experience worse treatment than such as are employed in domestic purposes, or in agricul ture. The temptation to secrete small diamonds has sometimes induc ed the slaves to swallow them. Whenever the labour of the day has not been usually productive, or any other cause of suspicion arises that such may have been the case, they are put for a certain time in close confinement, and a strong dose of ipecacuanha is a Iministered. If this should not produce the desired effect, the next step is to ply them, like the pearl fishers of Ceylon, with powerful cathartics, till the poor creatures are nearly exhausted; and this happens very often when they are perfectly innocent.

The slave of the Brazils has many advantages over the slave of the West India islands. The climate of the former is infinitely superior to that of the latter, and the seasons of planting and of reaping are of longer duration. The owner of a sugar plantation in the West Indies has but a short period allowed him during the rains to get his canes into the ground. Equally short is the season of reaping them. If the canes are not cut down when fully ripe, the juice evaporates, and they turn to wood: if they are cut down


and not immediately pressed, the
juice begins to ferment, and is fit
only to be converted by distillation
into rum.
At these seasons, there-
fore, and particularly in the latter,
every hand that can work, however
feebly, is of importance to the
planter; and the urgent demand for
labour sometimes makes him wholly
insensible to acts of inhumanity,
which, perhaps, at other times, might
appear to him in their true light, and
as odious and atrocious in the ex-
treme. This is not the case in the
Brazils. The season of planting,
on account of the longer continu-
ance of rain, is at least two months
longer here than in the West Indies;
and the gradual ripening of the
plants protracted in the same pro-
portion. It is not therefore found
to be necessary here, as is the case
in our colonies, to drive the slaves
to work with the crack or the lash
of the whip, or to regulate the
stroke of the bill or the hoe by the
measure of a forced song.

If it should unfortunately happen that our colonies in the West Indies may ultimately be involved in the fate of St. Domingo, a considerable mass of property will no doubt be lost to this country; but, at the same time, it cannot well be denied that this loss would be productive of a most important saving to the state, by the number of British subjects who, in their removal to a better climate, would escape a premature death. The most valuable productions of the West India islands were originally transplanted from the East, where the labour of slaves is not required, nor any extraordinary waste of Europeans occasioned. To this source we may again recur, and India and China may eventually prove the great

sheet anchors of our commercial prosperity.

The ruin of the West India islands, it is to be feared, would equally affect the tranquillity of those colonies on the continent of South America, in the possession of the English and the Dutch, which would tend in a very material degree to enhance the value of the possessions of Spain and Portugal on the same continent. But the restrictions, the exactions, and the monopolies, under which the settlements of these two powers are oppressed, and the total want of energy in the inhabit. ants, which necessarily results from such a system, are so many invincible barriers against any improvement which favourable circumstances might otherwise suggest. Few countries afford so great a number or so great a variety of valuable productions as the Brazils. Beside the articles described in eight ancient paintings which are noticed in a former chapter of the original work, the country produces an inexhaustible supply of the finest timber, suitable for all the purposes of civil and naval architec ture; but the cutting and disposin of it is a monopoly of the crown The first object of every man whe obtains a grant of woodland, is! destroy the best trees as fast as b can: because he is not only forbid den to send them to market, ba may have the additional mortifica tion of being obliged to entertai the king's surveyor, whenever be thinks fit to pay him a visit, with a numerous retue, for the purpose of felling the timber, which he, # owner of the estate, has not th power to prevent. Yet, notwithstanding this discouraging monopoly together with the difficulty of tran port, on account of the badness e

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nearly subverted all the powers of Europe, then broke out, and his majesty having sent a message to parliament, on the 12th of February, 1793, respecting the aggression on Holland, a war was immediately commenced with France, for the conduct of which, and the administration of the go. vernment of the country, during a long period of the greatest difficulty, Mr. Pitt, must claim his highest praise. On the consequences of that war it is impossible now to speak, for they are not yet complete; and, if Mr. Pitt was not as triumphantly successful as his father, he yet called forth all the energies of his country, against an enemy whose power has been rarely, if ever, equalled, and extended the naval greatness of Britain beyond all example of naval power in all times.

In 1794 were passed the Bills for suspending the habeas corpus act, and the suppression of popular societies, and on the 2d of October in that year, occurred the trials of Hardy, Tooke, aud others, for high treason.

Mr. Pitt having favoured reform in parliament, and proposed a plan for that purpose, the 2d of May, 1783; afterwards, on the 26th of May, 1797, on the motion of Mr. Grey, stated his reasons for not acceding to a reform. Shortly after succeeded the mutiny at the Nore.

In July, 1798, were opened the negotiations with the French. plenipotentiaries and lord Malmesbury, at Lisle, which were shortly after broken off. In 1799, an address to his majesty, proposing an union of the two kingdoms of England and Ireland, was voted by both houses

of parliament, and in 1800 that plan was ratified by the Irish parliament, which constitues one of the most important events of the present reign, by concentrating the energies of two great countries under one imperial monarch. In the same year the first consul of France made overtures of peace, which were rejected, and Mr. Pitt gave the reasons for the conduct of ministry, in one of the ablest and most eloquent speeches that was ever delivered in any assembly. In 1801, Mr. Pitt resigned his official situation as minister, which he had held so long, on the avowed occasion of the impossibility of carrying into effect his views with respect to catholic emancipation, which he had considered as a grand object in forming the union.

During the interval of his retiring from office, and becoming minister for the last time, he lived in great retirement, sold his seat at Holwood, in Kent, and occupied a small house in Baker-street, where his sinecure of the wardenship of the Cinque Ports, was his sole revenue.

In 1802 he defended the treaty of Amicus, and gave his firm support to the administration of his successor, Mr. Addington; but, in 1804, after the breaking out of hostilities with France, thinking that ministry unequal to the vigorous prosecution of hostilities, he opposed the Additional Force Bills, for the defence of the country, and even joined Mr. Fox in several motions against the ministry, succeeded in overthrowing it, and became chancellor of the exchequer, and first lord of the treasury again, May 12, 1804.

In 1805 the character of his great colleague, lord Melville, was vio

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