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Local causes of colour-development, 216
Locusts, richly coloured tropical, 94
Longicorns, 95
Lophornis ornatus, very pugnacious,

214 Lord Howe's Island, white rail in, 26 4 Lubbock, Sir John, on colour percep

tion in insects, 255

Ilumming-birds, colours and ornaments of, 127 descriptive names of, 129 motions and habits of, 130 display of ornaments by males, 134 food of, 135 nests of, 137 geographical distribution and varia.

tion of, 138
of Juan Fernandez, 140
influenced by varied conditions in

South America, 147
relations and affinities of, 148
sternum of, 151
eggs of, 152
feather-tracts of, 152
resemblance of swifts to, 152
nestlings of, 153
differences from sun-birds, 154


Indian peninsula once an island, 325

ancient fauna of, 325 Insects, wingless, 97

general observations on tropical, 98 Insular plants and insects, relations of,

267 Interference-colours in animals, 184 Islands, influence of locality on colour

in, 257


Juan Fernandez, humming-birds of, 140

insects of, 270
abundance of humming birds in,


M. MACaws, 100 Madagascar, white-marked butterflies

of, 260 Madagascar once united to Africa, 325 Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances

of fauna of, 328 Male birds, origin of ornamental plum.

age of, 205 Male birds which incubate, 212 Male humming.birds produce a shriller

sound, 215 Males, theory of display of ornaments

by, 207 Malva sylvestris, M. rotundifolia, 233 Mammals, 116 Mammalia, supposed variations of, comparable to those of butterflies, 261

local resemblances of, in Africa, 262 Mammalia of Palaarctic Region, 315

of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of niocene period in Euro-Asia,

Man, antiquity and origin of, 280

indications of extreme antiqnity

of, 285 highly developed at very early

period, 286

autiquity of intellectual, 290 Mangroves, 58 Manicaria saccifera, 41 Mantidæ, 91 Mantis resembling an orchis-flower, 173 Marantaceæ, 47 Marmosets, 118 Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106 Martins, M. Charles, on increased size

of leaves of arctic plants, 236 Mates readily found by birds, 200 Mauritia, palm, 40 Maximiliana regia, 41 Meiglyptes, 150 Meldola, Mr. R. on variable colouring

in insects, 170 Meliphagidæ in Auckland Isles pro.

bably flower-fertilizers, 239 Melliss, Mr. on flora of St. Helena, 275 Migrations between N. America and Euro-Asia, 334 between N. America and South America, 335



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Lasn and sea, peculiar distribution of, 311 existing distribution of, very

ancient, 312 Leaf-insects, 92 Leaves, supposed use of odours of, 277 Lemuria, an hypothetical continent,

not required, 328 Leopoldinia major, 45 Lepidoptera, diurnal, 72 Leptalis, a good case of mimicry, 189 Leplena crastus, 256 Light, theory of, as producing colours, 161

action of, on plants, 222
supposed direct action of, on colours

of flowers and fruits, 236 Lizards, 111

Jesembryanthemum, stoge, 993 Olont machis, ent of ints, ?
Meteorological phenomena, intensity of Oban beficient ia Xew Zealaatswers,

at the equator, 23 Mimicry, theory of, 189

O foar absorbed annually by dir. Mimosa pudier, 39

ferently columi stats, Dring Jirart, Professor, on animal origin of of tower attritive, 230 man, 284

Erorisna orputlotes, 85 on the divergrot affinities of man (Ersphillat suarantiag, 92 anıl apes, 208

Oups, Dr. on eniour and sense percepMungredien, Jr. on showy and fragrant tion, 185 flowers, 230

Oil from palms, 15 Jonkeys, 116

Oncidiums, 51
Monkeys and pigeons, 102

Optical theory of coloar, 190
Joseley, Jr. on humming-birls of Juan Orchils, 49
Fenandez, 143

Oriental R gion, 319
Moseley, Jlr. H. X. on birds conveying Ornamental hnmming-birls, the most
seeds to islamis, 268

pugnacions, 214 Joths, conspicuously coloured cater Ornaments, display of, by male hampillar: of, uneatable, 175

ming-birds, 134 Mótmots, 105

Orthoptera, 91 Jott, Mr. Albert, on antiquity of in.

tellectual man, 291 Jounils of N. America, antiquity of,

P. 296 Mou-builders, a semi-civilized race, PALEARCTIC Region, 314 297

Palms, 40 Jüller, Dr. Hermann, on fertilization height of, 41 of alpine flowers, 232

climbing, 41
on fertilization of Jartagon lily, Palm-xine, 13

Palm-trees, uses and products of, 42—
on variations of insect-fertilized 46
flowers, 275

Pan-lanacer, 49
on Jilletences of allied species of Papilio, pale varieties of, in Jolaccas
flowers, 233

ani Vew Guinea, 258 Jlusa parulisiaca, 48

Papilionidae and Nymphalide, local Musacer, 48

resemblances of, 255 Mygale, a birl-catching spiler, 97 Papilio nirews, changes of colour of Jlysis chamelcon, changes of colour of,

papa of, 168 171

Parrots, 93

red in Joluccas and New Guinea,

261 YEARCTIC Regiox, mammalia of, 329

black in New Guinea and Jadabirls of, 330

gascar, 264 Veotropical region, mammalia of, 331

Passeres, 108 birds of, 332

Phyllostoma, 120 Vosts of humming-birls, 137

l'hasmile, 91-93 Newton, Professor, on appearance of

Phonis sylrestris, 45 living humming-birils, 130

Phaethornithine, 136 New Zealand, poor in flowers and in.

Pheasants, brilliant plumage of, in colel sects, 235

countries, 163 New World, regions of the, 329

Pheidole, genus of ants, 84 North American earth-works, 292

Philippine Islands, metallic colours of Vuttall, Mr. ou the rufous llame-bearer,

butterflies of, 259 131

white-marked birds of, 263 Xymphalide, local resemblances of

Picarie, 103 species of distinct genera of, 257

Pickering, Mr. on plants of Pacific

Islands, 269

Pieridae and Lycænidæ, local resem. 0.

blances of, 256

Pigeons, 102 OCEANIC ISLands, peculiar floras of, 269 black in Australia and Jladagascar, theory of, 307


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Variation, how influenced, 112
Vegetation, equatorial, 27
Vipers, green, 114
Vitality a cause of bright colour, 193


Taniti, preponderance of ferns in, 269 Temperature of London and Batavia compared, 6 of different latitudes, various causes

of, 7 Temperature, influenced by heat of soil, 8 influenced by aqueous vapour of

atmosphere, 9 Temperature of tropical and temperate

zones, cause of, illustrated, 12 Tertiary faunas and their relations, 344,

347 Thaumastura corn, very pugnacious, 214 Tinor and Scotland, climates com.

pared, 14 Timor and Flores, white-marked birds

of, 263 Toucans, 106 Tree-frogs, 116 Tristan d'Acunha, bright coloured

Pelargoniuin of, 275 Trochilidæ, 125 Trogons, 105 Tropical vegetation, concluding remarks on, 65 probable causes of its luxuriance

and variety, 66

Ms. Belt on, 67
Tropical birds, dull-coloured, 110

coloration of, 110

green, 110 Tropics, linitation of, 3

aspects of aninal life in, 121 Trunks, variety of, 31, 33

probable cause of flowering, 34 Twilight, short at equator, 21 Typical colours, 179*

WarnisG COLOURS, theory of, 189
Wasps and bees, 9u
Wave-lengths of coloured rays, 180
Weale, Mr. J. P. Mansel, ou plants of
Karoo, 223

on Ajuga ophrydis, 223 Webber dr, on food of humming.birds,

137 West-Indian Islands, large and brilliant butterflies of, 261

peculiarly coloured birds of, 262 Whip-snakes, 114 White animals poisoned where black White colours influencing sense-percep

tion, 265 White colour doubly prejudicial to

animals, 266 White tropical birds, 110 Wilson, Dr.on pottery from N. American

mounds, 295 Winds, influence of on temperature, 11

direction of near equator, 11, 12

cause of cold near equator, 12, 13 Wolves in England show its union with

continent, 305 Woods from equatorial forest-trees, 36

escape, 265

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ZEBRA, possible use of its stripes, 197
Zingiberacer, 47
Zoological regions, 314
Zoological regions of the New World


Vanda lovii, 51 Van pyre-bats, 119


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