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Fare by Railway or Steamer.

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County.

Railway.

Route.

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Kemptville Oxford
Kingston

City
Lancaster

Lancaster Lansdowne

Lansdowne Lefroy

Innisfil Lennoxville E. Ascott Lindsay

Ops London

City Longwood

Caradoc Malton

Toronto Matilda

Matilda Mitchel

Logan Montreal

City Mount Brydges Caradoc Napanee

Richmond Newcastle

Clark Newmarket

Whitchurch Niagara

Town Oakville

Trafalgar Ontario

Saltfleet Oshawa

Clark Ottawa

City Paris

Brantford Perth

Drummond Peterboro

Monaghan Petersburg

Wilmot Prescott

Town Preston

Village Port Union

Pickering Port Hope

Town Richmond E. Richmond Rockwood

Eramosa Sarnia

Town Scarboro

Scarboro Seaforth

McKillop Shakespeare Easthope Sherbrooke

Town Smith's Falls Elmsley St. Catherine's Town St. Mary's

Blanchard Stratford

Town Suspension Bridge Stamford Thornhill

Markham Thorold

Thorold Toronto

City Trenton

Murray Waterdown

Nelson Weston

York Whitby

Town Widder

Bosanquet Williamsburg Matilda Windsor

Sandwich Woodstock

Town Wyoming

Plympton

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Via Prescott, 23 m.

G. T. Rw. or steam.
G. T. Rw. or steamer.
G. T. Rw.
Toronto, 52 m. rail.
G. T. Rw.
Port Hope railroad.
Railroad or steaner.
London, 20 m.
Toronto, 16 m.
G. T. Rw.or steamer.
Stratford, 12 m.
Rail or steamer.
G.T.Rw.to London, 1in.
Kingston, 26 m.

G. T. Rw. » Toronto, 34 m. » Toronto, and rail or

steamer.
Toronto, 21 m.
Hamilton, 12 m.
G. T. Rw. or steamer.
Rail or steamer.
Hamilton, 29 m.
Brockville, 40 m.
Coburg, 30 m.
Berlin, 8 m.
G. T. Rw.or steamer.
Hamilton, 28 m.
Near Toronto.
G. T. Rw, or steamer.
G. T. Rw.
Guelph, 8 m.
G. T. Rw.
Toronto, 9 m.
Stratford, 24 mn.
Stratford, 7 m.
G. T. Rw.
Brockville.
Railroad or steamer.
Stratford, 10 m.
G. T. Rw.
Hamilton, 43 m.
Toronto, 12 m.
Hamilton, 34 m.
Rail or steamer.
Kingston, by rail 32,

steamer 78 m.
Toronto, 35 m.
Toronto, 9 m.
G. T. Rw.
G. T. Rw. to Stratford,

49 m.
Rail or steamer.

W. terminus, G. W.R. » Hamilton, 48 m. » London, 45 m.

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Miles.

Grenville
G. T. R.
Glengarry
Leeds
Simcoe
Compton
| Victoria
Middlesex -

Do.
Peel
Dundas
Perth
Montreal
Middlesex
Lennox
Durham
York
Lincoln

P. & 0. 304 G. T. R. 340 G. T. R. 222 G. T. R. 314

N. R. 553 G. T. R. 123 P. H. & L. 477 . G. W. R. 615

G. W. R. 635 G. T. R. 516 G. T. R. 267 B. & L. H. 601

G. T. R. 168 G. W. R. 630 G. T. R. 376 G.T.R. 454 N. R. R. 534 G. W. R. 537

Halton

G. W. R. 518 Wentworth G. W. R. 551 Ontario

G. T. R. 467 Ottawa

P. & O. 335 Brant

G. W. R. 568 Lanark

B. & O. 333 Peterboro

C. & P. 459 Waterloo

G. T. R, 570 Granville. G. T. R. 281 Waterloo

G. W. R. 573 Ontario

G. T. R. 484 Durham

G. T. R. 437 Richmond

G. T. R. 96 Wellington

G. T. R. 542 Lambton

G. T. R. 669 York

G. T. R. 491 Huron

B. & L. H. 613 Perth

G. T. R. 582 Compton

G. T. R. 120 Lanark

B. & 0. 319 Lincoln

G. W. R. 560 Perth

G. T. R. 599 Perth

GT. R. 589 Lincoln

G.W.R. 582 York

G. T. R. 512 Lincoln

G. W. R.571 York

G. T. R.

500 Northumberland G. T. R. 400 Halton

G. W. R. 535 York

G. T. R. 509 Ontario

G. T. R. 471 Lambton

G. T. R. 637

Dundas
Essex
Oxford
Lambton

G. T. R. 260
G. W.R. 725
G. W.R.

587 G. W. R. 659

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NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, AND GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE, 1873.

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From Shediac by Railway to St. John's, 108 miles.
Pictou Stage to Truro, 40 miles, and railway to Halifax, 61 miles.
St. John's per steam to Windsor, thence 93 miles to Halifax.
Distance stated is that travelled over the direct distance; Miramichi, Shediac, and Pictou are 180 miles less.
Halifax is the nearest port in America to Great Britain at which mail steamers stop.

PLACES IN UNITED STATES.

Fare by Railway

Miles or Steamer ;
Name.

State.
from Season 1873.

Route.
Quebec.

1st Class. 2d Class.
D. C. D. C.

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Throughout these passages, children under 12 years of age are charged half price, and those under three years are free.

USUAL MAIN ROUTES FROM QUEBEC. CANADA.--For Richmond, Sherbrooke, Lennoxville, Compton Bury, and Stanstead, in the Eastern Townships, by Grand Trunk Railway.

For Ottawa City, by railway or steamer to Prescott, and thence by railway.

For Upper Ottawa District, by railway and steamer, and thence by railway to Arnprior, and thence by steamer to Renfrew and Portage du Fort.

For Woodstock, London, and Lake Erie District, by Great Western Railway from Hamilton.

For Goderich and Huron District, by Grand Trunk Railway to Stratford, and thence by Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway.

For Georgian Bay District, Sault Ste. Marie, Green Bay, and Lake Superior, by Northern Railway from Toronto, and thence by steamer from Collingwood.

UNITED STATES. -For Boston and other places in Eastern States, by Grand Trunk Railway vid Richmond and Portland.

For ports on Lake Champlain, Troy, Albany, New York, Philadelphia, &c., by railway and steamer from Montreal. For Ogdensburg, Oswego, Rochester, Buffalo, Cleveland,

and northern parts of the states of New York,

Pensylvania, and Ohio, by railway or steamer, and by Great Western Railway via Hamilton.

For Detroit, Cincinnati, Chicago, Milwaukie, and the Western States generally, by Grand Trunk Railway or steamer or by Great Western Railway from Toronto or Hamilton.

ROUTE TO THE NORTH WEST TERRITORIES FROM TORONTO. After the 15th day of June 1872, emigrants will be sent to Fort Garry, at the following rates :

Toronto to Fort William ; adults, 5 dollars : children under 12, half price. 150 lbs. personal baggage, free. Extra luggage, 35 cts. per 100 lbs.

Fort William to Fort Garry: emigrants, 15 dollars; children under 12, 8 dollars. 150 lbs. personal baggage, free. Extra luggage, two dollars per 100 lbs. (No horses, oxen, waggons, or heavy farming implements can be taken.)

MODE OF CONVEYANCE.-96 miles by railroad from Toronto to Collingwood ; 532 miles by steamer from Collingwood to Fort William ; 45 miles by waggon from Fort William to Shebandowan Lake; 310 miles broken navigation in open boats from Shebandowan Lake to north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods; 95 miles by cart or waggon from north-west angle, Lake of the Woods to Fort Garry. Between Fort William and Fort Garry, huts and tents will be provided for the accommodation of emigrants on the portages. Passengers should take their own supplies. Provisions will, however, be furnished at cost price, at Shebandowan Lake, Fort Frances, and the north-west angle, Lake of the Woods.

B

TABLE of the REVENUE, EXPENDITURE, DEBT, IMPORTS, &c. per Head of the Population

of the Dominion of Canada.

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CHAPTER II.

Demand for Labour.-Canada and British North Ameri

can Provinces, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Falkland Islands, Cape of Good Hope, and Natal.Prices of Agricultural Produce, &c., North America.Of Provisions and Clothing, North America and South Africa.-Prices of Clothing and Provisions, Australia.Wages in North American, South African, and Australian Colonies. — Prices of Food and Clothing for Coolies in the West Indies.-Governors of Colonies, and modes and dates of acquisition of Colonies.Population and Revenue.-Colonial Banks.

DEMAND FOR LABOUR.

CANADIAN DOMINION.

ONTARIO AND QUEBEC. A large number of works will be going on in the Dominion during the season of 1873, and for some years to come, causing an unusual demand for labour.

The classes recommended to emigrate to Canada are (1) persons with capital seeking investment; (2) tenant farmers with limited capital who can buy and stock a freehold estate with the money needed to carry on a small farm in England; (3) agricultural labourers, skilled and unskilled, for whom there is a large and increasing demand ; (4) mechanics of various descriptions, but more particularly, blacksmiths, carpenters, railway navvies, shoemakers, tailors, printers, stonecutters and masons, gardeners, bricklayers, millwrights, and machinists, for whom there is always a steady demand. Canada offers great facilities for domestic servants and needle women; boys and girls over 15 years of age; and for flax growers, dressers, spinners, &c., but this industry requires to be developed. Families with fixed incomes will find in Canada, with much less difficulty than amidst the crowded population of the mother country, a suitable and pleasant home, with every facility for educating and starting their children in life. Persons living on the interest of their money can easily get from 7 to 8 per cent. on first-class security. Money deposited in the Post Office Savings Banks.(Governinent security) draws 4 per cent. interest. The rate allowed for the deposit of money on call in other savings banks and banks, is from 4 to 5 per cent. with undoubted security.”

The following are the wages paid in a few trades or callings:-- Agricultural labourers, 4s. to 6s. a day without board, and 508. to 80s. per month with board ; carpenters, 68. to 98. per day; bricklayers, 10s. to 145.; plasterers, 10s. to 14s.; stonemasons, 12s. to 158. ; blacksmiths, 6s. to 98.; wheelwrights, 68. to 9s. per diem; general female servants, 208. to 338.; and cooks, 298, to 41s. per month with board. - See also p. 23 post.

The persons who should not emigrate are clerks, shopmen, or those having no particular trade or calling, and unaccustomed to manual labour; Females above the grade of domestic servants, unless going to situations previously engaged, as the country is

fully supplied, and, in fact, overstocked with persons of these classes.

New BRUNSWICK. The Emigration Agent at St. John, Robert Shives, Esq., in a report, received February 1872, and which is still applicable, says :-

“ During the past season there has been a great demand for all kinds of labour ; and masons, plasterers, carpenters, joiners, and all other branches of mechanics, have had steady employment and good wages. In regard to agricultural labourers, so great has been the demand, that farmers who were unable to procure them have suffered much loss, both for want of hands to plant and to reap the harvest."

“ Our great want, however, is that class known at home as small farmers. We have abundance of good land to offer them, and all they require to give them a start is a small amount of money. If they do not desire to settle on the Government lands, there are always chances to purchase, at reasonable prices, partially improved farms, with log and framed houses, where they can locate themselves, and at once commence farming operations. The Government will give to each settler 100 acres for the small sum of 4l. 2s. 2d. sterling; or he may pay for it,-if he does not wish to make a money payment-by performing labour on the roads at the rate of 2. 1s. Id. sterling per year for three years, when he will receive a clear title to the land. He has likewise the privilege of selecting, adjoining his own lot, 100 acres on the same terms for each son over 18 years of age.”

“ There is every prospect of an increased demand for labour during the coming year, and for all the branches of mechanics already named, and to all such as may decide to make New Brunswick their home, there is every prospect of securing, not only a comfortable living, but by industry and sobriety attaining to affluence.”

Nova Scotia. The following has been received from the Provincial Secretary in a communication bearing date Halifax, 4th November 1872: _“A good class of farmers who have sufficient means wherewith to purchase small farms, already under cultivation, would do well in the western parts of the province. Fruit growers in particular could make money; but this is no place for paupers. What is required is more capital and industry, and there is a good opening for the expenditure and employment of both.

* In Halifax female servants are, at present, in demand, and a number of good cooks and general house servants who could come well recommended, would command from 20s. to 30s. sterling per month, with board."

“ Miners are in great demand. Coal-cutters earn from 40 to 90 dollars per month according to their industry.”

NEWFOUNDLAND. James L. Noonan, Esq., Colonial Secretary, in a report dated 12th October 1872, says: “This colony has but little demand for labour, except during the fishing season, which may be said to last from May till October. During that period every able

bodied operative is fully employed, and it is upon the success or otherwise of that fishery that the condition of the people during the ensuing winter in a great measure depends.

“'T'he seal fishery in March employs a large number of the young and able-bodied men of the colony for a period ranging from 1 month to 6 weeks and 2 months. The taking of herring and salmon commences earlier than the cod fishery, which cannot be said to be fully engaged in earlier than the month of June; but there is also a large influx of herring upon the coast of Labrador within the limits of this colony, about October, at which time the fish are of a very fine description and tend to augment the value of the fisheries upon that coast. Agriculture is progressively increasing, and in the district of St. John's, rapidly so.

“ During the past two or three years both the fisheries and the crops have been generally successful; and the people of the Colony are now in a very much greater degree of comfort than for many years previously. The revenues of the Colony are also, owing to the same circumstances, in a very flourishing condition,

** The seal fishery is now largely engaged in by steamers; and the number and tonnage of those vessels owned by mercantile houses connected with the trade of the Colony are very large."

Prince EDWARD ISLAND. In a report from the Assistant Colonial Secretary (Mr. J. W. Morrison), dated 8th February 1869, it is stated that:-“ Labourers are in great demand, from the 1st of May to the 1st of December." BRITISH COLUMBIA, INCLUDING VANCOUVER ISLAND.

There is always an average demand for labor at the rates quoted at page 23. The commencement of the Canada Pacific Railway is expected to give a great impetus to employment.

New South WALES. The following information has been received from G. F. Wise, Esq., the Agent for Immigration at Sydney, in a Despatch from the Colonial Secretary, dated 23rd January 1873:

“ Female domestic servants thoroughly acquainted with their duties, as well as farm labourers and shepherds, readily obtain situations on remunerative terms; but for educated persons, such as governesses, tutors, clerks, &c., there is no demand, and the emigration to the colony of such persons (unless for the purpose of joining friends or relatives able to maintain them for some time after arrival) is not encouraged.

“ The Colonial Government makes the most careful provision for the protection and effective settlement of the single women who come to the colony under the auspices of the Emigration Commissioners, unaccompanied by friends or relatives, as well as of those who are so accompanied, but whose relatives desire that they should take advantage of the Government regulations.

" Each immigrant ship is, on arrival, immediately visited by the Agent for Immigration, who ascertains the capabilities and wishes with regard to employ

ment of the immigrants on board; and instruc those coming to join relatives or friends as to de best modes of reaching their destination.

“ The single women are at once landed, and received into the Depôt at Hyde Park, where the are comfortably located in large and well renti.se apartments, and are treated with the greatest cart and attention by the matron, under the directions the Agent for Immigration. After inspection the Immigration Board, a hiring day is appaistet which is advertised in the daily papers. No persona is admitted into the hiring-room who is not fire sonally known to the officers of the department ** be of good character, or who has not a certific of respectability from a clergyman or magistrate."

QUEENSLAND. The Colonial authorities, under date 7th Nore ber 1872, report that :-“Never since the foundee of the Colony has the demand for labour been >> active as at the present period, with every proste of its continuance. This is attributable to rarou causes, but chiefly to the healthy tone of almos every industry in the Colony, and the steady 2014 increasing development of our gold, copper, et, and other mineral resources.

“ The classes in greatest demand are practa miners, ploughmen, farm labourers, and domest servants; these meet with ready engagement & highly remunerative rates. It must not, howere: be supposed, that by special reference to tbex, good field does not exist for other classes. (. contrary, at the present time, and for some years. come, the supply of labour, especially for the quirements in connexion with the extensive rz way works about to be undertaken, must be upst : very large scale to keep pace with ihe demand."

VICTORIA. The following is the report of Lesley Aleinde Moody, Esq., Immigration Agent at Melbourne dated 2nd January 1873.

“ The demand for labour at this season, especies in the country districts for harvest work, is Pin brisk, and labourers are taking advantage of te season to ask high rates, which they are gedet... able to procure owing to the shortness of the sup!

“ Generally the prospects are good. The seks has beert most propitious and harvest abundant, of which circumstances are likely to encourage farmer and to cause more ground to be worked neu: year.

“ Tradesmen are mostly employed at good rates and Colonial made goods of almost all descript> are fast taking the place of imported.

“ All descriptions of goods are likely to be able dant and reasonable. Wages generally rema: * previously quoted." Vide Table, p. 26.

The Immigration Officer, who boards all veske on arrival, can be applied to by all classes of in grants who may desire advice, or have any of plaints to make of the treatment on board st His office is in La Trobe Street, Melbourne.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. The Colonial Government strongly reconer gentlemen agriculturists without adequate capitan

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