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Reports on the Manufacture of Paper in Japan.
[N.B.—The samples referred to have been sent to the South Kensington Museum.]
Sir H. Parkes to Earl Granville.—(Received May 13.)
Yedo, March 25, 1871. LORD CLARENDON, in his despatch of May 13, 1869, directed my attention to the subject of paper manufacture in Japan as one on which information was desired by Her Majesty's Government, and I accordingly issued the inclosed Circular to Her Majesty's Consuls, requesting them to furnish Reports on this branch of native industry.
I have now to forward to your Lordship three Reports which I have received in answer to this instruction, namely, one from Mr. Lowder when acting as Consul at Kanagawa, one from Mr. Annesley, Her Majesty's Acting Consul at Nagasaki, and a third from Mr. Enslie, Acting Vice-Consul at Osaka. Acting upon the suggestion of Mr. Lowder, who, when he wrote his despatch (Inclosure 2), was on the point of leaving for England, I undertook the collection of the specimens obtainable at Yedo, and the inclosed list describes in detail all those I have procured.
I have now to add that, through the kindness of the agent of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, who has been so good as to transmit the packages free of expense, I have forwarded two cases containing all the specimens referred to in these Reports to the address of the Chief Clerk of the Foreign Office by the Peninsular and Oriental mail of this date. The larger of the two cases contains the specimens collected at Yedo, the smaller one those forwarded from Nagasaki and Osaka. In
my despatch of the 13th of January I mentioned that I had expended 77 dollars 23 cents (161. 8s. 3d.) in making the Yedo collection.
I trust the information contained in these Reports will be found to possess some interest. I should have been glad if they could have been made more complete, but it has not been found easy to obtain information from Japanese informants engaged in the trade relative to the production of the raw material or the mode of manipulation.
The manufacture appears to be carried on in the interior provinces, and I have been repeatedly assured that no manufactory exists at the capital.' Opportunity, therefore, of observing the process has not yet been met with at Yedo.
I have, &c. (Signed) HARRY S. PARKES.
Circular addressed to Her Majesty's Consuls in Japan.
Yedo, September 24, 1869. I FORWARD for your guidance in the preparation of the Trade Returns of your port for this year a copy of a despatch from Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, pointing out the necessity of British trade being in future distinguished from foreign trade as far as this is practicable.
His Lordship also again calls attention to the circumstance of no Reports having yet been received from Her Majesty's Consuls in Japan on the subject of paper, and I have accordingly to direct you to give this subject of inquiry your best attention. If you find it necessary to incur some expenditure in pursuing this investigation, and in collecting specimens of the manufacture, I approve of your disbursing as much as 101. sterling on this account without previous reference to myself; but before expending a 
greater outlay you should explain to me the advisability of incurring it, and should await my instructions.
I do not doubt that the other points mentioned in Lord Clarendon's despatch will also receive your careful notice.
I also add copy of another despatch from Lord Clarendon directing that your Trade Reports should, in future, be accompanied by three summaries in the form inclosed, and which are required in addition to the other Returns which you should continue to furnish according to the form adopted last year.
Your, &c. (Signed) HARRY S. PARKES.
Consul Lowder to Sir H. Parkes. Sir,
Kanagawa, July 2, 1870. IN accordance with the instructions contained in your despatch of the 24th of September last, I have the honour to forward to you herewith a short account of the manufacture of paper in Japan, to which I have appended a list of the different varieties of that article made in the several principalities. To collect samples of all these would occupy some six months, and ten sheets of each would cost about 201. sterling. Under these circumstances, and considering the facilities which a residence in Yedo affords for collecting specimens not only of the paper but of articles manufactured from it, I have thought it advisable to limit my expenditure under this head to a sum of about 4 dollars, the price of the illustrations which accompany the Report, trusting that the collection may be undertaken at the Legation.
I regret that the Report should contain so little information of the nature called for by Lord Clarendon, but my duties keep me exclusively at Yokohama, where there is no opportunity of witnessing the manufacture of paper or articles made of it; I have therefore been obliged to trust entirely to native sources for information, which is not as lucid or explicit as could be desired. I trust, however, that the Reports from other Consulates will supply the deficiencies in mine.
I have, &c. (Signed) FRED. LOWDER.
A short Account of the Manufacture of Paper in Japan, by Consul Lowder.
THE manufacture of paper from the paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) was introduced into Japan about A.D. 610. Up to the year A.D. 280, silk with a facing of linen was used for writing upon, and thin wood shavings were also employed. In that year, however, paper was imported from the Corea, and this appears to have been the only paper known to the Japanese until the year 610, when two priests named Donchô and Hôjồ were sent over to Japan by the King of the Corea. Donchô is said to have been a clever man, learned in the Chinese classics, and moreover a skilful artist. Besides the manufacture of paper he also introduced that of writing-ink and mill-stones into the country. Shôtoku Taishi, a son of the reigning Mikado, learned of Donchô how to make paper. But although the paper made by Donchô was very good of its kind, it did not take ink well ; it would not bear rough handling and tore very easily; and moreover it was liable, because of its material, to become worm-eaten, seeing which, Taishi introduced the manufacture of paper out of the paper mulberry; he made four kinds, called Unshi, Shiku-inshi, Haku-jushi, and Zoku-hakushi, and he caused the paper mulberry to be extensively planted all over the country, and the mode of paper manufaciure to be largely promulgated among the people.
The Paper Níulberry, or Broussonetia Papyrifera (11a Kódzu).—(Illustration No. 1.
In the Island of Kiusiu the makôdzu is planted in the ninth and tenth moons, but in Kioto and its vicinity in the first moon, the time varying according to the climate of the place. Some old roots are separated and cut down to a length of about three inches; these are planted so that a little less than half-an-inch appears above ground. They