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After the loyal toasts,

Mr. Justice Bankes proposed the toast "Prosperity to the Law Clerks' Society." He observed that his connection with the society began before he was born, or indeed thought of, for on looking at the printed record, he found, to his surprise, that on the 16th June 1852 his maternal grandfather presided over the association's festival. It was a long interval between then and the time when he became personally associated with the society; but it was very early in his professional career that by a lucky accident he was brought into contact with an old and very valued member of the society, Mr. Edward Wildey. He was his first clerk and, in association with his son, he was his only clerk during his professional life. And those who knew the ins and outs of the Profession would know that it was difficult to express in a sentence what were the relations between a young barrister just starting and a clerk who had considerable experience and who was honoured amongst his professional brethren. He had never regretted and never should regret the day when he first came into communication with him, and he hoped that Mr. Wildey's feelings were the same towards him. His association with Mr. Wildey naturally brought him into contact with the society. Turning more particularly to the toast, he remarked that this was the eightieth anniversary of the society, and a time had now arrived when, through no act of the society itself, it was undoubtedly at the parting of the ways. In the time of Cæsar Augustus, we were told, a decree went forth that all the world should be taxed; and the generations which followed us would read that in the time of Mr. Lloyd George a decree had gone forth that a large part of the community should be insured. That decree was one of great moment and importance to the society. We were within a few weeks of the time when the Insurance Act would come into operation, and the present was a convenient moment to take stock of the position of the society and to consider what that position was likely to be in the future. Anyone who looked at the published record of the society I could not be otherwise than filled with admiration of the work that had been done and the results which had been achieved. The number of members was now 1432, and the accumulated funds, in spite of the depreciation common to "gilt-edged " securities, amounted to £117,900-practically £118,000. The society disbursed last year in benefits through its casual, sickness allowance, and superannuation fund, and its allowances for death, no less a sum than £5200. That was not only a magnificent record, but it pointed a moral for the future. The question had been discussed whether the society should become an "approved" society or not, with the result that it had been resolved that it should, and regulations had been framed which would enable it to continue its work and to include within its borders all the classes of persons who would be eligible for admission under the Act. He had devoted some attention to the subject in connection with other societies of the kind, and it was his confident opinion that that decision was a right one. He believed that no similar society could possibly exist under the new Act unless it became an approved society. What, then, should the society aim at if it was to insure the greatest benefit for its members under the new condition of things? Undoubtedly its aim should be to associate in one society as many people as possible whose lives were, to use the insurance companies' expression, of the highest class. If it associated a large number of persons together who were not likely either to fall permanently upon the funds of the society or to call for assistance, so much greater probability would there be of a large accumulation of funds, and, therefore, of greater benefit to the members. The society, in his opinion, had a great opportunity. No persons were less exposed to risk or sickness than those who were engaged in the law. He could not conceive any risk to which the solicitor's clerk was exposed, still less could he conceive any risk to which the barrister's clerk was exposed, unless, indeed, it was to ennui from sitting in the chambers of a master who had nothing to do. The society was in a position to recruit its numbers from a class of men whose lives ought to be as good as any other lives that could possibly be selected, and if it could only secure the requisite number-namely 5000-it would be able to be a society by itself, and it would not be necessary for it to associate with any other society, which society might possibly admit lives which were not so good. In due course, in his opinion, the society ought to be able to build up a fund which would enable it to offer larger and better benefits than would be within the power probably of any other similar society in England. The Act came into operation next month, and there were in London a large number of insurable persons-about 11,000, he was told- of the class of which he had spoken. course it was to the benefit of the society to recruit its numbers within a comparatively small area, because otherwise it could not watch the malingerers. Of that number of law clerks in London the society should by the middle of next month, by hook or crook, rake in the large majority. If that was not done they would join some other society, and then they would be

Of

lost to the United Law Clerks' Society. It was the duty of every member to take care that every solicitor's clerk and every barrister's clerk earning less than the fixed amount which defined the insurable person should be brought into the society. People did not seem to realise that this great and important and far-reaching Act, important either for good or for evil, he believed for good, had been passed, and that within a few weeks millions of persons would have to become insured, many of whom had not taken the trouble to ascertain what society they should join. Mr. Henry Spray (treasurer), in responding, pointed out that 54 per cent. of the members of the society were not affected by the Act. Those were the comparatively well-to-do members, but the machinery of the society would be so adjusted as to enable those who were less well-to-do to take advantage of the Act so that they would not have to go to another society. Nearly 400 members would continue to pay full subscriptions, in addition to paying their contribution under the State scheme. Preparations were being made to create three classes of new members, so as to meet the financial position of all law clerks, and with the object of enabling members to move from one grade to another as their circumstances improved. He hoped that employers would use their influence with their clerks to get them to join the society.

Mr. A. J. Walter, K.C., in submitting the toast of "The Legal Profession," asserted that the Profession was a healthy one. There were judges adorning the Bench, men in full mental activity, who were between eighty and ninety years of age; and the reason for their continued health was to be found in the fact that they had been the disciples of hard work. It was no good denying the fact that the Profession demanded hard work from all its branches; from the judge on the Bench to the smallest office boy it was a perpetual grind. It was sometimes said to him, referring to the judges, "What a nice soft job!"; but he was perfectly certain that theirs was not a nice soft job, for he knew that it entailed, long after the courts had risen, hours of work. No country had a judiciary of which it was so proud as England. As for the Bar, he thought that they managed to do substantial justice to their clients, who, on the whole, got good value for their money. Speaking of the managing clerks of solicitors and the clerks of barristers, he said that they were a loyal body of men devoted to their masters' service.

Mr. George Elliott, K.C., having returned thanks, Mr. C. A. Russell, K.C., submitted the toast "The Chairman." He said he did not want to put their chairman on toohigh a pedestal-the chairman himself would be the last man to wish it. There had, perhaps, been more profound lawyers and more eloquent advocates at the Bar, but he was a sound lawyer, an effective advocate, a kind and considerate leader, and, taking him all in all, he believed there had never been a finer specimen of the English barrister than John Eldon Bankes.

Mr. Justice Bankes returned thanks. Mr. Walter had said that the judge's life was not all roses. It was true that theirs was not a soft job, but it was a far softer job than the life of a barrister in big practice; and in support of that statement he would tell them a secret he had never revealed before. When he was, to his great surprise, appointed a judge, he was told that he was to go on the Western Circuit in the place of the late lamented Mr. Justice Walton. He wrote to the Lord Chief Justice, begging for the obscurity of chambers, but that was not permitted, and he started off on the Western Circuit in a blue funk. But at the expiration of about a fortnight or three weeks his circuit butler, whose duty it was, among other things, to put on his robes, said to him one morning: "My Lord, I find it increasingly difficult to get your sash to meet.' That was a perfectly true story, and he believed it was a fair illustration of the difference between the two jobs. He hoped he fully realised the importance of the position to which he had had the honour to attain. He believed that position was becoming in the present day one of greater and greater importance, and he quite realised the responsibility. which rested upon any and every judge to maintain the high traditions of his office. There were many things he had realised since he had been on the Bench. One was that the tongue of a judge was a very unruly member, and that there was no more difficult task, when one was upon the Bench, than to restrain that unruly member. He had also realised that which, to his mind, was a matter of real importance to the members of the Profession, not only in their own interest, but in the interest of the public generally. He believed that, for some reason or another, matters which came into the courts were not disposed of with sufficient expedition. He believed that the increasing length of cases was a grave public evil, and that in their own interest the members of the Profession would do well to consider the subject seriously, and to consider especially whether they could not, without in the least diminishing the effective administration of justice and the true and full investigation of the matters which came before the courts, dispose of them in less time than was at present the case.

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SOLICITORS' BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION.
ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL.

THE President of the Law Society (Mr. W. J. Humfrys, Here-
ford) took the chair on Thursday, the 6th inst., at the fifty-
second anniversary festival of this association, which was held
at the society's hall. Among those present were Mr. A. H.
Jessel, K.C., Sir Thomas Skewes-Cox, J.P., Messrs. C. L.
Samson (vice-president, Law Society), Ivor Vachell (president,
Cardiff Law Society), G. Mosley (president, Derby Law Society),
A. O. Hedland (president, Sunderland Law Society), T. W.
James (president, Swansea Law Society), R. Hoar (president,
Kent Law Society), R. Ellett (Cirencester, chairman of board
of directors), R. S. Taylor (deputy chairman), H. T. Barrett,
G. E. Barr (Hastings), R. J. Beattie, R. J. Bowerman, S. P. B.
Bucknill (secretary, Law Society), G. H. Chamberlain, G. B.
Crowder, J. S. Curtis, Alfred Davenport, R. W. Dibdin, H.
Dixon, Walter Dowson, R. W. Ellett, H. P. Ellett, W. E.
Gillett, Charles Goddard, Ernest Goddard, J. R. B. Gregory,
Bourchier F. Hawksley, Herbert Hunter, F. J. James (Hereford),
Harry R. Lewis, C. G. May, Dr. M. S. Nation, Messrs. North-
wood Rawlins, R. A. Pinsent (Birmingham), R. H. Purves, W. A.
Sharpe, Gerald Sturt, T. L. Sutton, J. E. Tunnicliffe,
W. Melmoth Walters, A. Wightman (Sheffield), and W. M.
Woodhouse.

After the loyal toasts,

The Chairman in proposing the toast, "The Solicitors' Benevolent Association," observed that the association was born a little more than half a century ago, and in 1862 it distributed in relief £45. In 1911 the sum paid for the purpose of relief was no less than £5879, and the amount that would be available for relief, including annuities, in the present year would reach £6257. That such a sum as this should be expended seemed to show that an amount of distress existed amongst certain members of the Profession, and amongst those who were more or less dependent upon them, their wives and families, which it was painful to contemplate. There was another side which was far from satisfactory -namely, that not one-fourth of the members of the Profession were members of the association. There were more than 16,000 solicitors on the rolls, and the association only numbered 4006 members. This was in no way creditable to the Profession. There might be some few whose means were so limited that the very guinea necessary to become a member could not be spared; but solicitors who were in that position should feel that there was special reason why they should subscribe, because it was quite possible that it might become necessary for them to ask relief of the association. But he was afraid there were many men who were too mean-he did not mind using the word-to provide the annual guinea necessary for membership. Another and one of the principal causes why solicitors did not become members was that they needed to be dunned-it was a very unpleasant word to use-to get them to join the association. Last year 223 grants were made to members of the Profession and their families, amounting to £5220, and annuities of £30 and £20 were paid to various necessitous applicants. Surely such a charity ought to appeal to them all; surely they ought to feel some sympathy and some regret for men who had worked side by side with them and who had gone down in the battle of life. Many of those who had come to the association for help, or who had left wives and children who had applied for assistance, had started with as fair prospects as any of those who sat around him, but misfortune, for which they could hardly be held responsible, or perhaps ill-health, had rendered them unable to provide for those who were dear to them. The great majority of men who did not subscribe to the funds of the association failed to do so, he believed, because its members did not sufficiently press upon them the need for so doing. Applications which were merely made by circulars went into the waste-paper basket, and the only successful way of inducing men to become subscribers was that of pressing upon them their duty to do so. He could not help thinking that a great many of the 12,000 members of the Profession who did not subscribe to the association would, if the matter were fairly placed before them, become members and give it their aid. Surely they must recognise the obligation they were under to the men who fell and fainted in the race. The association never refused help in any deserving case; although they might be unable to give that help so adequately as they would wish because

of the inadequacy of their means. The association spent over £6000 during the last year in relief, and the only funds applicable for the purpose were the subscriptions and the income of invested funds, and any deficiency had to be met out of capital. He pressed upon the members of the Profession to do that which was their positive duty, to endeavour in some measure to relieve the suffering of those they had met in the Profession and in other ways in life, so that the directors might be enabled to make the grants more adequate and to continue the boast-the legitimate boast-that they never refused assistance in any case where they were satisfied that it was deserving.

Mr. Alfred Davenport proposed the toast, "The Law Society and the Provincial Law Societies."

Mr. C. L. Samson (vice-president of the Law Society), in returning thanks, said the council were a public institution and they were exposed to the criticism, which was sometimes friendly and sometimes a little hostile, of their constituents. He did not think they always deserved the full measure of adverse criticism which was passed upon them at the general meetings of the society. They had a very important duty to perform. The Profession looked to them for a certain amount of guidance, and it was attributed to them possibly that they had the capacity of directing the opinion of the Profession. They were sometimes told that they did not act with sufficient promptness, and that they were rather reticent in expressing decided opinions. He had no doubt there was a certain amount of truth in that charge, but he thought it should be recognised that very important duties were cast upon them, and that it was better generally to proceed with caution than to act precipitately and form and express opinions from which they might have afterwards to recede. The council appreciated most highly the support given them by the provincial law societies; owing to that support they could speak, not only with the voice of London, but with that of the country, and this added enormously to their strength.

Mr. Ivor Vachel (president of the Cardiff Law Society) having responded for the provincial law societies,

Mr. Ellett (Cirencester, chairman of the board of directors), in submitting the toast of "The Guests," said there were various causes why cases of distress must arise, and arise in considerable number. One undoubtedly was that the Profession was overstocked. There were more solicitors than there was work and adequate remuneration for, and matters were not improving in that direction. Every indication was that the competition would become greater, and the tendency, therefore, was that more claims would be made on the association. Worse than that, the State now competed with the Profession. State departments had been created which were doing work and were proposing to do work which solicitors in the past had done, and he ventured to say, speaking generally, done with ability and integrity and to the satisfaction of the country. Not only were State departments set up to do that work, but they were allowed to do that which solicitors were not allowed, and properly not allowed, to do-namely, to tout for it. Touting was carried on by those departments by means of advertisements which for varied ingenuity and imagination must, he thought, turn the expert in advertising green. In every direction those advertisements took the form of misleading, mendacious statements, which he could only compare to the eulogies passed upon their wares by the cheap jacks of the country fairs. There was very litttle prospect, therefore, of the association having fewer claims on its funds in the future.

That

Mr. A. H. Jessel, K.C., responded. He thought that a stronger stand might perhaps be made against the competition to which Mr. Ellett had referred than had been the case in the past. The members of the Profession were a little too diffident with regard to the influence they might exercise in Parliament upon those whose mission it was to institute measures supposed to be intended for the public welfare. influence had not been hitherto exerted to the full extent, and, considering the number of lawyers there were in Parliament, he believed that more intimate association might exist than was the case at present in the Profession, in order that their case might be presented to the Legislature with the view of safeguarding their interests. He said this not without considerable experience of public departments. There were friends of his who had not had the good fortune to succeed at the Bar, who had been put into public departments by nomination, which meant, of course, that they had friends who were able to secure them their offices, and they attained in a very few years positions of importance which gave them executive powers far exceeding those enjoyed by judges in the High Court, and with no appeal to any tribunal whatever. The result was that those gentlemen, though capable and excellent persons in private life, were utterly unable to deal adequately with the complex subjects which came to them. He thought they all made a mistake when the Judicial Trustee Act was passed. They had there a chance of which they might have availed themselves, and, if they had been awake to the

public outcry, a much more effective administration of trusts in the chambers of the Chancery Division might have been instituted which would have retained to the Profession the position which they formerly enjoyed in that connection. That example should not be lost sight of in the future when attempts were again made, as they most certainly would be made, to injure the Profession, and they should use their influence with members of Parliament and point out the claims of the Profession upon the public claims which possibly they did not appreciate for lack of adequate advocacy-and the tendency of public officers to do the work which the Profession had done so well might be mitigated. The matter was of vital importance to them. The relations between the Bar and solicitors were close and intimate, and they would do best for each other by sticking by each other. If they co-operated closely in the consideration of every measure which was brought into Parliament which affected the interests of practitioners of the law, they might do much to defeat legislation which might be inimical to either section of the Profession.

Mr. Richard S. Taylor (deputy chairman of the board of directors) gave the toast of "The Chairman," speaking of him as the most munificent living donor to the funds of the association. Three years ago he had given a donation of £1000 with which two annuities had been founded.

Subscriptions and donations were announced to the amount of £820, which included the following: The chairman, £105; Messrs. A. Wightman (Sheffield), £52 10s.; W. F. Fladgate, £31 10s.; J. Field Beale,l£26 5s.; T. S. Curtis, £25; E. W. Cooper (Newcastle-on-Tyne), £21; T. W. Thompson (Newcastle-on-Tyne), £21; Grundy, Kershaw, Samson, and Co., £21; and Richard S. Taylor, £21.

The usual monthly meeting of the board of directors of this association was held at the Law Society's Hall, Chancery-lane, London, on the 12th inst., Mr. Richard S. Taylor in the chair, the other directors present being Messrs. S. P. B. Bucknill, Walter Cheesman (Hastings), T. S. Curtis, Alfred Davenport, Walter Dowson, H. Fulton (Salisbury), W. H. Gray, C. Goddard, C. G. May, W. Melmoth Walters, and Thos. Gill (secretary). A sum of £325 was distributed in grants of relief, fifty-one new members were admitted, and other general business transacted.

LAW ASSOCIATION.

THE ninety-fifth annual general court of the Law Association for the benefit of widows and families of solicitors in the metropolis and vicinity was held at the Law Society's Hall on the 30th May last, Mr. Thomas Henry Gardiner (one of the treasurers) in the chair. Among those present were Mr. P. W. Chandler, Mr. F. W. Emery, Mr. W. P. Richardson, Mr. J. E. W. Rider, Mr. Mark Waters, Mr. W. M. Woodhouse (directors), and several members, including Messrs. J. W. C. Frere, W. S. Reader, N. Chaplin, J. C. Brookhouse, G. M. Davey, T. S. Curtis, C. F. Leighton, P. E. Marshall, R. W. Seward, W. D. Mercer, P. G. C. Shaw, and E. E. Barron (secretary). The directors' report for the year ending the 20th May states that the receipts of the association for the past year were as follows: Dividends on investments, £1348 13s. 6d.; annual subscriptions, £345 9s.; donations, £6 16s. 6d.; total, £1700 19s.; life subscriptions, £84. The expenses of the year amount to £298 16s. 7d., leaving a balance of £1402 2s. 5d., which with £314 188. 2d. balance from 1911 made an available income for the year of £1717 0s. 7d. Out of this the directors have distributed £740 among fourteen members' cases and £956 7s. 2d. amongst fifty-five non-members' cases, making the total relief granted £1696 7s. 2d., and there remains a cash balance in hand of £104 13s. 5d. towards the expenditure of the current year. Since the formation of the association in 1817 the relief granted to members and their families has amounted to £81,984 and to solicitors (nonmembers) and their families £19,882, making a grand total of £101,866. Twenty-three new members have joined the association during the past year, of whom eight are life members. Mr. Mark Waters moved the adoption of the report, calling attention to the increased claims on the association and assistance rendered during the past year. The motion having been seconded by Mr. Chaplin, the report and balance-sheet were unanimously adopted. The Lord Chief Justice was re-elected president, and the vice-presidents, the directors, and the officers were appointed. The report and recommendations of the special committee appointed by the last annual general court to consider a proposed extension of the objects and rules of the association having been received and considered were adopted. The usual monthly meeting of the directors was held at the Law Society's Hall on Thursday, the 6th inst., Mr. T. H. Gardiner in the chair. The other directors present were Mr. P. W. Chandler, Mr. C. F. Leighton, Mr. P. E. Marshall, Mr. W. P. Richardson, Mr. Mark

Waters, Mr. Woodhouse, and the secretary, Mr. E. E. Barron. Mr. F. T. Birdwood was elected chairman of the board for the current year; a sum of £810 was voted in relief of numerous applicants, and other general business transacted.

LAW STUDENTS' JOURNAL.

TO SECRETARIES.-Reports of meetings should reach the office not later than first post Thursday morning to ensure insertion in the current number.

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.

LABOUR AND INTERNATIONAL LAW.

SIR JOHN MACDONELL, as Quain Professor of Comparative Law, delivered the first of two lectures upon "International Law in Relation to Labour," at the London School of Economics, Clare Market, W.C., on Thursday, the 5th inst. He said that the subject was one which had been much investigated by economists and statisticians, but curiously neglected by jurists. It had also been little investigated in books upon international law; indeed he might go so far as to say that until lately nothing definite was said by writers on the subject except a few generalities in the case of early writers, some of which had little relation to present circumstances. With regard to a subject of supreme importance, emigration and immigration, international law was almost a blank. Until lately there were no treaties dealing with it and few, if any, international regulations. One of the peculiarities of our time was that, so far as there had been communication and concerted action between labour in different countries, it had not been to any considerable extent through official channels. But he believed that we were entering rapidly on another phase. It was significant that the President of the United States, in his message to Congress of 1905, had expressed the wish that there should be an international conference to discuss the question, and that an Act passed in 1907 empowered him to call such a conference or to send representatives to it. There was a time when every State claimed the right to restrict the emigration of its subjects; when it hindered, for example, the departure of skilled workmen; but practically any restrictions of the kind had been reduced to two-prohibitions directed against persons bound to military service, and indirect restriction by reason of the asserting of claims of nationality and the refusal to recognise naturalisation in foreign countries. Apart altogether from special legislation, all States had asserted distinctly the principle that they might exclude as they thought fit any alien from entering their territory. Foreigners might also, at common law and without breach of the law of nations, be expelled from a State. In almost every country there existed special powers for expelling aliens whose presence was deemed undesirable. In recent years measures affecting the whole volume of emigration had been passed; an entirely new development of laws restricting the free movement of workmen ; a large group of enactments, chiefly found in the United States and in our colonies, designed to shut out labour of certain kinds, or to impose restrictions upon its entrance. Germany, Russia, Italy, the United Kingdom, from which emigration chiefly flowed, had acted independently; there had been few laws and treaties upon the subject; and the laws had been directed to secure the health and safety of the emigrant on his way to his new home, or to protect him from fraud on the part of emigration agents. So long as countries were deficient in labour, so long as the immigrants who arrived were, as a rule, the efficient and enterprising, so long, too, as they were in the main of the same race as those among whom they settled, or had like habits and ethical standards, legislation against immigration was rare; but the industrial situation was changed when large bodies of persons coming from Europe, men with inferior standards of living and ready to accept lower wages, began to enter the United States and our colonies. The opposition which arose became more decided when people of very different races, living on rice and cheap food and housed meanly, willing to accept much lower rates of wages, began to settle in large numbers in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Soon in all these countries were passed three sets of enactments restricting or controlling the immigration of labour: (a) Those prohibiting the introduction of pauper labour; (b) those restricting the introduction of workmen under contracts concluded in foreign countries; (c) those excluding immigrants of certain races. The State of New York took measures so far back as 1824 to prevent shipowners introducing persons who might become a burden on the community. Up to 1862 the United States had sought to encourage the immigration of workmen; but in 1882 the first restrictive measure of importance was passed, by which a tax of 50 cents was imposed upon every person entering the country, and convicts, lunatics, and others likely to become a public charge were prohibited. Other Acts had been passed in 1887, 1888, and 1903, giving power to deport immigrants landed contrary to the terms of the statutes at

the expense of the owner of the importing vessel, and imposing a duty of 2 dollars per head on immigrants. The Alien Contract Labour Act of 1885 forbade the entrance of labourers under contract to work in the United States. He could not say that he saw any inclination to relax this legislation. On the contrary, it was quite possible that the policy of the statutes would be still further strengthened. A hostile policy had also been adopted with regard to Chinese and Japanese labour, and the Chinese Restriction Act of 1882 and later Acts were passed with the objeet of keeping out cheap labour. Legislation on much the same lines had been passed in our colonies, such as the Chinese Restriction and Regulation Act (52 Vict. No. 4), by which vessels were not allowed to introduce more Chinamen into any Victorian port than one Chinese to every 300 tons of tonnage, and a poll tax of 100 francs was imposed on each immigrant on his landing. The situation became more difficult by reason of the inflow of Japanese and natives of India, as well as Chinese; that is to say, the interests of British subjects and the subjects of a powerful State had to be considered. The Natal Immigration Restriction Act of 1897 had been copied in other colonies. It prohibited the immigration by land or sea of certain classes, and imposed the "dictation" test, which required the immigrant to write in some European character. In Western Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania, and New Zealand, by the Immigration Restriction Act of the Australian Commonwealth of 1901, the officer appointed for the purpose was to select the language. The Act was principally directed against the entrance of yellow aliens, but it also contained a series of prohibitions against "undesirables," and also workmen under contract. The Canada Consolidation Act 1901 provided similar legislation. The policy which had been adopted, if continued, must profoundly affect the future development of international law, We were face to face with difficulties which the earlier writers on the subject did not foresee.

PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. Information intended for publication under the above heading should reach us not later than Thursday morning in each week, as publication is otherwise delayed.

Viscount HALDANE OF CLOAN has been appointed Lord High Chancellor in the place of the Earl Loreburn, resigned.

Sir EDWARD CARSON, K.C., has been elected Autumn Reader to the Inns of Court.

Sir RUFUS ISAACS, K.C.V.O., K.C., has been appointed a member of His Majesty's Cabinet.

Mr. Justice DAVIDSON has been appointed to succeed Sir Melbourne Tait as Chief Justice of the Superior Court of the Province of Quebec.

Mr. ROBERT AUSTIN PRUDDAH, of the firm of Snowball, Lewes, and Pruddah, solicitors, of North John-street, Liverpool, has been appointed a Commissioner for Oaths. Mr. Pruddah was admitted in Jan. 1904.

Mr. DENIS A. H. LAWRANCE, solicitor, of 2, Spencer-street, St. Albans, has been appointed a Commissioner for Oaths. Lawrance was admitted in 1906.

NOTES AND QUERIES.

Mr.

This column is intended for the use of members of the Legal Profession, and therefore queries from lay correspondents cannot be inserted. Under no circumstances are editorial replies undertaken. None are inserted unless the name and address of the writer are sent, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of bona fides.

Queries.

6. ANNUITIES-NO DIRECTION HOW TO BE SECURED-DUTY OF EXECUTORS.-Testator by his will gave two life annuities to persons in ordinarily good health, and subject thereto bequeathed his residuary estate to a class of persons (fifteen in number), three of whom are infants. He left no directions as to the way the annuities were to be secured, but the residuary estate is more than sufficient to meet them out of income. Certain of the beneficiaries, who are in impecunious circumstances, are pressing the executors to buy annuities and divide the estate, whilst others object to that course being taken. What are the executors' rights and duties? If possible, they desire to buy annuities and wind-up the estate, save as regards the infant beneficiaries. Authorities will oblige. RETIRED SOLICITOR.

MAGISTRATES CASES.- Cox's Reports of all Cases decided by the Superior Courts relating to Magistrates, Municipal, and Parochial Law. In parts, 5s. 6d.-HORACE COX, "Law Times" Office, Windsor House, Bream's-buildings, E.C.-[Advт.]

LEGAL OBITUARY.

Mr. THOMAS STEPHEN WHITAKER, barrister-at-law, of Everthorpe Hall, East Yorkshire, died in London on the 6th inst.,. aged eighty-one. Mr. Whitaker, who was the only son of Mr. Thomas Whitaker, of Howden, Yorks, was called by the Middle Temple in 1868. He was lord of the manors of Balkholme and West Winch, Norfolk.

THE COURTS AND COURT PAPERS.
JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL.
LIST OF BUSINESS.-JUNE AND JULY 1912.
(The Sittings commenced on Tuesday, the 11th June 1912, at 10.30 a.m.)
INDIAN APPEALS.

Lala Fateh Chand. since deceased (now represented by Lala Jugil Kishore and
ar o'ber) and others v. Rani Kishen Kunwar: No. 6 of 1911 (N.W. Prov.,
Allahabad). Record received, April 26, 1911. Set down for hearing, Jan 23. 1912.
Shrimant Raje Bahadur Raghojirao Saheb r. Shrimant R je Lakshmanro Saheb:
No. 121 of 1910 (Bombay). Record received, Nov. 8, 1910. Set down for hearing,
March 1, 1912.

Banarsi Das v. Bansi Lal: No. 92 of 1911 (Punjab). Record received, Oct. 31, 1911. Set down for bear ng, March 22, 1912. Moosa Goolam Ariff and others v. Ebrahim Goolam Ariff and another: No. 68 of 191h (Lower Burma). Record received, Aug. 28, 1911. Det down for hearing, April 17, 1912. The Rangoon Bota'oung Compary Limited r. The Collect r, Rangeon: No. 60 of 1917 (Lower Burma). hecord received, July 3, 1911. Set down for hearing, April 22, Shamu Patter v. Abdul Kadir Ravuthan and others; Same v. Abdul Rajak Sahib and others: No. 33 of 1911 (Consolidated Appeals) (Madras). Record received, April 5, 1911. Set down fo hearing. April 29, 1912.

1912.

Sharkar Dn and others v. Munshi Gokul Prasad and others: No. 41 of 1911 (Oudb).
Record received, May 10, 1911. Set down for hearing, May 13, 1912.
Musammat Bhawani Kumar v. Mathura Prasad Singh: No. 40 of 1911 (Bengal).
Record received, May 6, 1911. Set down for hearing, May 29, 1912.

In the Matter of G. Krishnasami Aiyar: No. 39 of 1912 (Madras) Record received,
May 7, 1912. Set down for bearing. June 3 1912.
Purna Chandra Roy r. Heja Pramada Nath Roy and others: No 62 of 1911 (Bengal).
Record r.ceived, Aug. 8, 1911. Set down for hearing, June 3, 1912.

COLONIAL (OTHER THAN CANADIAN) APPEALS.
Akwesi Dobbin and others v. Bibiani Limited (substituted for The Bibiani Goldfield's
imited): No. 83 of 1911 (Gold Coast Colony). Record received, March 27, 1911.
Set down for hearing, Feb. 26, 1912.

Fernando and another v. De Silva: No. 128 of 1910 (Jeylon). Record received,
Nov. 29, 1910. Set down for bearing, May 3. 1912.
Samson v. Aitchison: No. 119 of 1911 (New Zealand). Record received, Dec. 4, 1911.
Set down for hearing, May 31, 19 2.

CANADIAN APPEALS.

The King r. The Alberta Railway and Irrigat on Company: No. 64 of 1911 (Canad", Supreme Court). Record received, Aug. 8, 19.1. Set down for hearing, Ap. il 18, 1912.

The Toronto and Niagara Power Company . The Corporation of the Town of North Toronto: No. 17 of 1912 (Ontario). Record received, Feb. 29, 1912. Set aown for haring, May 29, 1912.

The Attorney-General for the Province of Ontario and others v. The Canadian Niagara Power Company: No. 29 of 19 2 (Ontario). Ree.rd recei.ed, April 15, 1912. Set down for hearing, May 29, 1912.

Stapleton v. The American Asbestos Company Limited; Same v. Same; Same r. Same: No. 1 of 1912 (Consolidated Appeals) (Quebec). Reco.d received, Jan. 1, 1912

Set down for hearing, May 30, 1912

The Barnard-Argue-Roth-S earns Oil and Gas Company Limited and others . Farquharson: No. 26 of 1912 (Onta.io). Record ie eived, April 4, 1912. Set down for hearing, May 30, 1912.

Kerr Wilson v. The Corporation of Delta: No. 69 of 1911 (British Columbia). Record received, Aug. 30, 1911. Set down for hearing, May 31, 1912.

McPherson and another . The Temiskaming Lumber Company Limited: No. 40 of 1912 (Ontario). Record received, May 8, 1912. Set down for hearing, May 31,

1912.

Pearson . O'Brien and another: No. 44 of 1912 (Mazitob:). Record received, May 22, 1912. Set down for bearing, May 31, 1912.

Parsons and others v The Sovereign Bank of Canada: No. 42 of 1912 (Ontario). Record received, May 20, 1912. Set down for hearing, May 1. 1912.

Corinthe and others v. The Ecclesiastics of the Seminary of St. Sulpice of Montreal: No. 46 of 1912 (Quebec). Reco.d received, May 28, 1912. Set down for hearing, May 31, 1912.

The Town of Outremont v. Joyce: No. 63 of 1911 (Quebec). Record received, Aug. 8, 1911. Set down for hearing, June 1, 1912.

McKenzie and others v. The Corporation of the Township or District of Chilliwack: No. 8 of 1912 (British Columbia). Record received, Jan. 22, 1912. Set down for h: aring, June 1, 1912.

Langenlere. Angers and others: No. 55 cf 1911 (Quebec). R:cord received, June 8, 1911. Set down for hearing, June 3, 1912.

JUDGMENTS.

Whiter. Williams: No. 88 of 1911 (New South Wales). Record received, Oct. 17, 1911. Set down for heating, Feb. 7, 1912. Heard April 23, 1912. Present: Lords Macnaghten, Atkinson, Shaw, and Mersey.

Clarke v. Brojendra Kishore Roy Chowdhury: No. 65 of 1911; Same v. Srimati Bisweswari Debi Chowdhurani: No. 66 of 1911 (Consolidated Appeals) (Bengal Record received, Aug. 14, 1911. St down for hearing, March 15, 1912. Heard April 30 and May 1 1912. Present: Lords Ma:naghten, Atkinson, and Shaw, Sir John Edge, and Mr. Ameer Ali.

Ganga Bahu Debi since deceased (now represented by Shama Bibi and another) Apurba Krishnr. Roy and others; Apurba Krishna Roy and others v. Ganga Baba Debi, since deceased (now represented by Sbama Bibi and another): No. 137 05 1910 (Consol dated Appeals) (Bengal). Record received, Der. 17, 1910. Set down for hearing, March 8, 1912. Heard May 7 and 8, 19.2. Present: Lord Shaw, Sir John Edge, and Mr. Ameer Ali.

Mirza Sajjad Husain and another v. Nawab Wazir Ali Khan and others: No. 1 of 1911 (Oudh). Record received, Jan. 4, 1911. Set down for hearing, March 20, 1912. Hard May 8, 9, and 10, 1912. Present: Lord Shaw, Sir John Edge, and Mr. Ameer Ali. Chaudhri Mohammad Mehdi Hasan Khin e. Sri Mandir Das: No. 76 of 1910: Sri Mandir Das r. Chaudhri Mohammad Mehdi Hasan Khan: No 77 of 1910 (Consolidated Appeals) (Oudh). Record received, May 31, 1910. Set down fo hearing, April 11, 1912. Heard May 10, 1912. Present: Lord Shaw, Sir John Edge, and

Mr. Aneer Ali,

Haji Buksh Elabi. Durlas Chandra Kar: Same . S me: No. 46 of 1911 (Consolidat d Appeals) (Beng 1). Record received, May 20. 1911. Set d. wn for bearing, April 4, 1912. Heard May 10 and 14, 1912. Pres nt: Lord Shaw, Sir John Edge, and Mr. Ameer Ali.

The Commercial bla Company r. The Attorner-General of Newfoundland: No. 75
of 1911 (Newfoundland) Rec rd received. Sept. 16, 1911 Set down for hearing,
March 15, 1912. Heard May 14 and 15, 1912. Present: Lords Macnaghtea,
Atkinson, and Shaw.

Krzus . The Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company Limi'e: No. 67 of 1911 (British
Columbia). Record received. Aug. 15 1911. Set down for hearing Feb. 2, 1912.
Heard May 15 and 16, 1912. Present: Lords M enagbter, Atl in on, and Suaw.
Kirly. Cowderoy: No. 9 of 1911 (British Columbia). Record received. Oct. 17,
Present:
1911. Set down for hearing, March 20, 1:12. Heard May 16, 1912.
Lords Macnaghten, Atkinson, and Shaw.

The Bank of Bombay v. Nandlal Thackerseydas: No 51 of 1911 (Bombay). Record
received, May 24. 1911. Set down for hearing. Feb. 9. 19 2. Heard May 17, 20,
and 21, 1912. Present: Lords Macnagh'er, Arkinson, and Shaw.
Swift and others v. David: No. 90 of 111 (Bitish Columbia). Record received,
Oct. 17, 1911. Set down for hearing, March 20, 1912. Heard May 21 and 22, 1912.
Present: Lords Macnaghten. Atkinson, and Shaw.

RULES OF THE SUPREME COURT, MAY 1912. ORDER XI., RULE 1(A).

1. Order XI., Rule 1 (a), shall be read as if after the words "rents or profits" the words "or the perpetuation of testimony relating to the title to land within the jurisdiction" were inserted.

ORDER LV. B.

Proceedings under section sixty-six of the National Insurance Act 1911.

2. Where the commissioners desire, instead of themselves deciding whether any class of employment is or will be employment within the meaning of Part I. of the National Insurance Act 1911, to submit the question for the decision of the High Court in a summary way, they shall institute proceedings for that purpose in the Chancery Division by originating notice of motion in the form hereto annexed, which may be cited as Form 18в in Appendix B; and such notice of motion shall be served on the person or one of the persons as between whom and the commissioners the question has arisen.

It shall be open either to the commissioners or to the person or persons served with such notice of motion to file such evidence thereon as he or they may be advised, and the matter shall proceed in the same manner and subject to the same regulations as any other originating motion.

3. These rules, which shall come into operation forthwith, may be cited as the Rules of the Supreme Court (May) 1912, or separately according to the heading thereof with reference to the Rules of the Supreme Court 1883.

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Mr. Justice

FORM.

In the Matter of the National Insurance Act 1911. Take notice, that the court will be moved on day, the day of next, at 10.30 o'clock in the forenoon, or as soon thereafter as counsel can be heard, by counsel on behalf of the commissioners acting under the above-mentioned Act, for the decision of the court as to whether the class of employment specified hereunder is or is not, or will or will not be, employment within the meaning of Part J. of the Act, or that such other order may be made in the premises as the court may think fit. Dated, &c.

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CIRCUITS OF THE JUDGES.-SUMMER
ASSIZES 1912.

THE following judges will remain in town: A. T. Lawrence, J. and Hamilton, J., during the whole of the circuits; the other judges till their respective commission days.

Notice. In cases where no date in parentheses is appended to the names of the circuit towns, both civil and criminal business must be ready to be taken on the first working day; in other cases the date appended indicates the day before which civil business will not be taken. In the case of circuit towns to which two judges go there will be no alteration in the old practice. SOUTH-EASTERN (Lord ALVERSTONE, C.J., 2; BRAY, J., 1).

Hertford, Wed., June 19 (Fri., June 21)

Guildford, Tues., July 2 (Fri., July 5) Ma dstone, Mon., June 24 (Th, June 27) Lewes, Thurs., July 11 (Mou, July 15'. NORTH and SOUTH WALES (RIDLEY and LUSH, JJ.). Chester (2) Friday, July 5 | Swansea (2), Thursday, July 11. NORTHERN (Darling, J., 2; BUCKNILL, J., 1).

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To surrender at the High Court of Justice, in Bankruptcy. BIGGS, SAMUEL THOMAS (late practising as Biggs, Roche, and Co.), Lincoln's-inn-flds, solicitor. June 4.

LEADER, WILLIAM (late trading as G. N. Coak and Co.), Stratford-rd,
Plaistow, fruiterer. June 3.

MONCRIEFFE, JOHN ALEXANDER, St. James's-pl, St. James's. June 5.
POGOSE, NICHOLAS, Air-st, Regent-st. June 5.

To surrender at their respective District Courts.

BIRD, ARTHUR DEVEREUX, Danbury, farmer. Ct. Chelmsford. June 3.
BRIGGS, JOSIAH, Heaton Norris, builder. Ct. Stockport. June 5.
CHINNERY, ALBERT EDWARD, Horley, ironmonger. Ct. Croydon. June 5.
COLLINS, GEORGE, Charminster, baker. Ct. Dorchester. June 4.
COVE, WILLIAM, Torquay, baker. Ct. Exeter. June 3

EASTOE, HERBERT ALFRED, Barton-on-Humber, builder. Ct. Great Grimsby.
June 4.

FAIRHURST, HERBERT JOHN, Orrell, grocer. Ct. Wigan. June 3.
HALL, JOHN, Wigan, butcher. Ct. Wigan. June 3.
HEYHOE, GORDON VICTOR, late Swaffham, cattle dealer

June 4.

Ct. King's Lynn.

HUGHES, SIMS, AND BUNN, Teddington, auctioneers. Ct. Kingston, Surrey. June 4.

JONES, THOMAS ROSS (late trading as T. Ross Jones and Co.), Liverpool, cork merchant. Ct. Liverpool. June 4.

LINFIELD, WILLIAM, Horsham, contractor Ct. Brighton. June 5.
MOSES, DAVID, Brynmawr, butcher. Ct. Tredegar. June 3.
NORTON, WILLIAM, late Upper East Smithfield, coffee-house keeper.
Chelmsford, June 3.

Ct.

OLIVER, HARRY, Birchinlee, tailor. Ct. Stockport. June 3.
PEARCE, FREDERICK JOHN, Balham, clerk. Ct. Wandsworth. June 5.
RICHARDS, WILLIAM, Llanbadarnfynydd, grocer. Ct. Leominster. June 5.
SANKEY, ENOCH WILLIAM, Croft, farmer. Ct. Warrington. June 4.
SEABORNE, ROBERT, late Birmingham, wholesale jeweller. Ct. Birming-
ham. June 4.

SEAR, CHARLES EDMUND MORGAN, Wakefield, clerk. Ct. Wakefield.
June 3.

SIMKIN, WILLIAM HENRY, late Wednesbury, baker. Ct. Walsall, June 3. SMITH, WILLIAM HENRY, York, auctioneer. Ct. York. June 4.

SOMERTON, WALTER (trading as Mrs. Walter Somerton), Clevedon, ladies' costumier. Ct. Bristol. June 4.

SPOONER, FRANK, Bedford, late Director of Education for the county of Bedford. Ct. Bedford. June 4.

June 4.

WATSON, ALFRED HENRY (trading as Watsons), Great Grimsby, journey-
man stonemason. Ct. Great Grimsby. June 3.
WATSON, SAMUEL, late Cockermouth, farmer. Ct. Durham.
Ct. Greenwich. June 4.
WHEATLEY, J. H., Lewisham, motor engineer.
WILKINSON, ISAAC, late Clitheroe, bootmaker. Ct. Birkenhead. June 5.
WOOSTER, WILLIAM (trading as Wooster and Sons), Bournemouth, baker.
Ct. Poole. June 4.

Ct. Brent

Amended notice substituted for that published in Gazette, May 14 MARRIAN, HAROLD GREENWOOD, late Hampton Hill, architect. ford. May 10.

GAZETTE, JUNE 11

To surrender at the High Court of Justice, in Bankruptcy.
B. GOLDSTEIN AND CO., Commercial-rd, Whitechapel, mantle makers.
June 7.

GRIMBLE, AUGUSTUS, late Ovington-grdns, estate agent June 7.
HAIG, GUY, Elm Park-grdns, Fulham-rd. June 7.

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