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“Man is a tool-using animal. Weak in himself, and of small stature, he stands on a basis, at most for the flattest soled, of some half square-foot, insecurely
enough; has to straddle out his legs, lest the very wind supplant him. Feeblest of bipeds! Three quintals are a crushing load for him; the steer of the meadow
tosses him aloft, like a waste rag. Nevertheless he can use tools, can devise tools: with these the granite mountain melts into light dust before him; he kneads
glowing iron, as if it were soft paste; seas are his smooth highway, winds and fire his unwearying steeds. Nowhere do you tind him without tools ; without tools
he is nothing, with tools he is all.”--CARLYLE.

“Every structure or machine, whose design evinces the guidance of science, is to be regarded not merely as an instrument for promoting convenience and
profit, but as a monument and testimony that those who planned and made it had studied the laws of nature: and this renders it an object of interest and value,
how small soever its bulk, how common socver its material. The engineer or mechanic, who plans and works with understanding of the natural laws that
regulate the results of his operations, rises to the dignity of a sage.”—Professor Rankine.

LONDON:

ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO., “MECHANICS MAGAZINE” & PATENT OFFICES,

166 FLEET STREET, E.C.

1

LONDON:

JUDD AND GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET,

AND GRAY'S INN ROAD.

PREFACE.

N placing the Second Volume of our New Series before our readers we avail ourselves of the opportunity which a Preface affords for offering a few remarks that cannot well find a place elsewhere.

We would first express our thanks for the firmness with which men of scientific tastes and pursuits continue to support, in

its new form, this Magazine, which other pens than ours made popular many years ago. A thousand things have shown us during the past year that those old friends who long looked upon this journal with even more than a friendly interest, have not had their regards alienated by either the external or the internal changes which it has of late undergone. We have likewise had many proofs of the support which new friends are in various ways according us. By all these manifestations of good feeling we are delighted, and for them we are grateful.

Many subjects of great importance have engaged our attention during the half-year which now expires. Among the earliest of them was that Admiralty Committee on Dockyard Economy, upon which some thousands of pounds of public money were squandered, and which did its best to effect changes involving the squandering of many thousands more. We have good reason to believe that our simple explanations on this subject have left the Committee but little hope of accomplishing its designs. The Coinage of the Realm is another subject that has been discussed with manifest effect in our columns. The manufacture of the new bronze coinage, now in course of preparation, is an acknowledged concession to our representations and efforts. In the present activity of the War Department and the Admiralty in reference to Rifled Ordnance we believe we see a consequence of our urgent remonstrances, followed up as they were by the speeches of that veteran patriot, Lord Lyndhurst, in the House of Peers. The Great Eastern has occupied much of our attention, not altogether, we trust, without effect. It was not possible to speak of her in terms that would be pleasant to all parties, because, as a commercial speculation, she has excited an immense amount of partizanship ; moreover, since the memorable explosion which we had the pain of witnessing on her first sea trip, she has been continuously enveloped in a blaze of raging controversy. Happily we have had no interest in her to blind us, and no antipathies to colour what we have seen ; so that we have been able to offer unprejudiced and fearless criticisms on this subject, which have not, as we are often assured, been valueless. The abuse of the British Association-by which it was rendered a medium "for advertising inventions” rather than for advancing science—to which we, and we only, drew attention in October last, will in future, we are informed, be guarded against. The Royal Navy, to which we give much attention, and with which we claim a real although humble association, was never in a more prosperous or more efficient condition than it is at present. The movement made by the French in respect of iron-coated ships has been met in a most spirited manner by our Admiralty, and the remonstrances which we publicly made on this subject in May last have been followed by the issue of contracts for no less than four iron-defended ships for Her Majesty's Navy-all of them vessels which promise to be of unparelleled power and invulnerability. Our articles on the Theory of Ship-building and Laying-off have been slowly but steadily and carefully proceeded with, and will be continued until they become complete. In reference to Naval Architecture generally we have not been inactive, as is evidenced by the hostility which certain amateur writers on this subject are evincing towards us. The complaint of these gentlemen is, not that we do not understand naval architecture, or that we are devoid of the ability to express ourselves clearly in a literary sense, but that we have too much confidence in ourselves--too little respect for others---for them they mean, of course. We can only say we hope this is not so ; we shall certainly not believe it is until competent judges express the opinion. We will leave this subject by promising to all who are concerned in it--friends and“ unfriends”—an interesting novelty, which will come before them, we doubt not, before we pen another preface -a novelty that will gladden the hearts of all true lovers of the noble art of shipbuilding. We must not say more just at present.

But we have said enough in this egotistical strain, and will therefore end here—end with the hope that, notwithstanding the proud burst of new literature with which the year 1860 is opening, our voice will still be waited for with interest, and listened to with attention.

THE EDITORS.

December, 1859.

1859

INDE X.

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LEADING ARTICLES.
Economy, Steam-ship, 243

National Defence, A Chinese Lesson on, 195
The Admiralty Committee on Dockyard,

Commission, The, 145
Admiralty Committee On Dockyard Economy, 81, 98,

81, 98, 259 National”Defences, Our, 113, 401
259
Educated Female Labour, 321

Naval Architects, The Education of, 837
Marine Boilers for the, 84
Education of Mechanical Workmen, The, 18

Lesson by a French Admiral, A, 225
The New Works Department of the, 114,

Naval Architects, The, 337

Navy, Anchors for the Royal, 49
146
Advertising Inventions, The British Association for; | Engineering Progress in 1859, 417

Cunningham's System of Reefing Sails for the
Employers and the Employed, 211

Royal, 290
Engineers, Foremen, 195

Last Year's Increase of the, 33
Agricultural Benevolent College, The Royal, 35

in Scotland, The Institution of, 356

Lord Clarence Paget on the, 33
Agriculture, The Forces Used in, 386
Engraving by Light, 210

Rifled Guns for the, 49, 66
American Rifled Cannon, The New, 66

Exhibition of 1862, The, 321
Shipbuilder Abroad, An, 385
Experiments, Mr. Fairbairn's Steam, 274

Officers, The Training of Shipwright, 353
Anchors for the Royal Navy, 49

On Cast-iron, The Woolwich, 162

Ordnance, Rifled, 145
Armstrong Gun, Captain Blakely and the, 341

Explosions at Gunpowder Works, 2
Association for Advertising Inventions, The British, Explosion, The Great Eastern, 177, 193

Paget on the Navy, Lord Clarence, 33
Patent Cases, The Trial of, 369

Law Reform, 209
Auxiliary Steam-power in Merchant Ships, 338 Fairbairn's (Mr.) Steam Experiments, 274
Family of Henry Cort, The, 51, 116, 369

Office Library, The Great Seal, 292, 307
Benevolent College, The Royal Agricultural, 35
Female Labour, Educated, 321

Penny Press and the New Coinage, The, 163
Bessemer (Mr.), And the Iron Manufacture, 1 Forces used in Agriculture, The, 386

Poetry by the Poet Laureate, Working Men's, 132
Blakely (Capt.), And the Armstong Gun, 341
Foremen Engineers, 195

Polytechnic, The Royal, 3
Blakely's (Capt.), Improvements in Cannon, 51

Pre-Adamite Mechanics and their Tools, 67
Boat-Lowering Apparatus, 129

Founder of Mechanics’ Institutions, The, 253
Boilers for the Admiralty, Marine, 84
Fountains, Free Drinking, 116

Press and the New Coinage, The Penny, 163

Prince Consort, Science and the, 241
British Association for Advertising Inventions, The, Frigates or Rams, The Iron Steam, 17
French Admiral, A Naval Lesson by a, 225

Progress, The Working Man, History of His, 68
225

Propeller, Sir Howard Douglas's Improvements of the
Bronze be Coined, Where will the, 164

Government and Merchant Shipbuilding, The Cost Screw, 194
Coinage, The New, 115, 146

of, 273

Purification of the Surpentine, The, 131
Builders' Strike and Lock Out, The, 114, 161

Dockyard Committee, The, 81, 98, 259
Cable, Hearder's Submarine Telegraph, 227
Great Eastern Explosion, The, 177, 193

Rams, The Iron Steam. Frigates Or, 17
Cables, New Submarine Telegraph, 1

The, 97, 177, 193, 241, 401

Reefing Sails for the Royal Navy, Cunningham's
Submarine Telegraph, 1, 65, 83, 227, 293
Greatest Ship, The, 97

System of, 290
Great Seal Patent Office Library, The, 292, 307

Reform, Patent Law, 209
The Laying of Submarine Telegraph, 65
Cannon, Capt. Blakely's Improvement in, 51
Gun, Captain Blakely and the Armstrong, 341

Rifled Cannon, The New American, 66
The New American Rifled, 66
Gunpowder Works, Explosions at, 2

Guns for the Navy, 49, 66

Ordnance, 145
Guns for the Navy, Rifled, 49, 66
Cast-Iron, The Woolwich Experiments on, 162

River Defences, Our, 130
Chart, The Wreck, 69
Hearder's Submarine Telegraph Cable, 227

Robert Stephenson, 257
Chinese Lesson on National Defence, A, 195
Hot-blast Iron Question, The, 209

Royal Charter, The Wreck of the, 289
Clock, The Westminster, 147
Increase of the Navy, Last Year's, 33

Navy, Cunningham's System of Reefing Sails
Coal Mines, Life or Death in, 369
Institution of Engineers in Scotland, The, 354

for the, 290
Coinage, Decimal, 34, 164
Institutions, The Founder of Mechanics,' 293

Polytechnic, The, 3
Our Copper, 1

Inventions, The British Association for Advertising, Ruškin (Mr.), On the Workman and his Work, 274,
The New, 65, 81

225
Bronze, 115, 146
Iron Manufacture, Mr. Bessemer and the, 1

Sails for the Royal Navy, Cunningham's system of
Mixed Metal, 99
Question, the Hot blast, 209

Reefing, 290
The Penny Press, and the New, 163
Ships, The Compasses of, 338, 354, 371

Scheme, The Vain Drainage, 100, 131, 305, 329
Coining by Contract, 292

Steam Frigates or Rams, The, 17

Science and the Prince Consort, 211
College, The Royal Agricultural Benevolent, 35

The Woolwich Experiments on Cast, 182

The Study of, 300
Commission, The National Defence, 145

Scotland, The Institution of Engineers in, 354
Labour, a Lord on, 19
Committee of Economy, The Dockyard, 81, 98, 259

Screw Line-of-Battle Ship Victoria, The new, 305

Educated Female, 321
Company, The Library, 275
Law Reform, Patent, 209

Propeller, Sir Howard Douglas's Improvements
Compasses of Iron Ships, The, 338, 371

of the, 194
Laying of Subinarine Telegraph Cables, The, 65
Consort, Science and the Prince, 241

Ships, Our, 161
Lesson by a French Admiral, a Naval, 225
Contract, Coining by, 292

Serpentine, The Purification of the, 131

On National Defence, A Chinese, 195
Copper Coinage, Qur, 1

Shilling, The Sovereign and the, 275
Cort Testimonial Fund, The, 369
Library Company, The, 275

Shipbuilder Abroad, An American, 385

The Great Seal Patent Office, 292, 307
The Family of Henry, 51, 116, 369

Shipbuilding in the Royal Dockyards, The Cost of, 50,
Life or Death in Ccal Mines, 369
Cost of Government and Merchant Ship-building,

273
Light, Engraving by, 210
The, 50, 273

Ships, Auxiliary Steam-power in Merchant, 338
Line-of-battle Ship Victoria, The New Screw, 303
Cunningham's System of Reefing Sails for the Royal Lock-out, The Builders' Strike and, 114, 161

Our Screw, 161,
Nary, 290

The Compasses of Iron, 338, 354, 371
Locomotive, its Place in History, The, 35

Unsinkable, 291, 305
Death in Coal Mines, Life or, 369
London, The Drainage of, 101, 131, 305, 322

Ship, The Greatest, 97, 177, 193, 241
Decimal Coinage, 34, 164
Lord on Labour, A, 19

Victoria, The New Screw Line-of-Battle, 305
System of Measurement, The, 83
Lowering Apparatus, Boat, 129

Shipwright Officers, The Training of, 353
The, 17

Main Drainage Scheme, The, 100, 131, 305, 322 Sovereign and the Shilling, The, 275
Defence, a Chinese Lesson on National, 195 Manufacture, Mr. Bessemer and the Iron, 1

Steam Experiments, Mr. Fairbairn's, 274
Commission, The National, 145

Revolutionized, The Steel, 65

Frigates or Rams, The Iron, 17
Defences, Our National, 113, 401
Marine Boilers for the Admiralty, 84

Power in Merchant Ships, Auxiliary, 338
River, 130
Measurement of Waves, The, 321

» Ship Economy, 243
Department of the Admiralty, The New Works,

The Decimal System of, 83

Ships, The Stokeholes of, 323
114, 146 Mechanical Workmen, The Éducation of, 18

Steel Manufacture Revolutionized, The, 65
Dockyard Committee of Economy, The, 81, 98, 259 Mechanics and their Tools, Pre-Adamite, 67

Stephenson, Robert, 257
Dockyards, The Cost of Ship-building in the Royal, Mechanics’ Institutions, The Founder of, 293 Stokeholes of Steam-ships, The, 323

50, 273 Merchant Shipbuilding, The Cost of Government Strike and Lock-Out, The Builders, 114, 161
Douglas's (Sir Howard), Improvements of the Screw

and, 50, 273

Study of Science, The, 306
Propeller, 194

Ships, Auxiliary Steam-power in, 338 Submarine Telegraph Cable, Hearder's 227
Drainage of London, The, 100, 131, 305, 322
Metropolis, The Main Drainage of the, 100, 131, 305,

Cables, 1, 83, 227, 293
Drinking Fountains, Free, 116

322

New, 1
Dwellings, The Ventilation of, 260
Mines, Life or Death in Coal, 369

The Laying of, 66

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