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The Natural History

of Animals

The Animal Life of the World in its various

Aspects and Relations

BY

J. R. AINSWORTH DAVIS, M.A.

TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES, AND PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY AND

GEOLOGY IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, ABERYSTWYTH

HALF-VOL. VII

LONDON
THE GRESHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY
34 SOUTHAMPTON STREET, STRAND

CONTENTS

GENERAL PRINCIPLES--Properties of Protoplasm: Sensitiveness and Spontaneity.

Stimuli: Reaction of Protozoa to Stimuli - - - -

NERVOUS SYSTEMS OF BACKBONELESS ANIMALS

(INVERTEBRATA)

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The Nature and Uses of Sense-Organs; Organic Sensations; Special Senses - -
TOUCH-General Nature: Haptic and Thermal Sensations; Tactile Organs of

Zoophytes, Annelids, Arthropods, and Vertebrates. Pacinian Bodies and the

Pressure-Sense. Organs of Active Touch - - . - - - -

TASTE—General Nature: Gustatory Organs of Annelids, Insects, Molluscs, and

Vertebrates; Taste-Buds - - - - - - - - - -

SMELL-General Nature: Distance-Senses (Telæsthetic Senses); Olfactory Organs

of Arthropods, Molluscs, and Vertebrates - - - - - - - .

BALANCE AND HEARING—General Nature - - - - - - - -

Balancing Organs of Jelly-Fishes (Hydrozoa)—Otocysts and Tentaculo-

cysts and their Uses - - - - - - - - -
Balancing Organs in Segmented Worms (Annelida)—Earth-Worms, Oto-

cysts of Lug-Worms (Arenicola) - - - - - - - ..
Balancing Organs in Molluscs (Mollusca)-Otocysts of Bivalves (Lamelli-

branchiu), Snails and Slugs (Gastropoda), and Head-footed Molluscs

(Cephalopoda) - - - - - - - - - - -

Organs of Balance and Hearing in Crustaceans (Crustacea)—Otocysts of

Lobsters, Prawns, Shrimps, and Crabs; Otocysts in Tail of Opossum

Shrimp (Mysis); Sound-producing Crustaceans-Rock-Lobster (Pali-

nurus), Musical Strand-Crab (Ocypoda macrocera), Squeaker Crab

(Psopheticus stridulans) - - - - - - - - -

Organs of Balance and Hearing in Insects (Insecta)–Chordotonal Organs :

Musical Organs of Grasshoppers, Green Grasshoppers, and Crickets ·

Organs of Balance and Hearing in Backboned Animals (Vertebrata)

Otocyst in the Brain of Larval Ascidiano (Urochorda); Structure

and Uses of the Auditory Organs of Aquatic- and Land-Vertebrates -

SIGHT-Skin-Seeing (Dermatoptic Vision) of Earth-Worms and Bivalve Molluscs -

Direction-Eyes-Euglena, Jelly-Fishes (Hydrozoa), Star-Fishes and Sea-

Urchins (Echinodermata), Segmented Worms (Annelida), Arrow-

Worms (Chætognatha), and Limpet (Patella) - - - - -

Picture-Eyes—Compound Eyes of Crustaceans and Insects. Camera

Eyes of Annelids, Arthropods, and Molluscs. Camera Eyes of Verte-

brates—Structure and Development; Visual Organs of the Double-

Eyes (Anableps); Pineal Eyes of certain Reptiles

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